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Ikirundi

BE MASO! No 6 2016

 KAHISE KATWIGISHA IKI?

Érasme

Érasme

ÉRASME (Desiderius Erasmus) yabayeho nko mu 1469-1536. Mu ntango, yaremerwa cane nk’incabwenge iruta izindi zose z’i Buraya, ariko mu nyuma hari abamucafuje bamwita umunyabwoba n’umuhakanyi. Mu gihe ciwe hariho ibihari bikaze bijanye n’amadini. Yasanze na we yabigizemwo uruhara igihe yubahuka agashira ahabona amakosa n’amabi yakorerwa muri Gatolika no mu bavuga ko bagomba kuyisubiza ku murongo. Muri iki gihe afatwa ko ari umwe mu bantu bakomeye batumye ivy’idini i Buraya bihinduka. Uti gute?

IVYO YIZE N’IVYO YEMERA

Kubera ko Érasme yari yaranonosoye ikigiriki n’ikilatini vyatumye afata Bibiliya zimwezimwe zo mu kilatini, nk’iyitwa Vulgate, azigereranya n’Isezerano rishasha ryari mu vyandikano vy’iminwe vya kera vyo mu kigiriki. Yaciye abona ko bihambaye cane ko abantu batahura Bibiliya. Ni co gituma yavuze ko Ivyanditswe Vyeranda bikwiye guhindurwa mu ndimi zavugwa n’abantu benshi mu gihe ciwe.

Érasme yarashaka ko haba amahinduka muri Ekleziya kubera ko yemera yuko kuba umukirisu bikwiye kubonekera ku kuntu umuntu abayeho, atari mu gukora gusa imigenzo kanaka. Ni co gituma igihe abaharanira amahinduka batangura gusaba ko hagira ibihinduka muri Gatolika y’i Roma, Ekleziya yaciye itangura kumwikeka.

Érasme yarubahutse gushira ahabona amakosa n’amabi yakorerwa muri Gatolika no mu bagomba kuyisubiza ku murongo

Mu vyo Érasme yanditse, yaraneguye cane amabi yakorwa n’abakuru b’idini, ukuntu bibera mu bihinda n’ukuntu abapapa bakunda ubutegetsi bagashigikira indwano. Ntiyahuza n’abakuru b’idini bari barononekaye bifatira abantu bakoresheje imigenzo y’idini nk’ukwirega, gusenga aberanda, kwisonzesha no kugendera ibibanza vyeranda. Yararwanya kandi imigenzo y’idini nko kugurisha ikigongwe ca Ekleziya (indulujensiya) no kubuza abihebeye Imana kwubaka.

 ISEZERANO RISHASHA MU KIGIRIKI

Mu 1516, Érasme yarasohoye integuro y’Isezerano rishasha mu kigiriki, izindi zasohowe zikaba zaje inyuma yayo. Iyo nteguro yarimwo utujambo two ku mpera n’igisomwa c’Isezerano rishasha Érasme ubwiwe yahinduye mu kilatini, kikaba cari gitandukanye n’ikilatini co muri Bibiliya yitwa Vulgate. Yarabandanije gusubiramwo iyo nteguro yiwe, amaherezo iratandukana cane n’iyo yitwa Vulgate.

Isezerano rishasha mu kigiriki ryasohowe na Érasme

Itandukaniro rimwe ryari muri 1 Yohani 5:7. Muri iyo Bibiliya yitwa Vulgate hari amajambo yongewemwo ku bwo gushigikira inyigisho y’Ubutatu idashingiye ku Vyanditswe. Avuga ati: “Mw’ijuru, Data, Jambo na Mutima Mweranda: kandi abo batatu bagize umwe.” Ariko Érasme yarayakuyemwo mu nteguro zibiri za mbere z’Isezerano rishasha kubera ko mu vyandikano vy’iminwe vyo mu kigiriki yaravye ata na hamwe yayasanze. Mu nyuma, Ekleziya yaramuhase ngo ayashiremwo mu nteguro yiwe igira gatatu.

Integuro zo mu kigiriki z’Isezerano rishasha Érasme yaryohoye zarafashije cane mu guhindura neza Bibiliya mu ndimi z’i Buraya. Martin Luther, William Tyndale, Antonio Brucioli na Francisco de Enzinas barazikoresheje mu guhindura Ivyanditswe vy’ikigiriki mu kidagi, mu congereza, mu gitaliyano no mu gisupanyoli.

Érasme yabayeho mu gihe c’amahinduka akomeye mu vy’idini, kandi abaporoti baharanira amahinduka babona ko integuro yiwe yo mu kigiriki ari kirumara cane. Hari ababona ko yari mu bayobora abaharanira amahinduka, ariko ukuri kwahavuye kuja ahabona igihe nya mahinduka yatangura. Yaranse kugira uwo ashigikiye mu bihari bikomeye bijanye n’idini vyakurikiye. Ntibitangaje kubona haciye imyaka irenga 100 umuhinga yitwa David Schaff yanditse ko Érasme “yapfuye ata dini ashigikiye. Abagatolika ntibamwemera, n’abaporoti kwari ukwo.”