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BE MASO! KIGARAMA 2013

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Woba wokwizigira ibimenyeshamakuru?

Woba wokwizigira ibimenyeshamakuru?

ABANTU benshi baragira amakenga ku bijanye n’amakuru basoma canke bumva. Nk’akarorero, mw’itohoza rimwe ryagizwe mu 2012 muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, abantu barabajijwe “nimba bemera kandi bizigira” yuko amakuru atangwa n’ibinyamakuru, imboneshakure n’amaradiyo ari amakuru atagiramwo amakosa, atagira aho ahengamiye kandi akwiye. Abantu 6 kuri 10 bavuze yuko “batizigira cane” ayo makuru canke ko batayizigira “na buhoro.” None ukwo kutayizigira kwoba gufise ishingiro?

Abamenyeshamakuru benshi be n’amashirahamwe bakorera yariyemeje icese gutanga amakuru atarimwo amakosa kandi ari n’ico yungura abantu. Naho ari ukwo, abantu bari n’imvo yo kugira amakenga. Rimbura ibi bintu bikurikira:

  • ABAGABA IBIMENYESHAMAKURU. Hari amashirahamwe makeyi yamara akomakomeye usanga afise ibimenyeshamakuru bikomeye. Ivyo bimenyeshamakuru ni vyo bishinga inkuru zishikirizwa n’ukuntu zishikirizwa, be n’ikibanza zohabwa uzigereranije n’izindi. Ariko rero, kubera ko amashirahamwe menshi ashingwa ku bw’intumbero yo kwinjiza amahera, ibimenyeshamakuru birashobora gufata ingingo zishira imbere inyungu z’ivy’ubutunzi. Amakuru yohava abangamira inyungu z’amashirahamwe agaba ivyo bimenyeshamakuru yoshobora kudashikirizwa.

  • UBUTEGETSI. Vyinshi mu bishikirizwa n’ibimenyeshamakuru usanga vyerekeye abanyapolitike n’ibikorwa vy’ubutegetsi. Ubutegetsi buripfuza kujijura abantu kugira ngo bashigikire abatware be n’imigambi yabwo. Kubera ko ibimenyeshamakuru birondera amakuru ku butegetsi, rimwe na rimwe usanga abamenyeshamakuru bakorana n’abo mu nzego za Leta.

  •  GUHAYA IBIDANDAZWA. Mu bihugu vyinshi, ibimenyeshamakuru bitegerezwa kwinjiza amahera kugira ngo bibandanye gukora, menshi muri yo bikaba biyakura mu biganiro vyo guhayanisha ibidandazwa. Muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, ibice biri hagati ya 50 na 60 kw’ijana vy’amahera yinjizwa n’ibinyamakuru bimeze nk’ibitabu ava mu biganiro bihayanisha ibidandazwa. Ku binyamakuru bisanzwe, ivyo biganiro vyinjiza ibice 80 kw’ijana, imboneshakure n’amaradiyo vy’ubudandaji na vyo bikinjiza ibice 100 kw’ijana. Birumvikana yuko abagomba guhayanisha ibidandazwa vyabo batokwipfuza gutangira amahera ibiganiro bitavuga neza ibidandazwa vyabo canke uburyo bakora. Iyo badashima ingene ikimenyeshamakuru kanaka gikora, boshobora guhitamwo kuja ahandi. Ivyo vyoshobora gutuma abatunganya amakuru birinda gushikiriza inkuru zivuga nabi abakiriya babo.

  • KUTAVUGISHA UKURI. Abashikiriza amakuru ntibavuga ukuri bose. Hari abamenyeshamakuru bifondera inkuru. Nk’akarorero, ubu haraheze imyaka mikeyi umumenyeshamakuru umwe w’Umuyapani arondeye kwerekana ko abahinga bibira mu mazi bononye ibinyabuzima vyo mu mazi i Okinawa. Aho aboneye ko ata binyabuzima bononye, ubwiwe yaciye yonona bikeya muri vyo maze aca arabifotora. Umuntu arashobora no kugira ivyo ahinduye ku mafoto mu ntumbero yo guhuvya abantu. Ubuhinga bwo guhinyanyura amafoto busigaye bwarateye imbere cane ku buryo usanga bisa n’ibidashoboka kubona utuntu tumwetumwe tuba twahinduwe.

  • GUHENGEKA INKURU. Naho inkuru yoba ari iy’ukuri gute, ukuntu ishikirizwa bivana n’ingene umumenyeshamakuru abona ibintu. Ni we ahitamwo ivyo akwiye kuvuga n’ivyo akwiye kwihoza. Nk’akarorero, dufate ko umugwi w’umupira w’amaguru watsinzwe ibitsindo bibiri. Ivyo ni ko biri. Ariko icatumye uwo mugwi utsindwa gishobora gusigurwa mu buryo butandukanye bivanye n’umumenyeshamakuru.

  • GUKURAMWO BIMWEBIMWE. Igihe abamenyeshamakuru bariko baratunganya inkuru barondera ko ishimisha abantu, akenshi barakuramwo utuntu twoshobora gutuma inkuru itoroha gutahura canke yumvikana ko itaheze. Ivyo bituma ibintu bimwebimwe babigagamisha, ibindi na vyo bakabicako birenganira. Kubera ko rimwe na rimwe bishika abamenyeshamakuru bo ku mboneshakure bakarondera gushikiriza inkuru igoye mu munota umwe canke udashika, barashobora gusimba ibintu bimwebimwe bihambaye muri iyo nkuru.

  •  GUHIGANWA. Mu myaka mirongo iheze, umwanya abantu bamara baraba imboneshakure imwe waragabanutse cane kubera ko amashirahamwe y’imboneshakure yagwiriye. Kugira ngo abaraba izo mboneshakure bagume bazihurumbira, vyabaye ngombwa ko zirondera akabirya zisangije canke utuntu two kunezereza abaziraba. Igitabu kimwe (Media Bias) kiragira ico kivuze kuri ivyo, giti: “Amakuru [yo ku mboneshakure] yahindutse amakuru yo kwerekana amasanamu, hakerekanwa amashusho ababaza abantu canke abaryohera, amakuru bakayagabanya kugira ngo bahuze n’umwanya abayaraba bafise [ugenda urushiriza kuba muto].”

  • KWIHENDA. Kubera ko abamenyeshamakuru ari abantu, barihenda. Kwandika ijambo nabi, gushira agakwabu aho kadakwiriye, kwihenda mu ndimburo, ivyo vyose birashobora gutuma iryungane rihindura insobanuro. Vyoshika ntibasuzume neza ibimenyamenya. Biroroshe kandi ko umumenyeshamakuru yihenda mu biharuro igihe ategura amakuru yihutira kuyashikiriza ku gihe, ugasanga yanditse 10.000 aho kwandika 100.000.

  • KWIYUMVIRA IKINTU UKUTARI KO. Gushikiriza amakuru atarimwo amahinyu ntivyoroshe nk’uko bamwebamwe bovyiyumvira. Ikintu kirashobora gusa n’uko ari ukuri uyu musi, bukeye bikagaragara ko atari ukuri. Nk’akarorero, kera abantu biyumvira ko izuba be n’imibumbe biri kumwe bizunguruka isi. Ariko ubu turazi ko isi ari yo izunguruka izuba.

 Kwiyubara birakenewe

Naho bitaranga ubukerebutsi kwemera ibintu vyose dusomye mu binyamakuru, ntibisigura ko ata nkuru n’imwe twokwizigira. Ntitworeka kubisoma, ariko igihambaye ni ukudapfa kwemera vyose.

Bibiliya ivuga iti: “Mbega ugutwi ntigucaca amajambo nk’uko amagage ahonja ibifungurwa?” (Yobu 12:11) Ng’ibi ibindi bintu vyodufasha gusuzuma ivyo twumva n’ivyo dusoma:

  • UWUTANGA UBURYO CANKE AMAKURU: Umuntu yokwibaza ati: ‘Ayo makuru yoba yatanzwe n’umuntu (canke ishirahamwe) abizi neza kandi yizigirwa? Iki kiganiro canke iki kinyamakuru coba kizwi ko gishikiriza amakuru cabanje gutohoza neza canke kizwi ko gishusha inkuru? Ni nde akironsa uburyo gikoresha?

  • AMASÔKO Y’AMAKURU: Hoba hari ikimenyamenya cerekana ko ayo makuru yagiriwe ubushakashatsi bwitondewe? Iyi nkuru yoba ishingiye kw’isôko rimwe gusa? Amasôko iyo nkuru yavuyemwo yoba yizigirwa, adahengama kandi atanga ibimenyamenya? Yoba ari amasôko atanga ivyiyumviro bitandukanye, canke ni amasôko gusa yacaguwe kugira ngo ashigikire iciyumviro kanaka?

  • INTUMBERO: Niwibaze uti: ‘Aya makuru yoba ahanini afise intumbero yo kugira ivyo amenyesheje abantu canke kubanezereza? Yoba ariko aronderera isoko ikintu kanaka canke arondera kugishigikira?’

  • UBURYO AMAKURU ASHIKIRIZWA: Igihe amakuru ashikirizwa mu buryo burimwo ishavu n’inzigo be n’ukunebagura kurenze urugero, bica biboneka ko atari amakuru yisunga gusa ivyiyumviro bijijura ahubwo ko ari igitero.

  • UKUTAVUGURUZANYA: Niwibaze uti: ‘Ibivuzwe ng’aha vyoba bihuza n’ivyavuzwe mu bindi biganiro canke mu yandi makuru?’ Nimba bivuguruzanya, uragaba!

  • IGIHE AMAKURU ATANGIWEKO: Ayo makuru yoba ari aya vuba bihagije ku buryo woyemera? Ikintu cabonwa ko ari ic’ukuri haraheze imyaka 20, vyoshika kikabeshuzwa muri kino gihe. Ku rundi ruhande, igihe inkuru yerekeye ikintu kiriko kiraba ubu, yoshobora gutanga amakuru adakwiye.

Woba none wokwizigira ibimenyeshamakuru? Impanuro nziza ku bijanye n’ivyo, tuyisanga mu majambo aranga ubukerebutsi yavuzwe na Salomo, ayagira ati: “Umuntu atazi utuntu n’utundi wese yizera ijambo ryose, mugabo umunyabwenge ararimbura intambuko ziwe.”—Imigani 14:15.