Ja ku birimwo

Itorati ni iki?

Itorati ni iki?

Inyishu Bibiliya itanga

Ijambo “Itorati” rikomoka mw’ijambo ry’igiheburayo toh·rahʹ, rikaba rishobora gusigura ngo “ibwirizwa,” “inyigisho,” canke “itegeko.” * (Imigani 1:8; 3:1; 28:4) Raba uburorero bwerekana ingene iryo jambo rikoreshwa muri Bibiliya.

  • Ijambo Toh·rahʹ rikunda gukoreshwa bashaka kuvuga ibitabu bitanu vya mbere vyo muri Bibiliya, bikaba ari: Itanguriro, Kuvayo, Abalewi, Guharūra, hamwe no Gusubira mu vyagezwe. Ivyo bitabu bakunda kuvyita kandi Pantateki, rikaba ari ijambo ry’ikigiriki risigura ngo “ibitabu bitanu.” Itorati yanditswe na Musa, ni co gituma yitwa “igitabu c’itegeko rya Musa.” (Yosuwa 8:31; Nehemiya 8:1) Biboneka ko mu ntango canditswe ari igitabu kimwe ariko mu nyuma baca bakigaburamwo ibice bitandukanye kugira corohe gukoresha.

  • Ijambo Toh·rahʹ rirakoreshwa kandi mu kwerekeza ku mategeko yahawe Abisirayeli ku bintu bitandukanye. Nk’akarorero “itegeko [toh·rahʹ] rigenga ishikanwa ry’igicumuro,” “itegeko ku vyerekeye imibembe,” n’“itegeko ryerekeye Umunaziri.”​—Abalewi 6:25; 14:57; Guharūra 6:13.

  • Ijambo Toh·rahʹ rimwe na rimwe rirakoreshwa bashaka kuvuga ibwirizwa hamwe n’itegeko, ryaba ari irivuye ku bavyeyi, ku bantu b’inararibonye, canke ku Mana ubwayo.​—Imigani 1:8; 3:1; 13:14; Yesaya 2:3.

Ni ibiki bivugwa mw’Itorati canke muri Pantateki ?

  • Inkuru ivuga ibijanye n’imigenderanire Imana yagiye iragiranira n’abantu kuva igihe yabarema gushika ku rupfu rwa Musa.​—Itanguriro 1:27, 28; Gusubira mu vyagezwe 34:5.

  • Ibintu vyari muri rya tegeko Imana yatanga biciye kuri Musa. (Kuvayo 24:3) Iryo Tegeko ririmwo ingingo zirenga 600. Ingingo izwi cane muri zo ni iyitwa Shema, ikaba igizwe n’amajambo Abayuda bakunda kuvuga mu kwatura ukwizera kwabo. Shema yarimwo agace kavuga ngo: “Utegerezwa gukunda Yehova Imana yawe n’umutima wawe wose n’ubuzima bwawe bwose n’inguvu zawe zose.” (Gusubira mu vyagezwe 6:4-9) Yezu yavuze ko iryo ari ryo “bwirizwa risumba ayandi rikaba na ryo rya mbere.”​—Matayo 22:36-38.

  • Ahantu 1.800 handitse izina ry’Imana ari ryo Yehova. Itorati ntibuza abantu gukoresha izina ry’Imana. Ahubwo, irimwo amategeko yasaba abasavyi b’Imana kuza baravuga izina ryayo.​—Guharūra 6:22-27; Gusubira mu vyagezwe 6:13; 10:8; 21:5.

Ivyiyumviro bitari vyo vyerekeye Itorati

Iciyumviro kitari co: Amategeko ari mw’Itorati azokwama akurikizwa, ntazokwigera areka gukora.

Ukuri: Igihe Bibiliya zimwezimwe zivuga ibijanye n’ivyagezwe biri mw’Itorati, nk’ibijanye n’Isabato, abaherezi hamwe n’umusi w’impongano, zivuga ngo ni ivyagezwe vy’“intahava.” (Kuvayo 31:16; 40:15; Abalewi 16:33, 34, Bibiliya Yera) Ariko rero, ijambo ry’igiheburayo rikoreshwa muri iyo mirongo rirashobora gusigura kandi ko bigumaho gushika igihe kitagira urugero co muri kazoza. Ntiryama risigura ibintu vyamaho ibihe vyose. * Igihe isezerano rishingiye kuri rya Tegeko Imana yatanga biciye kuri Musa ryari rimaze imyaka 900 rikora, Imana yavuze ko yari igiye kurisubiriza n’“isezerano rishasha.” (Yeremiya 31:31-33) Rero, kuba “[Imana] ivuga ngo: ‘isezerano rishasha,’” vyerekana ko ‘irya mbere yarigize [isezerano] ryataye igihe.’” (Abaheburayo 8:7-13) Haraciye nk’imyaka 2000 iryo sezerano risubirijwe. Ryasubirijwe bivuye ku rupfu rwa Yezu Kirisitu.​—Abanyefeso 2:15.

Iciyumviro kitari co: Za nkuru Abayuda bahanahana ku munwa hamwe n’ivyandikano bita Talimudi birahambaye cokimwe n’Itorati.

Ukuri: Nta kimenyamenya na kimwe Bibiliya itanga cerekana ko Imana yahaye Musa amategeko yo ku munwa yiyongera kuri amwe yanditse mw’Itorati. Ahubwo, Bibiliya yoyo ivuga iti: “Yehova yongera kubwira Musa ati: ‘Niwiyandikire aya majambo.’” (Kuvayo 34:27) Ayo mategeko yo ku munwa yahavuye yandikwa aca yitwa Mishna, ariko amaherezo yitwa Talimudi. Yarimwo imigenzo y’Abayuda yazanywe n’Abafarizayo. Iyo migenzo wasanga irimwo ibintu bitari mw’Itorati. Ni co gituma Yezu yabwiye Abafarizayo ati: “Mwatituye ijambo ry’Imana kubera imigenzo yanyu.”​—Matayo 15:1-9.

Iciyumviro kitari co: Abagore ntibakwiye kwigishwa ibiri mw’Itorati.

Ukuri: Ya mategeko Imana yatanga biciye kuri Musa yarimwo ingingo ivuga ko abantu bose bo muri Isirayeli bakwiye gusomerwa ibiri mu mategeko yose, muri bo hakaba harimwo abagore n’abana. Uti kubera iki? “Kuko bategerezwa gutinya Yehova Imana ya[bo] kandi bakitwararika gushitsa amajambo yose y’i[ryo] tegeko.”—Gusubira mu vyagezwe 31:10-12. *

Iciyumviro kitari co: Itorati irimwo amakuru afobetse.

Ukuri: Musa, uwo Imana yakoresheje mu kwandika ibiri mw’Itorati, yerekana ko ibivugwamwo bitomoye kandi vyoroshe gutahura ku bantu bose, kandi ko bidafobetse. (Gusubira mu vyagezwe 30:11-14) Iciyumviro c’uko ngo Itorati irimwo amakuru adatomoye gikomoka mu bitabu vyitwa Kabala, birimwo ivyiyumviro vyava mu muhari w’Abayuda wavuga ko uzirikana ku vyanditswe. Ivyo bitabu bisigura Ivyanditswe bikoresheje ibintu “[vya]remaremwe ku buhinga.” *​—2 Petero 1:​16.

^ ing. 1 Raba igitabu casubiwemwo citwa The Strongest Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, agatwe ka 8451 mu gice kivuga ngo “Hebrew-Aramaic Dictionary-Index to the Old Testament.”

^ ing. 9 Raba igitabu Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Igitabu ca 2, urupapuro rwa 672-​673.

^ ing. 13 Mu buryo butandukanye n’ivyavugwa mw’Itorati, imigenzo y’Abayuda yategeka abagore kudasoma ibiri mw’Itorati. Nk’akarorero, ca cegeranyo citwa Mishna canditswe na Rabi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus kigira giti: “Umuntu azohirahira akigisha umukobwa wiwe ibiri mw’Itorati, azofatwa ko ariko amwigisha ubuhumbu.” (Sotah 3:4) Ya Talimudi y’i Yeruzalemu nayo yavuga iti: “Amajambo ari mw’Itorati yopfuma akurwaho ubutakigaruka hako abagore bayasoma.”​—Sotah 3:​19a.

^ ing. 15 Nk’akarorero, inkoranyabumenyi imwe (Encyclopaedia Judaica) iravuga ingene abanditse vya bitabu vyitwa Kabala babona ibijanye n’Itorati. Igira iti: “Naho Itorati ivuga ibintu bitandukanye vyofasha abantu bo mu nzego zitandukanye, ibintu ivuga ntibitomoye neza.”—Integuro yayo igira kabiri, Igitabu ca 11, urupapuro rwa 659.