Pitani ku nkhani yake

FEBRUARY 15, 2018
ARMENIA

Boma la Armenia Lazindikira Kuti Anthu Okana Usilikali Ali Ndi Ufulu

Boma la Armenia Lazindikira Kuti Anthu Okana Usilikali Ali Ndi Ufulu

Chigamulo cha posachedwapa chomwe Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe lapereka ku Armenia, chachititsa kuti achinyamata omwe amakana usilikali chifukwa cha zomwe amakhulupirira akhale ndi ufulu. Pa 12 October 2017, Khotili linapereka chigamulo pa mlandu womwe boma la Armenia limazenga Adyan ndi anzake.

Kwa zaka zambiri, malamulo a Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe sankateteza ufulu wa anthu omwe amakana usilikali. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, anthu ambiri okana usilikali ankazunzidwa komanso kuponyedwa m’ndende. Koma zinthu zinasintha mu 2011 pomwe khotili linkagamula mlandu wa pakati pa a Bayatyan ndi boma la Armenia. M’chigamulo chomwe khotili lapereka posachedwa pa mlandu wa Adyan, laona kuti anthu okana usilikali ayenera kupatsidwa ntchito zina zosiyana kwambiri ndi usilikali ndipo sayenera kupatsidwa ntchitozo ngati chilango.

Tikaganizira za nkhanza zomwe boma la Armenia lakhala likuchitira kwa anthu okana usilikali, zikuonetsa kuti zinthu zayamba kuyenda bwino kuchokera pomwe Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linapereka chigamulo chake pa mlandu wa a Bayatyan ndi Adyan.

Boma la Armenia Linalonjeza Zopereka Ntchito Zina kwa Okana Usilikali Koma Palibe Chomwe Chikuchitika

Akuwalanga m’malo mowapatsa ntchito zina. Kuchokera pamene dziko la Armenia linasainira kuti lalowa m’Bungwe la Mayiko a ku Europe mu 2001, linasonyeza kuti ndi lokonzeka kugwiritsa ntchito lamulo lopereka ntchito zina kwa anthu okana usilikali mogwirizana ndi mfundo zimene mayiko a m’bungweli anakhazikitsa. Mfundo zina za m’lamuloli zimanena kuti ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali zisamayang’aniridwe ndi asilikali komanso zisamakhale ngati njira yoperekera chilango. Dziko la Armenia linavomereza kuti lidzamasula anthu onse omwe linawamanga chifukwa chokana usilikali potsatira zimene amakhulupirira. * Komabe bomali linalephera kukwaniritsa zomwe linalonjeza chifukwa linamanga a Vahan Bayatyan omwe ndi a Mboni za Yehova chifukwa chokana kulowa usilikali. Boma la Armenia linamanga a Vahan Bayatyan mu 2002, ndipo pa nthawiyi linali lisanakhazikitsebe lamulo lopereka ntchito zina kwa anthu okana usilikali. Mu 2003, a Bayatyan analemba kalata ku Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe yodandaula kuti boma la Armenia likuwaphwanyira ufulu wotsatira zimene amakhulupirira ndipo anawatsekera m’ndende ngati chilango.

Kulangidwa chifukwa chokana kugwira ntchito zolakwika zosakhudzana ndi usilikali. Mu 2004, boma la Armenia linakhazikitsa lamulo loti anthu okana usilikali azipatsidwa ntchito zina. Ndipo achinyamata angapo a Mboni anavomera kugwira ntchitozi m’malo molowa usilikali. Koma atangoyamba, anazindikira kuti ntchitozi zinkayang’aniridwa ndi asilikali. Choncho anadziwitsa akuluakulu n’kusiya kugwira nawo ntchitozo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi boma linamanga achinyamatawa komanso kuwazunza ndipo ena linawatsekera m’ndende. M’mwezi wa May mu 2006, Hayk Khachatryan ndi a Mboni ena okwana 18 omwe anakana kulowa usilikali, analemba kalata ku Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe yofotokoza kuti boma la Armenia likuwaphwanyira ufulu ndipo linawamanga popanda chifukwa. *

Zaka zinadutsa popanda chochitika. Kwa zaka zingapo boma la Armenia silinachitepo kalikonse kuti likonzenso malamulo ake pa nkhani yopereka ntchito zina kwa anthu okana usilikali. A Mboni anapitiriza kukana kugwira ntchito zolakwika zosakhudzana ndi usilikali ndipo boma la Armenia linapitiriza kumanga. Anthu 317, anamangidwa pakati pa 2004 (pa nthawiyi boma linali litavomereza kutsatira mfundo zopereka ntchito zina kwa okana usilikali) ndi 2013 (boma litakhazikitsa malamulo opereka ntchito zina kwa okana usilikali) ndipo ankawagamula kukhala m’ndende kuyambira pa miyezi 24 mpaka 36.

Pa nthawiyo Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe silinasonyeze chidwi chenicheni ndi mmene zinthu zinkayendera. Mu 2009 khotili linamva dandaulo la a Bayatyan omwe anagwiritsa ntchito mfundo za mu Gawo 9 la m’Pangano la Mayiko a ku Europe, ponena kuti anali ndi ufulu wokana usilikali. Gawoli limanena kuti munthu ali ndi ufulu wotsatira chikumbumtima chake komanso zomwe amakhulupirira ku chipembedzo chake. Komabe Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linkadalira kwambiri zomwe linagamulapo zaka zambiri m’mbuyomu. Khotili linanena kuti choyambirira, ndi udindo wa dziko lililonse kusankha ngati n’koyenera kupereka ufulu kwa anthu omwe amakana kugwira ntchito ya usilikali. Koma ngati dzikolo lingaone kuti munthuyo sakufunika kum’patsa ufulu umenewo, ndiye kuti mfundo za m’gawoli sizingagwiritsidwe ntchito ngati njira yoti munthu amene akukana usilikali asazengedwe mlandu. Maloya a Bayatyan, ataona kuti zimene khotili lanena ndi zosamveka, ngakhale kuti panali mfundo zomveka bwinobwino zomwe mayiko anagwirizana, anachita apilo za nkhaniyi ku Komiti Yaikulu ya Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe kuti aionenso.

Pa 24 November 2010, Komiti Yaikulu ya Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe, linamvetsera mlandu wapakati pa a Bayatyan ndi boma la Armenia

Khoti linagamula kuti anthu okana usilikali ali ndi ufulu. Zinthu zinasintha Komiti Yaikulu ya Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe itaunikanso mlandu wa a Bayatyan. Kwa nthawi yoyamba pa 7 July 2011, khotili linatsindika kuti Gawo 9 m’Pangano la Mayiko a ku Europe limateteza ufulu kwa munthu wokana usilikali potsatira zomwe amakhulupirira. Khotili linatsindikanso kuti mfundo za m’Pangano la Mayiko a ku Europe, ziyenera kutsatiridwa kulikonse kaya ku mayiko a ku Europe kuno komanso kulikonse, ndipo ndi zosavomerezeka kuti papezeke malamulo osemphana ndi mfundozi. Choncho chigamulo cha komitiyi chinateteza ufulu wa anthu okana usilikali m’mayiko a ku Europe. Chinachititsanso kuti boma la Armenia liyambe kupereka ntchito zina zosakhudzana ndi usilikali kwa anthu omwe amakana usilikali chifukwa cha chikumbumtima chawo.

“Munthu akhoza kukana usilikali chifukwa cha chikumbumtima chake kapena ngati zimene amakhulupirira zikutsutsana kwambiri ndi ntchitoyi. Komanso ngati pali umboni weniweni wosonyezadi kuti zimene amakhulupirirazo n’zosemphana ndi usilikali. Zimenezi ndi zifukwa zimene zingachititse munthu kuyamba kugwira ntchito zina zosakhudzana ndi usilikali mogwirizana ndi zomwe zili mu Gawo 9.”—Mlandu wapakati pa a Bayatyan ndi boma la Armenia na. 23459/03, [GC], § 110, Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe 2011

Boma la Armenia Linakonzanso Malamulo Ake Kuti Anthu Okana Usilikali Azipatsidwa Ntchito Zina

Chilungamo chikusowabe pa nkhani yopereka ntchito zina m’malo mwa usilikali. Mu 2011, a Mboni 4 kuphatikizapo Artur Adyan anamangidwa chifukwa chokana kugwira ntchito zina zosakhudzana ndi usilikali koma zomwe zinkayang’aniridwa ndi asilikali. A Mboniwa analembera kalata Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe yodandaula kuti boma la Armenia likuwaphwanyira ufulu. Iwo anadandaulanso kuti ntchito zomwe bomali linkapereka kuchokera mu 2004, sizinkagwirizana ndi mfundo zomwe mayiko anagwirizana komanso kuti sizinkagwirizana ndi chikumbumtima chawo.

Akukumanabe ndi mavuto chifukwa asilikali ndi amene akuyang’anira ntchito zawo. Pa 27 November 2012, Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe, linapereka chigamulo pa mlandu umene boma la Armenia linkaimba Khachatryan ndi anzake. Amboni 19 ndi amene ankaimbidwa mlandu wokana ntchito zina zosakhudzana ndi usilikali chifukwa choona kuti zinkayang’aniridwa ndi asilikali. Khotili linagamula kuti kuzengedwa mlandu komanso kumangidwa kwa anthuwa kunali kosagwirizana ndi malamulo. Ngakhale kuti chigamulocho chinasonyeza kuti oweruza amva dandaulo la a Mboniwo loti ntchito zomwe anawapatsa zinkayang’aniridwa ndi asilikali, khotilo silinanenepo chilichonse pamene linkapereka chigamulo pa mlandu wa Khachatryan.

Chilungamo chinayamba kutsatidwa popereka ntchito zina. Mu 2013, boma la Armenia linakonzanso malamulo ake kuti pakhale lamulo lopereka mwayi wogwira ntchito zina kwa anthu okana usilikali mogwirizana ndi zomwe linalonjeza m’chaka cha 2000. Pofika m’mwezi wa October 2013, a Mboni ambiri anawamasula. Komabe ochepa omwe nthawi yawo yokhala m’ndende inali itatsala pang’ono kutha, anasankha kuti adzatuluke nthawi yawo ikadzakwana. Kuchokera nthawi imeneyo, anthu onse okana usilikali chifukwa cha chikumbumtima chawo, anayamba kupatsidwa ntchito zina.

Khoti la ku Europe Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu Linaperekanso Chigamulo China

Zigamulo ziwiri zomwe Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linapereka pa mlandu wa a Bayatyan ndi Khachatryan, zinasonyezeratu kuti boma la Armenia liyenera kulemekeza ufulu wa munthu wokana kulowa usilikali. Komabe Khotili silinagamulepo chilichonse pa nkhani yoti anthu okana usilikali aziyang’aniridwa ndi asilikali kapena ayi.

Nkhani imeneyi inayankhidwa pa 12 October, 2017 pamene Khotili linapereka chigamulo chake pa mlandu womwe boma la Armenia limazenga Adyan ndi anzake. Poweruza nkhani ya Adyan, Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linanena kuti popeza dziko la Armenia lapereka ufulu woti munthu akhoza kukana ntchito ya usilikali, bomali liyenera kukhazikitsa ntchito zovomerezeka zogwirizana ndi mfundo zimene mayiko anagwirizana. Linanenanso kuti ntchito zosagwirizana ndi usilikali siziyenera kuyang’aniridwa ndi asilikali komanso siziyenera kuperekedwa ngati chilango kwa munthu wokana usilikaliyo. Khotili linapereka chipukuta misozi kwa anthu omwe anazunzidwa chifukwa chokana kugwira ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali komanso zomwe zinali zosavomerezeka.

“Khoti linanena kuti sizingatheke kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo za m’Gawo 9 zokhudza kupereka ufulu kwa anthu okana usilikali chifukwa cha zomwe amakhulupirira, ngati dziko likulephera kukhazikitsa lamulo lokhudza kupereka ntchito zina kwa anthu okana usilikali m’malamulo a dziko lake. Ndipotu kupereka mwayi wogwira ntchito zina zosakhudzana ndi usilikali isamakhale njira yoperekera chilango kwa munthu.”—Mlandu umene boma la Armenia linkazenga Adyan ndi anzake, na. 75604/11 ndi 21759/15, § 67, Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe 2017

Mmene Nkhani Inathera

Pofika mu January 2018, a Mboni 161 ku Armenia anamaliza kugwira ntchito zina zomwe anapatsidwa m’malo mwa usilikali ndipo enanso okwana 105 anaikidwa m’pulogalamu yogwira ntchitozi. A Mboni komanso akuluakulu omwe akuyang’anira ntchitozi akusangalala kuti pulogalamuyi ikuyenda bwino. Pulogalamuyi yathandiza anthu kuti azipeza zofunika pa moyo. Yathandizanso anthu omwe anapempha kugwira ntchito zina m’malo mwa usilikali. Zimenezi zathandizanso kuti anthu omwe amaponderezedwa akhale ndi ufulu.

André Carbonneau, ndi m’modzi wa maloya omwe anaimira a Mboni ku Armenia. A Carbonneau anayamikira kwambiri boma poyesetsa kuthetsa nkhaniyi. Iwo ananena kuti: “Ndikaona zigamulo zomwe Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linapereka, ndimaona kuti zinayamba kuyenda bwino kuyambira pomwe khotili linagamula mlandu wa a Bayatyan mu 2011. Zigamulo zomwe zinaperekedwa pa mlandu wa Khachatryan ndi Adyan, zinapereka mwayi woti anthu okana usilikali akhale ndi ufulu komanso kuti asamaopsezedwe ndi asilikali. Ndikukhulupirira kuti mayiko ena omwe alibe pulogalamu yabwino yokhazikitsira ntchito zovomerezeka zosakhudzana ndi usilikali, atengera zomwe boma la Armenia lachita. Ntchitozi zathandiza kuti zinthu ziyambe kuyenda bwino kumbali ya boma komanso kwa anthu okana usilikaliwo.”

Mayiko Ena Omwe Amakakamiza Anthu Usilikali Komanso Ena Omwe Amapereka Ntchito Zosavomerezeka M’malo mwa Usilikali

 

Sapereka Ntchito Zina

Amapereka Ntchito Zina Ngati Chilango

Kuli Malamulo Olola Kugwira Ntchito Zina Koma Sagwira Ntchito

Azerbaijan

 

 

X

Belarus

 

X

 

Eritrea

X

 

 

Lithuania

X *

 

 

Singapore

X

 

 

South Korea

X

 

 

Tajikistan

 

 

X

Turkey

X

 

 

Turkmenistan

X

 

 

Zomwe Zachitika M’zaka Zapitazi

  1. 12 October, 2017

    Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linapereka chigamulo pa mlandu womwe boma la Armenia limaimba Adyan ndi anzake

  2. January 2014

    A Mboni oyambirira kulembedwa m’pulogalamu yogwira ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali, anayamba kugwira ntchito zawo

  3. 12 November, 2013

    Kwa nthawi yoyamba pambuyo pa zaka zoposa 20, palibe wa Mboni aliyense amene waponyedwako m’ndende chifukwa chokana usilikali

  4. 8 June, 2013

    Boma la Armenia linasintha malamulo ake kuti pakhale Lamulo lolola anthu okana usilikali kuti azitha kugwira ntchito zina zosakhudzana ndi usilikali. Lamuloli linayamba kugwira ntchito mu October 2013

  5. 27 November, 2012

    Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linapereka chigamulo pa mlandu womwe boma la Armenia linkazenga Khachatryan ndi anzake

  6. 10 January, 2012

    Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linayamba kuweruza mlandu wa a Bayatyan potengera zimene linagamula pa mlandu womwe boma la Armenia limaimba a Bukharatyan ndi a Tsaturyan. Pa nthawiyo khotili linapeza kuti boma la Armenia, linaphwanya Gawo 9 chifukwa chomanga a Mboni

  7. 7 July, 2011

    Komiti Yaikulu ya Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe, linapeza kuti pa mlandu umene boma la Armenia linkazenga a Bayatyan, bomali linaphwanya ufulu wa a Bayatyan wochita zomwe amakhulupirira womwe uli pa Gawo 9 m’Pangano la Mayiko a ku Europe. Mfundo za mu panganoli zimapereka ufulu kwa anthu okana usilikali chifukwa cha zomwe amakhulupirira.

  8. 27 October, 2009

    Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe linapereka chigamulo chake pa mlandu womwe boma la Armenia linkazenga a Bayatyan ponena kuti Gawo 9 la mu Pangano la Mayiko a ku Europe silikukhudza anthu amene amakana usilikali chifukwa cha zomwe amakhulupirira. Kenako mlanduwu anaubwezanso ku Komiti Yaikulu ya Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa Anthu ku Europe.

  9. 2004

    Dziko la Armenia linayamba kugwiritsa ntchito lamulo lopereka ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali kwa anthu okana usilikali. Koma ntchitozi zinkayang’aniridwa ndi asilikali.

  10. 2001

    Boma la Armenia linasainira kuti liyamba kugwiritsa ntchito lamulo lopereka ntchito zina kwa anthu okana usilikali

^ ndime 6 Pamsonkhano wa Nduna za Bungwe la Mayiko a ku Europe, nduna zinatulutsa mfundo zopezeka m’Gawo na. 221 (2000) la malamulo, zosonyeza kuti dziko la Armenia likuyenera kulembetsa kuti likhale membala wa Bungwe la Mayiko a ku Europe. Pamsonkhanowu ananena kuti apereka “zaka zitatu kuti dziko la Armenia liyambe kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo zomwe anakambirana zokhudza lamulo lopereka ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali, mogwirizana ndi mfundo zomwe zili mu Pangano la Mayiko a ku Europe. Dzikoli likufunika kumasula anthu onse omwe anamangidwa chifukwa cha zomwe amakhulupirira ndipo lizilola anthuwa kugwira ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali ndiponso kuti asamayang’aniridwe ndi asilikali.”

^ ndime 7 Mu 2005, dziko la Armenia linaphwanya malamulo pozenga mlandu komanso kumanga a Mboni 19 chifukwa pa nthawiyi, panalibe lamulo losonyeza kuti munthu amene sangagwire ntchito zosakhudzana ndi usilikali ali ndi mlandu.

^ ndime 39 Ku Lithuania, asilikali ndi amene amayang’anira “unduna wa zachitetezo komanso anthu okana usilikali”