Ja ku birimwo

Ja ku rutonde rw'ibirimwo rwa kabiri

Ja ku rutonde rw’ibirimwo

Ivyabona vya Yehova

Ikirundi

Be maso!  |  No 6 2017

 KAHISE KATWIGISHA IKI?

Alhazen

Alhazen

USHOBORA kuba utari bwumve ivyerekeye Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. I Buraya na Amerika azwi kw’izina rya Alhazen, rikaba ari izina ryiwe ry’icarabu al-Ḥasan rivuzwe mu kilatini. Naho woba utamuzi, birashoboka ko ivyo yakoze bigira ico bigufashije. Bivugwa ko ari “umwe mu mboneza zikomeye kandi zubahwa muri kahise ka siyansi.”

Alhazen yavukiye i Bassora (ubu ni muri Iraki) nko mu 965 inyuma ya Kristu. Yaritaho kumenya ivyerekeye ibisyo vyo mu kirere, umuco, shimi, ibiharuro, ubuvuzi, umuziki, fizike be n’ivyese. None ahanini tumwibukira ku ki?

URUGOMERO KU RUZI NILI

Hari inkuru yerekeye Alhazen yamaze igihe kinini ivugangwa. Yari ijanye n’umugambi yiyumviriye wo kwubaka urugomero rwoyobora amazi y’Uruzi Nili. Aho hari hagisigaye nk’imyaka 1.000 ngo urugomero rw’i Aswân rwubakwe mu 1902.

Iyo nkuru ivuga ko Alhazen yashaka kwubaka urwo rugomero kugira rugabanye ingaruka Uruzi Nili rwateza mu Misiri mu bihe vy’imyuzurira n’uruzuba. Umutegetsi w’i Kayiro yitwa al-Hakim avyumvise, yaciye amutumako ngo aze mu Misiri kurwubaka. Ariko ahashitse akibonera urwo ruzi yaciye abona ko atari aho gutuma umwana. Kubera ko nya mutegetsi yari mahindagu, Alhazen yaratinye ko yomugirira nabi aca yigira umusazi. Ivyo vyamaze imyaka 11, gushika uwo mutegetsi apfuye mu 1021. Iyo myaka yose Alhazen yamaze yigize umusazi yaramuronkeje umwanya ukwiye wo kuba ariyigira ibindi bintu.

IGITABU KIVUGA IVY’UMUCO

Igihe Alhazen yasohoka ibitaro, yari hafi kurangiza kwandika igitabu ciwe citwa Book of Optics kigizwe n’urukurikirane rw’ibitabu indwi. Ico gitabu, bivugwa ko kiri “mu bitabu bihambaye cane muri kahise ka fizike.” Muri ivyo bitabu yaravuze ubushakashatsi yagize ku bijanye n’umuco, ushizemwo ingene wigabagura mu mabara awugize, ingene urasira ku cirore na co kigaca kiwurungika, n’ingene imishwarara y’umuco imera nk’iyigonze iyo uciye mu kintu kanaka. Yarize kandi ibijanye n’ibihimba vy’ijisho, ingene ribona ibintu be n’ingene rikora.

 Mu kinjana ca 13, ico gitabu ca Alhazen cari kimaze gukurwa mu carabu gishirwa mu kilatini, kandi mu binjana vyakurikiye incabwenge z’i Buraya zabona ko ari igitabu gikomeye cane. Ivyo yanditse ku bijanye n’utuyo rugagamisha ni vyo vyafashije Abanyaburaya bahinguye amarori y’amaso guhingura icuma rugagamisha citwa teleskope n’icitwa mikroskope, ivyo bakaba babishitseko mu kuza baragerekeranya utwo tuyo.

INTANGO Y’UBUHINGA BWO GUFOTORA

Alhazen ni we wa mbere yubuye ubuhinga ivyuma bifata amasanamu vyisunga, igihe yatunganya icumba cakira amashusho. Cari icumba c’umwiza gifise uruhome rurimwo agatoboro umuco ucamwo ukinjira indani. Umuco urasiye ku kintu kiri hanze, ishusho y’ico kintu yaca muri ako gatoboro maze ikaboneka ku ruhome rw’imbere icuritse.

Alhazen yaratunganije icumba cabaye intango y’ivyo gufotora

Mu myaka ya 1800 bahavuye bashira muri ico cumba utuntu tumeze nk’utuyo kugira tuze turashingura amashusho. None vyavuyemwo iki? Vyahavuye bivyara icuma gifotora. Ivyuma vyose vya none bifata amashusho, mbere n’ijisho ry’umuntu, bikora vyisunze ubwo buhinga nyene. *

INGENE YAKORA

Akabirya ka Alhazen ni uko yagirira ikintu ubushakashatsi bwitondewe. Mu gihe ciwe ni bake babigenza gutyo. Ari mu bantu ba mbere bemera ikintu babanje kukigirira ubushakashatsi bwitondewe, kandi igihe yaba asanze ikintu abantu benshi bemera kidahuje n’ubwo bushakashatsi ntiyagenda acemeye.

Muri kino gihe, abanyasiyansi ntibapfa ivyo bemeye batabanje kuronka ibimenyamenya. Hari ababona ko Alhazen ari we “yatumye ubuhinga bukoreshwa muri siyansi ya kino gihe buboneka.” Uca wumva rero ko hari ibintu vyinshi dukesha we.

^ ing. 13 Abantu b’i Buraya na Amerika bagiye gutahura ko ico cumba gikora cokimwe n’ijisho ry’umuntu mu kinjana ca 17, igihe vyasigurwa na Johannes Kepler.