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NSANJA YA OLONDA DECEMBER 2015

Kodi N’zoona Kuti Petulo Anali Papa Woyamba?

Kodi N’zoona Kuti Petulo Anali Papa Woyamba?

Lipoti lina lochokera ku Vatican la pa 13 March, 2013 linanena kuti: “Kadinala Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., wasankhidwa kukhala papa wa nambala 266 ndipo akulowa m’malo mwa Petulo yemwe anali papa woyamba.”—VATICAN INFORMATION SERVICE.

Buku lina lolembedwa ndi Vincent Ermoni linati: “Papa ndi amene ali ndi udindo waukulu m’tchalitchi chonse cha Katolika chifukwa amalowa m’malo mwa Petulo Woyera, yemwe anapatsidwa udindo woyang’anira mpingo wonse ndi Yesu Khristu.”—THE PRIMACY OF THE BISHOP OF ROME DURING THE FIRST THREE CENTURIES.

Pa msonkhano womwe mabishopu a tchalitchi cha Katolika anachita pa 18 July 1870, anapanga chigamulo choti: “Aliyense amene angatsutse zoti papa ndi wolowa m’malo mwa Petulo Woyera, ndi munthu wotembereredwa komanso woukira tchalitchi cha Katolika.”

AKATOLIKA amaona kuti zimene mabishopu anagwirizana pa msonkhano wa ku Vatican mu 1870, ndi chiphunzitso chofunika kwambiri. Koma funso ndi lakuti, Kodi zimenezi n’zogwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena? Komanso, kodi Papa Francis ndi mmodzi mwa anthu amene akulowa m’malo mwa mtumwi Petulo? Nanga kodi n’zoona kuti Petulo anali papa woyamba?

“PATHANTHWE ILI NDIDZAMANGAPO MPINGO WANGA”

Pa msonkhano uja, tchalitchi cha Katolika chinanena kuti lemba la Mateyu 16:16-19 ndi la Yohane 21:15-17 limatanthauza kuti Petulo anali papa woyamba komanso kuti apapa a masiku ano amalowa m’malo mwa Petulo. Zimene Yesu anauza mtumwi Petulo pamavesi amenewa komanso mavesi ena a m’Baibulo, zimasonyeza kuti Petulo anali kudzathandiza kwambiri pa nthawi imene Chikhristu chinkayamba. Ndipotu, pamene Yesu anakumana koyamba ndi Petulo ananeneratu kuti Petuloyo adzakhala ndi makhalidwe ofunika kwambiri amene anali kudzathandiza mpingo. (Yohane 1:42) Koma kodi Yesu Khristu ankatanthauza kuti Petulo ndi wofunika kwambiri kuposa atumwi enawo?

Pa Mateyu 16:17 ndi 18, pali mawu amene Yesu anauza Petulo. Iye anati: “Ndikukuuza kuti, Iwe ndiwe Petulo, ndipo pathanthwe ili ndidzamangapo mpingo wanga.” Kodi pamenepa tinganene kuti Yesu ankatanthauza kuti “mpingo” udzamangidwa pa Petulo? Kodi Petulo anapatsidwa udindo woti azitsogolera otsatira onse a Yesu? Nanga kodi atumwi ena omwe analipo pamene Yesu ankanena zimenezi, anaganiza zotani? Pajatu Mauthenga Abwino amasonyeza kuti atumwiwa anakanganapo maulendo angapo pa nkhani yoti wamkulu ndani ndipo anachita zimenezi Yesu atamuuza kale Petulo mawu aja. (Mateyu 20:20-27; Maliko 9:33-35; Luka 22:24-26) Ndiye kodi mukuganiza kuti zikanakhala zomveka atumwiwa kumakangana kuti wamkulu ndani, zikanakhala kuti ankadziwa kale kuti wamkulu ndi Petulo?

Kodi Petulo atamva mawu amenewa anaganiza zotani? Petulo anakulira ku Isiraeli ndipo n’kutheka kuti ankadziwa bwino maulosi ambiri amene ankapezeka  m’Malemba achiheberi onena za “mwala” komanso “mwala wapakona.” (Yesaya 8:13, 14; 28:16; Zekariya 3:9) M’kalata ina imene analembera Akhristu anzake, Petulo anafotokoza zimene zinkapezeka m’maulosi ngati amenewa ndipo ananena kuti “mwala wapakona” ukuimira Yesu Khristu, yemwe ndi Mesiya. Ndipotu, Petulo anagwiritsa ntchito mawu achigiriki akuti pe’tra ponena za Yesu (mawuwa ndi ofanana ndi amene Yesu anagwiritsa ntchito pa lemba la Mateyu 16:18 lija).—1 Petulo 2:4-8.

Nayenso Paulo anali mtumwi wokhulupirika wa Yesu. Kodi Paulo ankakhulupirira kuti Yesu anapereka udindo wapadera kwa Petulo? Pa nthawi ina, Paulo analemba kuti Petulo anali mmodzi mwa anthu amene “anali ngati mizati” ya mpingo. Choncho Paulo sankaona kuti Petulo yekha ndiye anali ngati ‘mzati’ wa mpingo. (Agalatiya 2:9) Komanso zikanakhala kuti Petulo anasankhidwadi ndi Yesu kukhala wotsogolera mpingo wonse, sibwenzi Akhristu anzake akungomuona ngati ‘mzati.’ Koma bwenzi akungoti ndi ‘mzati.’

Pa nthawi inanso Paulo analemba mosabisa za khalidwe la tsankho limene Petulo anali nalo. Iye anati: “Ndinamutsutsa pamasom’pamaso, chifukwa anali wolakwa.” (Agalatiya 2:11-14) Apatu n’zoonekeratu kuti Paulo sankaona kuti Yesu anakhazikitsa mpingo wake pa Petulo kapena munthu wina aliyense. Ankakhulupirira kuti mpingo unamangidwa pa Yesu yemwe ndi maziko a mpingo wachikhristu. Choncho, Paulo ankaona kuti ‘thanthwelo ndi Khristu.’—1 Akorinto 3:9-11; 10:4.

“IWE NDIWE PETULO . . .”

Ndiye kodi mawu akuti: “Ndikukuuza kuti, Iwe ndiwe Petulo, ndipo pathanthwe ili ndidzamangapo mpingo wanga,” amatanthauza chiyani? Kuti timvetse tanthauzo la zimene Yesu ankanena pamenepa, tiyenera kudziwa zimene Yesu ndi Petulo ankakambirana. Yesu anali atafunsa ophunzira ake kuti: “Inuyo mumati ndine ndani?” Petulo ndi amene anayankha funso limeneli ndipo anati: “Ndinu Khristu, Mwana wa Mulungu wamoyo.” Apatu Petulo anasonyeza kuti anali ndi chikhulupiriro ndipo n’chifukwa chake Yesu anamuuza kuti “pathanthwe” limeneli, kutanthauza Yesuyo, adzamangapo “mpingo” wake.—Mateyu 16:15-18.

Kodi Yesu ankatanthauza chiyani pamene ananena kuti: “Iwe ndiwe Petulo, ndipo pathanthwe ili ndidzamangapo mpingo wanga”?

 N’zochititsa chidwi kuti “Abambo” ambiri a tchalitchi analemba kuti mawu akuti thanthwe, amene amatchulidwa pa Mateyu 16:18 akutanthauza Khristu. Mwachitsanzo, Bambo Augustine omwe anakhalapo m’zaka za m’ma 400 C.E. analemba kuti: “Ambuye ananena kuti, ‘Pathanthwe ili ndidzamangapo mpingo wanga,’ chifukwa Petulo anali atangowauza kuti, ‘Ndinu Khristu, Mwana wa Mulungu wamoyo.’ Choncho, Yesu ankauza Petulo kuti pathanthwe limene walikhulupiriralo, adzamangapo mpingo wake.” Bambo Augustine ananenapo kangapo zoti, mawu akuti ‘thanthwe’ (Petra) akutanthauza Khristu.

Zikanakhala kuti Bambo Augustine komanso Abambo ena a tchalitchi anena zimenezi panopa, bwenzi akutengedwa kuti ndi oukira tchalitchi cha Katolika. Katswiri wina wa zachipembedzo wa ku Switzerland, dzina lake Ulrich Luz, ananena kuti zimene akatswiri a Baibulo amanena masiku ano zoti thanthwe ndi Yesu, zikanakhala zosamveka kwa atsogoleri a tchalitchi cha Katolika mu 1870.

KODI PAPA NDI WOLOWA M’MALO MWA PETULO?

M’nthawi ya Petulo, anthu sankagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti papa ndipo sankawadziwa n’komwe. Mawu amenewa anayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito m’zaka za m’ma 800 C.E. ndi mabishopu omwe sanali Akatolika. Ndipotu, anthu sankagwiritsa ntchito mawuwa ngati dzina la udindo, mpaka kumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1000 C.E. Kuwonjezera pamenepa, Akhristu oyambirira sankakhulupirira kuti Petulo anapatsidwa udindo wapadera komanso kuti anasiyira anthu ena udindowo. Katswiri wina wamaphunziro wa ku Germany, dzina lake Martin Hengel anati: “Tikafufuza m’mabuku akale kapena achipembedzo, sitipeza umboni uliwonse wosonyeza kuti pali anthu amene ankapatsidwa udindo waukulu woyang’anira mpingo wonse.”

Ndiye kodi n’zoona kuti Petulo anali papa woyamba? Kodi papa ndi wolowa m’malo mwa mtumwi Petulo? Nanga kodi zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinagamula zoti papa ali ndi udindo woyang’anira mpingo wonse zimagwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena? Yankho la mafunso onsewa ndi loti, ayi. Koma dziwani kuti Yesu anamangadi mpingo wake, kapena chipembedzo choona, pathanthwe ndipo thanthwelo ndi Yesuyo. (Aefeso 2:20) Choncho panopa ndi bwino kudzifunsa kuti, ‘Kodi chipembedzo chimenechi ndi chiti?’