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Tua Ta so Ebolusyon?

Tua Ta so Ebolusyon?

“Tua so ebolusyon, no panon a tua ya ampetang so agew,” so kuan nen Propesor Richard Dawkins, kabkabat a sientistan manisia ed ebolusyon.16 Siempre, apaneknekan la ed saray eksperimento tan naoobserbaan tayon mismo ya talagan ampetang so agew. Balet, kasin napaneknekan met ed saray eksperimento tan ed saray naoobserbaan tayo a talagan tua so ebolusyon?

Antis tayon ebatan itan, walay kaukolan tayo nin linewen. Naobserbaan na dakel a sientista a diad ilabas na panaon et nayarin manguman na daiset so itsura na manuttumbok ya poli na ayayep tan tanaman. Singa bilang, makapampili iray totoo na poli na aso ya i-breed da pian say iyanak na saratan et walaay mas antirikey ya bikking odino mas andurukey ya bago. * Say tawag na arum a sientista ed sarayan sandaraiset a pananguman et “microevolution.”

Balet, ibabangat na saray ebolusyonista a diad inlabas na binilyon a taon, sarayan sandaraiset ya pananguman et kalkalnan atiptipon tan amawalay baleg iran pananguman. Lapud saya kuno, say sira et nagmaliw ya amphibian tan saray bakes et nagmaliw ya too. Say tawag da ed sarayan baleg a pananguman et “macroevolution.”

Si Charles Darwin tan say libro ton Origin of Species

Alimbawa, imbangat nen Charles Darwin  a saray sandaraiset a pananguman a naoobserbaan tayo et mamaneknek a posible met iray baleg a pananguman ya anggapo ni akaobserba.17 Parad sikato, diad inlalabas na andukerukey a panaon, saramay sankaunaan tan simplin klase na bilay et kalkalna kunon nan-evolve panamegley na “samsamet iran pananguman,” tan nagmaliw a minilyon a nanduruman klase na bilay diad dalin.18

Parad dakel et singa met makakombinse iya. Iisipen dan, ‘No walaray nagagawan sandaraiset a pananguman ed sakey ya species, agta posible met a diad ilabas na andukey a panaon et napawalay baleg iran pananguman panamegley na ebolusyon?’ * Diad tua balet, say bangat na ebolusyon et base labat ed taloran sisisiaen na saray sientista. Pantongtongan tayo iraya.

Sisisiaen 1. Say mutation so sengegan na inlesa na balo iran species. Say macroevolution et nibase ed bangat a say mutation (odino, nibanbanan pananguman ed genetic code na tantanaman tan ayayep) et aglabat mamawala na balo iran species noagta mamawala met na talagan duman tanaman tan ayayep.19

Say mutation et makapawala met na pananguman diad saray tanaman balet ta daiset labat, a singa sayan mutant a walaay baleg a rosas

Say katuaan. Say itsura na tanaman odino ayep et akadepende ed saray instruksion ed genetic code to, ya aliling to et blueprint a walad nucleus na kada selula. * Adiskobre na saray researcher ya anggan panon et sarag na mutation ya umaney itsura na manuttumbok a poli na tantanaman tan ayayep. Balet, kasin makapawala so mutation na talagan balo iran species? Antoy resulta na sanlasus taon ya impanaral nipaakar ed gene?

Sanen mansamposampot lay dekada 1930, malikeliket iray sientista ed sakey a balon ideya. Papanisiaan dan say natural selection (proseso a diad satan et say organismon maong ya onadapta ed kaliberliber to et baleg so tsansa ton mansiansian mabilay tan ondakel) et mamawalay balo iran species na tanaman panamegley na mutation. Kanian, inisip dan mas maong ni nagawaan na mutation ya artipisyal odino kinontrol na too. “Eksayted iray dakel a biologist, geneticist, tan lautla’d saray manag-breed,” kuan nen Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig, a sientista ed Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research diad Germany. * Akin et eksayted ira? Oniay inkuan nen Lönnig, a 30 taon ton inaral so mutation genetics ed tanaman: “Abaloan na sarayan researcher ya asabi  lay panaon pian umanen so tradisyonal a paraan na panag-breed na tanaman tan ayayep. Say amta ra, no pilien da iramay mutation ya maong so resulta to, makapawala ira na balo tan mas maong a tanaman tan ayayep.”20 Diad tua, walaray researcher a maniilalon makapawala ira na talagan duman species.

Anggano anguman met so itsura na mutant ya apangat, apangat nin siansia itan

Saray sientista ed United States, Asia, tan Europa et angigapoy research ya baleg so pondo to tan angusar iray metodon mamapeles kuno ed ebolusyon. Kayari masulok ya 40 taon na pinasyan impanresearch, antoray resulta? Oniay inkuan na researcher a si Peter von Sengbusch: “Anggano ginastosan iyan maong, anggapo met lanlamang so nansumpalan na sayan pamapawalay magmaong iran breed panamegley na irradiation [pian niwalay mutation].”21 Inkuan met nen Lönnig: “Kasabi dekaday 1980, atabangan la ray sientista ed interon mundo. Intunda la na saray bansa ed bandad Sagur so research da nipaakar ed panag-breed panamegley na mutation. Amin lawarin mutant [ayep o tanaman a produktoy mutation] et inatey met lanlamang odino mas makapuy nen saramay aliwan mutant.” *

Anggaman ontan, saray impormasyon ed ngalngali 100 taon ya impanresearch ed mutation tan 70 taon ya impan-breed panamegley na satan et akatulong pian naamtaan na saray sientista no kasin walay abilidad na mutation a mamawalay balo iran species. Oniay konklusyon nen Lönnig kayarin inaral iray ebidensya: “Agsarag na mutation a gawaen a balon species iray dati lan species [na tanaman odino ayayep]. Sayan konklusyon et susuportaan na amin ya eksperimento tan impanresearch nipaakar ed mutation legay koma-20 siglo, tan mipakna iya ed teorya na probability.”

Kanian, talaga kasin say sakey ya species et man-evolve panamegley na mutation? Say ebat na ebidensya et andi! Diad impanresearch nen Lönnig et apaneknekan ton “walay ketegan na nanduruman species ya agnayarin ekalen odino lampasan na mutation.”22

Antoy kabaliksan na saratan? No saray de-aral ya sientista ni lanlamang et agmakapawala na balon species panamegley na artipisyal a mutation, panon ni kasin nagawaan itan na proseson nibanbana labat? No diad saray research et apaneknekan ya say mutation et agto napan-evolve so dati lan species, panon ni kasin nagawaan itan na macroevolution?

Sisisiaen 2. Linmesa iray balon species lapud natural selection. Papanisiaan nen Darwin a diad samay proseson tatawagen a natural selection, mansiansian mabilay iramay organismo a maong ya onadapta ed kaliberliber da, balet ta saramay andi et ompatey. Ibabangat na saray ebolusyonista natan a diad indakel kuno na nanduruman species, pinili na natural selection iramay species a lapud impanguman na genetic code da et akaadapta ed balon kaliberliber. Lapud saya, iisipen na saray ebolusyonista a sarayan nanduruman grupo et kalkalnan nagmaliw a talagan balon species.

Say katuaan. Unong a nibaga la niman, papaneknekan na research a talagan agsarag na mutation so makapawalay balon klase na tanaman odino ayayep. Balet, anto nin siansiay paneknek ya ibabaga na saray sientista a say natural selection et mamipili na saray mutation a maong so resulta to pian niwalay balon species? Sinalambit na brosyur ya impalapag na National Academy of Sciences (NAS) diad United States nen 1999 so nipaakar ed “13 species na finch ya inaral nen Darwin diad Isla na Galápagos, a kabkabat iratan natan a finch nen Darwin.”23

Nen dekada 1970, walay grupo na saray researcher ya indaulo di Peter R. tan  B. Rosemary Grant na Princeton University. Inaral da iray siwit a finch tan kayari sakey taon ya ag-inmuran diad isla, adiskobre ran saray finch a mas malapar tan baleg na daiset so panagtoktok da et mas akapaot nen saray angkelag so panagtoktok da. Abaloan na sarayan researcher ya importante iyan adiskobre ra ta say pangobserba ed kabaleg tan uhas na panagtoktok et sakey ed saray paraan pian napanbibiigan so 13 species na finch. Intuloy na brosyur na NAS: “Tinantiya na sanasawan Grant ya no diad kada 10 taon et ag-unoran a 1 taon diad isla, nayarin walay onlesan balon species na finch diad loob labat na manga 200 taon.”24

Balet diad tuay tua, agsinalambit na brosyur na NAS a diad sinmusublay iran taon kayari na saman, mas dakel lamet iray finch ya angkelag so panagtoktok da. Adiskobre na saray researcher a diad panguuman-uman manaya na klima diad isla, walay taon ya mas dakel iray finch ya baleg so panagtoktok da, balet diad manuttumbok a taon et mas dakel iramay angkelag so panagtoktok da. Naimano da met ya arum ed saray nanduruman “species” kuno na finch et nanlalaok so poli ra. Tan saray nagmaliw ya anak da et mas andukey so bilay da nen say nanlapuan dan poli. Inisip na saray researcher a no mantultuloy iya, nayarin manresulta iya ed pankasakey na duaran “species” pian magmaliw ya balon species.25

Say napaneknekan labat na saray finch nen Darwin et sarag na sakey ya species so onadapta ed manguuman-uman a klima

Sirin, labay to kasin ibaga ya talagan makapawala na balon species so natural selection? Diad inlabas na saray dekada, say ebolusyonistan biologist a si George Christopher Williams et manduaruwa no kasin sarag itan na natural selection.26 Nen 1999, insulat na sakey nin ebolusyonista a si Jeffrey H. Schwartz ya nayarin ontutulong so natural selection pian makapan-adjust iray species ed manguuman-uman a kaliberliber, balet ta ag-itan mamapawala na antokaman a balo.27

On, saray finch nen Darwin et talagan agnagmaliw ya “balo.” Finch ni iratan a siansia. Tan lapud impanlalaok na poli na finch, panduaruwaan laingen so paraan na arum ya ebolusyonista ed panagklasipika ra na species. Sakey ni, singa imbuking na impormasyon nipaakar ed sarayan siwit ya  aliwan patas manaya no maminsan so report na anggan saray kabkabat ya organisasyon.

Sisisiaen 3. Papaneknekan na saray adiskobren fossil a tua so macroevolution. Samay brosyur na NAS et labay ton panisiaen iray makabasa ed satan ya saray fossil ya adiskobre na saray sientista et magenap lan paneknek na macroevolution. Inkuan na satan: “Dakel so nalmoan a nanduruman bilay a say itsura ra et mialaan ed sira tan amphibian, mialaan ed amphibian tan reptile, mialaan ed reptile tan mammal, tan ontan met ed poli na saray bakes, kanian mairap laingen ya naamtaan no kapigan anguman so sakey ya species pian magmaliw a balon species.”28

Say katuaan. Makapabigla ta singa segsegurado so NAS ed sayan imbaga ra. Akin et makapabigla? On ta inamin lanlamang nen Niles Eldredge, sakey a debotadon ebolusyonista, ya agpapaneknekan na saray fossil ya walay agawan kalkalnan pananguman, noagta diad andukey a panaon et “ngalngali anggapo odino talagan anggapoy angumanan na kaslakan ya species.” *29

Unong ed saray adiskobren fossil, saray klase na ayayep et pinsanan a linmesa tan ngalngali anggapoy angumanan da

Natan, saray sientista ed interon mundo et akakotkot la na manga 200 milyon ya angkakabaleg a fossil tan binilyon ya angkekelag a fossil. Mipakna iray dakel a researcher ya ipapanengneng na sayan dakdakel tan detalyadon rekord a saray klase na ayayep et pinsanan a linmesa tan ngalngali ag-anguman, tan dakel ed saray species et pinsanan a naandi no panon ya ontan met so inlesa ra.

Kaukolan so “Pananisia” Pian Napanisiaay Ebolusyon

Akin et ipipilit na dakel a kabkabat ya ebolusyonista a tua so macroevolution? Prangkaan ya insulat na maimpluensyan ebolusyonista a si Richard Lewontin, a mabulos ya aawaten na dakel a sientista iray ag-apruebaan ya bangat na siensia lapud “wala lay papanisiaan da, say papanisiaan da et say materyalismo.” * Sarado la ingey isip na dakel a sientista ed ideya ya posiblin walay intelihentin Managdesinyo ta, unong ya insulat nen Lewontin, “agmi naawat a walay Dios.”30

Nipaakar ed saya et oniay inkuan na sociologist a si Rodney Stark a nabasa ed Scientific American: “Diad loob la na 200 a taon et inkayat so ideya a no talagan manisia ka ed siensia, kaukolan a makalukpos ka’d relihyon.” Inkuan to ni a diad saray unibersidad a manggagawa na saray research, “saray relihyoson totoo et inakmon day dila ra.”31

No parad sika et tua so macroevolution, singam met la ibabagan saray sientistan agnostiko odino ateistiko et agpapaimpluensyaan ed saray sisisiaen da sano walaray nadidiskobre ra’d siensia. Singam met la papanisiaan a say mutation tan natural selection so amawala na amin a komplikadon klase na bilay, anggaman sanlasus taon lan papaneknekan na impan-research ya agnauman na mutation so anggan sakey labat ya species pian magmaliw a balon species. Singam met la papanisiaan ya amin a wadiad dalin et kalkalnan nan-evolve tan nanlapud saksakey labat a bengatla anggano papaneknekan na saray adiskobren fossil ya saray klase na tanaman tan ayayep et pinsanan a linmesa tan agnan-evolve ed sananey iran klase, anggan apalabas lay abaybayag a panaon. Parad sika, kasin satan a sisisiaen et base ed katuaan? Talagan kaukolan so “pananisia” pian napanisiaay ebolusyon.

^ par. 3 Sarayan pananguman a napapawala na saray manag-breed na aso et resulta na ag-igagana na gene. Singa bilang, samay breed ya dachshund et unano ta aliwan normal so impakaporma na cartilage to.

^ par. 6 Say salitan “species” et mabetbet ya usaren ed sayan seksion, balet ta sayan termino et agnabasa ed libro na Biblia a Genesis. Say nabasa tayo ditan et say terminon “nengneng” odino “klase,” a mas malaknab so kabaliksan to. Diad tua, samay ibabaga na saray sientista ya impan-evolve na balo iran species et ontutukoy labat ed pandurumaan na sakey a “klase” na ayep o tanaman, unong ed impangusar na salaysay na Genesis ed sayan termino.

^ par. 8 Base ed saray research, say itsura na tanaman odino ayep et akadepende met ed cytoplasm tan arum nin parte na selula.

^ par. 9 Manisia si Lönnig a say bilay et pinalsa. Say imbaga to ed sayan brosyur et personal a komento to tan aliwan opinyon na interon Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research.

^ par. 10 Aminpigapigan naamtaan diad saray eksperimento ed mutation ya dinmaiset lan dinmaiset iray balon mutant, tan apasakey a klase na mutant so apawala. Ontan met, kulang a 1 porsiento na mutant iran tanaman so pinili pian lalo nin aralen, tan kulang a 1 porsiento ed saratan a tanaman so nilako. Ingen ta anggapoy anggan sakey ya apawalan balon species anggan kapigan. Mas aliwliwa ni ingen so resultay impan-breed ed ayayep panamegley na mutation, kanian agda lan balot itan intuloy.

^ par. 21 Mandurumaan ni ingen na opinyon iray researcher nipaakar ed saramay pigpigaran fossil ya ibabaga ran prueba na ebolusyon. Nengnengen so pahina 22 ya anggad 29 na brosyur ya The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking, ya impalapag na saray Tasi nen Jehova.

^ par. 24 Say “materyalismo” dia et ontutukoy ed teorya ya amin ed uniberso, pati say bilay, et linmesan anggapoy tulong na mabisbiskeg a persona.