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Gyihova Alasevolɛ

Kpa aneɛ Nzema

Asoo Josephus A Hɛlɛle A?

Asoo Josephus A Hɛlɛle A?

Ɛvoya ne mɔɔ lumua la anu tetedwɛkɛ kɛlɛvolɛ Flavius Josephus hanle “Gyemise mɔɔ ɔle Gyisɛse mɔɔ ɛnee bɛfɛlɛ ye kelaese adiema la,” ewule nwo edwɛkɛ wɔ Jewish Antiquities Buluku XX ne anu. Mbɔlɔba dɔɔnwo bu edwɛkɛ ɛhye kɛ ɔle nɔhalɛ. Noko akee, bie mɔ adwenle nu yɛ bɛ kesee wɔ edwɛkɛ bieko mɔɔ buluku ko ne ala hanle ye wɔ Gyisɛse anwo la anwo. Edwɛkɛ ɛhye mɔɔ bɛfɛlɛ ye Testimonium Flavianum la kenga kɛ:

“Ɛnee Gyisɛse, nrenya nrɛlɛbɛvolɛ bie mɔɔ ɔyɛle nwanwane ninyɛne—na menli anye die ye ngilehilelɛ nwo la wɔ ɛkɛ. Ɔhwenle Dwuuma nee bɛdabɛ mɔɔ bɛnle Dwuuma la dɔɔnwo ɔlile ɔ nzi. Yemɔ yɛɛ ɔle Kelaese [ne]; na mekɛ mɔɔ mgbanyima bie mɔ mɔɔ bɛwɔ yɛ avinli manle Paelɛte buale ye fɔlɛ kɛ bɛhu ye wɔ mmeanubaka zo la, bɛdabɛ mɔɔ bɛlumuale bɛhulole ye la amkpo ye, ɔluakɛ ye kenle nsa ne azo ɔyele ɔ nwo ɔhilele bɛ kɛ awie mɔɔ de aze, ɛnee Nyamenle ngapezoma ɛha ɛhye mɔ nee ɔ nwo edwɛkɛ mɔɔ bo apenle bulu mɔɔ yɛ nwanwane la ɛdo ɛkɛ; na Keleseɛnema mɔɔ ye duma la bɛ nwo zo la dɔɔnwo wɔ ɛkɛ wɔ yɛ mekɛ ye azo.”—Josephus—The Complete Works, mɔɔ William Whiston hilele ɔ bo la.

Ɔvi ɛvoya 16 ne awieleɛ, menli mɔɔ die di kɛ edwɛkɛ ɛhye le nɔhalɛ nee bɛdabɛ mɔɔ bɛnlie bɛnli kɛ Josephus a hɛlɛle la ɛzu kpolera dɔɔnwo wɔ nwo. Felanzenli abɔlɔba Serge Bardet, bɔle mɔdenle kɛ ɔdi ninyɛne mɔɔ bɛgyinlanle zo bɛzule kpolera kpole ɛhye wɔ ɛvolɛ mɔɔ ɔbo ɛya nna anu la anwo gyima. Ɔhɛlɛle ye neɛnleanu ne wɔ buluku bie mɔɔ bɛdo ye duma Le Testimonium Flavianum—Examen historique considérations historiographiques (Testimonium Flavianum—Tetedwɛkɛ Mɔɔ Bɛnleɛnleanu Nee Tetedwɛkɛ Mɔɔ Bɛzuzu Nwo) la anu.

Ɛnee Josephus ɛnle Keleseɛnenli mɔɔ ɔkɛlɛ mbuluku. Ɛnee ɔle Dwuunli mɔɔ kɛlɛ tetedwɛkɛ; yemɔti, debie mɔɔ manle bɛzule kpolera kpalɛ la a le kɛ ɔhanle kɛ Gyisɛse a le “Kelaese ne” la. Neɛnleanu mɔɔ Bardet yɛle la manle ɔhanle kɛ amodinli ɛhye le kɛ “Giliki edwɛkɛkpɔkɛ ne mɔɔ bɛfa bɛsua menli aluma la.” Bardet vale zɔle zo kɛ wɔ Dwuuma mɔɔ bɛle Keleseɛnema la anye zo, “tɛ edwɛkɛkpɔkɛ Christos ne angome a Josephus bahola ava ali gyima a” na eza ɔdi daselɛ kɛ “tendɛtiama vonle kpole kɛ bɛbule bɛ nye bɛguale zo la.”

Asoo awie mɔɔ nzinlii zukoale kɛzi Josephus kɛlɛ ye mbuluku la a hɛlɛle edwɛkɛ zɔhane a? Bardet gyinlanle tetedwɛkɛ nee mbuluku nu edwɛkɛ zo hanle kɛ anrɛɛ kɛzi ahenle zukoale ye la bayɛ azibɛnwo kpole. Anrɛɛ ahenle bayɛ “sukoavo mɔɔ ɛbe kpalɛ mɔɔ ɔnlɛ ye ɛsaso,” anzɛɛ, awie mɔɔ ɛnee bɛfɛlɛ ye “Josephan na ɔse bɛfɛlɛ ye Josephus la.”

Duzu a vale kpolerazulɛ ne kɔsɔɔti rale a? Mekɛ mɔɔ Bardet nwunle ɛleka mɔɔ ngyegyelɛ ne vi la, ɔhanle kɛ, “menli adwenle yɛ bɛ kesee wɔ Testimonium ne anwo—ɔluakɛ ɔnle kɛ tete mbuluku dɔɔnwo la—yɛɛ awie mɔ ɛbiza Testimonium ne anwo edwɛkɛ la ati ɔ.” Ɔdoale zo kɛ kɛzi menli bule ye wɔ ɛvoya dɔɔnwo anu la gyi “adwenle mɔɔ ɛnee bɛlɛ” ye wɔ nwo la azo titile, ɔngyi nɔhalɛ edwɛkɛ mɔɔ wɔ nu la azo.

Saa Bardet neɛnleanu ne bamaa adwenle mɔɔ mbɔlɔba lɛ ye wɔ Testimonium Flavianum ne anwo la ahakyi a yɛnze. Yemaa Pierre Geoltrain mɔɔ ɛzukoa Gilikima, Dwuuma nee alumua Keleseɛne ɛzonlenlɛ ne anwo ninyɛne dɔɔnwo la ɛhakyi ye adwenle. Ɛnee ɔnlie Testimonium ne ɔnli fee, na ɛnee ɔsele bɛdabɛ mɔɔ bɛdie bɛdi kɛ ɔle nɔhalɛ la bɔbɔ. Noko ɔhakyile ye adwenle. Ɔhanle kɛ Bardet neɛnleanu ne a ɛmaa yehakyi ye adwenle a. Kɛkala Geoltrain ɛha kɛ “ɔvi ɛnɛ mɔɔ kɔ la ɔnle kɛ awie biala tendɛ tia Josephus ‘daselɛlilɛ kɛnlɛma’ ne.”

Nɔhalɛ nu, Gyihova Alasevolɛ lɛ debie mɔɔ tɛla ɛhye mɔɔ ɔdi daselɛ kɛ Gyisɛse a le Kelaese ne la—yɛnwu ɛhye wɔ Baebolo ne anu.—2 Tem. 3:16.