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NSANJA YA OLONDA APRIL 2015

Anapeza Zinthu Zamtengo Wapatali Pamulu wa Zinyalala

Anapeza Zinthu Zamtengo Wapatali Pamulu wa Zinyalala

KODI n’chiyani chimabwera m’maganizo mwanu mukaona mulu wa zinyalala? N’kutheka kuti mumaganiza za fungo loipa komanso zinthu zosafunika zomwe zatayidwa. Mwina simungaganize n’komwe zoti mungapeze chinthu chamtengo wapatali pamalo amenewa.

Komatu zaka 100 zapitazo, anthu ena anapeza zinthu zofunika kwambiri pamulu wa zinyalala. Sikuti zinali ndalama kapena miyala yamtengo wapatali. Ndiye kodi anthuwa anapeza chiyani? N’chifukwa chiyani zomwe anapezazo ndi zofunika kwa ife masiku ano?

SANKAYEMBEKEZERA KUTI ANGAPEZE ZINTHUZI PAMALOWA

Chakumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 1900 Bernard P. Grenfell ndi Arthur S. Hunt, omwe ankaphunzira pa yunivesite ya Oxford, anapita ku Egypt. Ali kumeneku anapeza tizidutswa ta mipukutu pamulu wa zinyalala, pafupi ndi mtsinje wa Nile. Kenako mu 1920, Grenfell ndi Hunt akuphatikiza tizidutswa tija, Grenfell anapezanso tizidutswa tina timene tinafukulidwa ku Egypt komweko. Anatenga tizidutswati kuti akatiike kulaibulale yotchedwa John Rylands ku Manchester, m’dziko la England. Koma n’zomvetsa chisoni kuti anthuwa anamwalira asanamalize kuphatikiza tizidutswati.

Colin H. Roberts, yemwenso ankaphunzira pa yunivesite ya Oxford, anayamba kupitiriza ntchitoyi. Akugwira ntchitoyi, anapeza kachidutswa kena kolembedwa m’Chigiriki ka masentimita 9 mulitali ndi masentimita 6 mulifupi. Anadabwa kuona kuti mawu amene anali pakachidutswaka komanso kalembedwe kake, sizinali zachilendo kwa iyeyo. Pakachidutswaka panali mawu a pa Yohane 18:31-33. Ndipo kuseri kwake kunali mawu a m’chaputala chomwechi, vesi 37 ndi 38. Apa Roberts anazindikira kuti wapeza chinthu chamtengo wapatali.

ANAFUFUZA KUTI ADZIWE KUTI N’KALITI

Roberts anadziwa kuti kachidutswaka kanali kakale kwambiri. Koma sankadziwa kuti kanalembedwa liti. Kuti adziwe, anagwiritsira ntchito njira inayake. * Njirayi inamuthandizadi kudziwa zimene ankafunazo. Komabe, pofuna kutsimikizira ngati zimene anapezazo zinalidi zolondola, anajambula kachidutswako n’kutumiza zithunzi zake kwa akatswiri atatu ofufuza za mipukutu yakale. Ankafuna kuti nawonso afufuze nthawi imene kachidutswaka kanalembedwa. Kodi akatswiriwa anapeza zotani?

Akatswiriwa atafufuza mmene kachidutswaka kanalembedwera, onse atatu anapeza kuti kanalembedwa chisanafike chaka cha 150 C.E. Apa n’kuti mtumwi Yohane atamwalira kale. Komabe njira imene akatswiri anagwiritsa ntchitoyi sithandiza munthu kudziwa chaka chenicheni chomwe chinthu chinalembedwa. Mwachitsanzo, akatswiri ena anangopeza kuti kachidutswaka kanalembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. Komabe kachidutswa komwe Colin H. Roberts anapezaka, ndi kachidutswa kakale kwambiri ka Malemba Achigiriki, ndipo palibenso kena kakale kuposa apa komwe kanapezeka.

KODI KACHIDUTSWAKA N’KOFUNIKA BWANJI?

N’chifukwa chiyani kachidutswa ka Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane, komwe Roberts anapeza, n’kofunika kwa anthu amene amawerenga Baibulo? Pali zifukwa ziwiri. Choyamba, kamatithandiza kudziwa kuti Akhristu oyamba ankaona kuti Malemba ndi ofunika.

N’chifukwa chiyani kachidutswa aka ka Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane, n’kofunika kwa anthu amene amawerenga Baibulo?

 M’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., anthu ankalemba zinthu pamanja m’mipukutu kapena m’kabuku. Popanga mpukutu ankagwiritsa ntchito gumbwa kapena chikopa. Ankalumikiza gumbwa kapena zikopa n’kukhala chinthu chachitali ndipo ankachikulunga. Akafuna kulembapo kanthu kapena kuwerenga zomwe analembazo, ankachifunyulula. Nthawi zambiri ankalemba mawu mbali imodzi yokha. Popanga kabuku, ankagwiritsanso ntchito gumbwa kapena chikopa. Koma polemba m’buku, ankalemba mbali zonse.

Kachidutswa komwe Roberts anapeza kanali kolembedwa mbali zonse. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti kachidutswaka kanali ka buku, osati ka mpukutu.

Koma kabuku kanali kabwino kuposa mpukutu. Tikutero chifukwa kanali kosavuta kunyamula, choncho munthu ankatha kuyenda nako. Mwachitsanzo, Akhristu oyamba akamalalikira uthenga wabwino, ankatha kutenga kabuku. (Mateyu 24:14; 28:19, 20) Ankalalikira kunyumba za anthu, m’misika, m’misewu ndi kulikonse komwe apeza anthu. (Machitidwe 5:42; 17:17; 20:20) Choncho kukhala ndi kabuku kokhala ndi Malemba kunkawathandiza kuti azilalikira mosavuta.

Mipingo komanso anthu ankatha kukopera kabuku n’kukhala nako kawo. Choncho anthu ankakopera Mauthenga Abwino kambirimbiri ndipo izi zinathandiza kuti Chikhristu chifalikire.

Izi ndi mbali zonse za kachidutswaka

Chifukwa chachiwiri n’choti, kachidutswa komwe Roberts anapeza kamasonyeza kuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo sunasinthe ngakhale kuti unalembedwa kalekale. Ngakhale kuti kachidutswaka kanali ndi mavesi ochepa chabe a mu Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane, kamafanana kwambiri ndi zomwe timawerenga m’Baibulo masiku ano. Choncho kachidutswaka kamasonyeza kuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo sunasinthidwe ngakhale kuti unakoperedwa kambirimbiri.

Komatu, kachidutswaka ndi kamodzi chabe ka zidutswa zomwe zimasonyeza kuti Baibulo ndi lodalirika komanso lolondola. Mwachitsanzo wolemba mabuku wina, dzina lake Werner Keller, analemba m’buku lake lina kuti: “Tizidutswa takale ngati kameneka ndi umboni wosatsutsika wakuti uthenga womwe uli m’Baibulo ndi wochokeradi kwa Mulungu.”—The Bible as History.

N’zoona kuti zimene Akhristu amakhulupirira sizichokera pa zomwe anthu ofukula zakale amapeza. Akhristu amakhulupirira Malemba chifukwa, “anauziridwa ndi Mulungu.” (2 Timoteyo 3:16) Komabe amalimbikitsidwa anthu ofukula zinthu zakale akapeza zinthu zotsimikizira kuti zimene Baibulo linanena n’zoona. Limati: “Mawu a Yehova amakhala kosatha.”—1 Petulo 1:25.

^ ndime 8 Buku lina linanena kuti “pogwiritsa ntchito njirayi, akatswiri amatha kudziwa nthawi imene zinthu zinalembedwa. Amayerekezera kalembedwe ka chinthu chimene akufuna kufufuzacho, ndi kalembedwe ka zinthu zina zakale.” (Manuscripts of the Greek Bible) Pa nthawi inayake anthu amakhala ndi kalembedwe kofanana, koma pakapita nthawi zimasintha ndipo amayamba kalembedwe kena. Choncho akatswiriwa amatha kuzindikira nthawi yomwe chinthu chinalembedwa poona kalembedwe kake.

Onaninso

Kodi Nkhani ya Moyo wa Yesu Imene Ili M’Baibulo Ndi Yolondola?

Dziwani mfundo zokhudza nkhani za m’mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino ndiponso mipukutu yakale kwambiri imene ikudziwika masiku ano.