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 PAWILEY APALABAS

Alhazen

Alhazen

OMPAN agmo ni kabat si Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. Diad Europe tan America, sikatoy kabkabat ed ngaran ya Alhazen, say kapetekan ed Latin na ngaran tod Arabic ya al-Ḥasan. Anggano agmo kabat, seguradon minanabang kad saray agawaan to. Sikatoy tinawag ya “sakey ed saray sankaimportantian tan sankamaimpluensyaan ya too ed history na science.”

Si Alhazen et niyanak nen manga 965 C.E. diad Basra, ya natan et teritorya la na Iraq. Labalabay toy astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, medisina, musika, tula, optics (panaral na liwawa), tan physics. Antoy dapat tayon pisalamatan ed sikato?

DAM ED NILO

Say istorya tungkol ed si Alhazen et kinmayat la nensaman ni. Nipaakar itan ed plano ton kontrolen so iyaagus na Ilog Nilo ngalngali 1,000 taon antis ya aktual ya inggapo itan a proyekto diad Aswân nen 1902.

Base ed istorya, say balbaleg ya plano nen Alhazen et solusyonan so delap tan kelang ed Ehipto diad panggawa na dam ed Nilo. Satan ya plano nen Alhazen et naamtaan na manuley na Cairo ed saman ya si Caliph al-Hakim, kanian impatawag to ed Ehipto pian ipaalagey so dam. Balet nen anengneng to lan mismo so ilog, amta to ya imposible so plaplanoen to. Natatakot si Alhazen ya ompan dusaen nen Caliph al-Hakim, a kabkabat ya maruksan manuley, kanian nankunwarin atapis anggad inatey so caliph kalabas na manga 11 ya taon nen 1021. Diad saman ya panaon, dakel so oras to parad arum ni ya labay ton gawaen legan ya akakulong lapud say amta ra et natatapis.

SAY BOOK OF OPTICS

Nen nibulos lay Alhazen, nisulat to lay dakel ya kabiangan na pitoran volume na Book of Optics, ya ipapasen a “sakey ed saray sankaimportantian ya libro diad history na physics.” Diad satan ya libro et impaliwawa to ray eksperimento to tungkol ed liwawa, kaiba lay no panon ya mankakapiga so liwawa ed nanduruman kolor to, no panon ya ontama tan ompuktal ed salming so liwawa, tan no panon itan ya onkurba ed saray tamaan to. Inaral to met so nanduruman parte na mata,  no panon itan ya onggagana, tan panon ya nabidbir na mata iray nanenengneng to.

Nen manga taon 1200, saray libro nen Alhazen ya akasulat ed Arabic et impatalos ed Latin, tan anggano linmabas lay nilasus ya taon, uusaren nin siansia iratan na saray scholar ed Europe bilang napantiwalaan ya reperensya. Kanian saray insulat nen Alhazen tungkol ed lens so nagmaliw ya basiyan na saray managgaway salming ed mata diad Europe, ya nen impantatapewan day pigapigaran lens et naimbento day telescope tan microscope.

KADAANAN YA CAMERA

Naamtaan nen Alhazen iray proseso ya gapoan na impakadiskobre ed photography nen ginawa to so nibagan sankaunaan ya kadaanan ya camera (camera obscura). Satan et “ambilunget ya kuarto” ya onloloob so liwawa diad melmelag ya butaw, kanian diad padir ya walad loob na kuarto et napawalay baliktad ya litrato na samay walad paway.

Ginawa nen Alhazen so nibagan sankaunaan ya kadaanan ya camera

Nen manga taon 1800, saray photographic plate et inyarum ed sayan kadaanan ya camera pian permanentin naalaan na litrato so sakey ya bagay. Say resulta? Naimbento so camera. Say proseso na igagana na amin ya modernon camera, pati say mata tayo, et pareho ed samay kadaanan ya camera. *

SAY SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Say sakey ed saray makapabilib ya agawaan nen Alhazen et say detalyado tan sistematikon panag-research ed saray nagagawad kaliberliber. Say paraan to et nikaduma ed saman ya panaon. Sikato so sakey ed saray sankaunaan ya nan-eksperimento pian naamtaan no kasin tua iray teorya, tan ag-antakot ya kuestionen iray papanisiaan na arum no anggapoy matibay ya ebidensya.

Say prinsipyo na modernon science et: “Pruebaan mo so papanisiaan mo!” Ipapasen na arum ya si Alhazen so “ama na modernon scientific method.” Kanian dakel so pisalamatan tayod sikato.

^ par. 13 Say pamparehoan na samay kadaanan ya camera tan say mata et agmasyadon natalosan diad Europe tan America anggad impaliwawa itan nen Johannes Kepler nen 1604.