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NSANJA YA OLONDA MARCH 2015

Mphatso Zoyenera Kupatsa Mfumu

Mphatso Zoyenera Kupatsa Mfumu

“Okhulupirira nyenyezi ochokera kumadera a kum’mawa . . . anamasula chuma chawo ndi kupereka kwa mwanayo mphatso za golide, lubani ndi mule.”—Mateyu 2:1, 11.

MUTAKHALA kuti mukufuna kupereka mphatso kwa munthu yemwe mumamuona kuti ndi wofunika kwambiri, mungapereke mphatso yanji? Kale zinthu zonunkhira zinali zamtengo wapatali ngati golide ndipo ankaziona kuti ndi mphatso zoyenera kupereka kwa mfumu. * N’chifukwa chake mphatso zina zimene okhulupirira nyenyezi anapereka kwa “mfumu ya Ayuda,” zinali lubani ndi mule, zomwe ndi zinthu zonunkhira.—Mateyu 2:1, 2, 11.

Mafuta a Basamu

Baibulo limanenanso kuti mfumukazi ya ku Sheba itapita kwa Mfumu Solomo, “inapatsa mfumuyo golide wokwana matalente 120, mafuta a basamu ochuluka zedi, ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali. Mafuta a basamu amene mfumukazi ya ku Sheba inapatsa Mfumu Solomo, anali ochuluka kwambiri moti sipanakhalenso mafuta ochuluka ngati amenewo.” * (2 Mbiri 9:9) Mafumu enanso ankapereka kwa Solomo mafuta a basamu pomufunira zabwino.—2 Mbiri 9:23, 24.

N’chifukwa chiyani kale zinthu zonunkhira zimenezi zinali zamtengo wapatali komanso zodula? Chifukwa choti ankazigwiritsa ntchito akamachita miyambo yachipembedzo, poika maliro komanso ngati zodzoladzola. (Onani bokosi lakuti, “ Kodi Kale Anthu Ankagwiritsa Ntchito Bwanji Zinthu Zonunkhira?”) Zinthuzi zinkadulanso chifukwa choti anthu ambiri ankazifuna, zinkachokera kutali komanso chifukwa choti pankalowa ndalama zambiri kuti munthu afike nazo pamsika.

ANKADUTSA NAZO M’CHIPULULU CHA ARABIA

Kasiya

Kale ku Isiraeli, mitengo ya zonunkhira inkapezeka m’chigwa cha Yorodano. Koma zonunkhira zina zinkachokera m’mayiko ena. Baibulo limatchula mayina a zonunkhira zosiyanasiyana. Zina mwa zinthu zimenezi ndi safironi, aloye, basamu, sinamoni, lubani ndi mule. Panalinso zonunkhira zina monga chitowe, minti ndi dilili zomwe ankazigwiritsa ntchito ngati zokometsera m’zakudya.

Kodi zonunkhira zomwe zinkachokera ku mayiko ena, zinkachokera mayiko ati? Aloye, kasiya ndi sinamoni ankachokera kudera lomwe masiku ano ndi China, India ndi Sri Lanka. Mule ndi lubani ankachokera m’dera lachipululu lomwe linkayambira kum’mwera kwa Arabia mpaka kukafika ku Somalia, komwe ndi ku Africa. Ndipo nado wambiri ankachokera ku India, kumapiri a Himalaya.

Safuroni

Kuti zonunkhirazi zikafike ku Isiraeli, nthawi zambiri zinkadutsa ku Arabia. Buku lina linati chifukwa cha izi, kuchokera mu 2000 B.C.E. mpaka mu 1000 B.C.E., ku Arabia “ndi komwe amalonda ambiri ankadutsa pochoka kum’mawa kupita kumadzulo.” (The Book of Spices) M’dera lina lotchedwa Negev lomwe lili kum’mwera kwa Israel anapezako matauni akale, mipanda komanso malo amene ankaimikamo makalavani, zomwe zikusonyeza kuti amalonda ogulitsa  zinthu zonunkhira ankadutsa m’derali. Nthambi ina ya UNESCO yoona za zinthu zakale inati zinthu zomwe anapezazi, “zikusonyeza kuti anthu ankachita bizinezi yotentha, ya zonunkhira  . . . kuchokera ku Arabia kukafika kumadera ozungulira nyanja ya Mediterranean.”

“Ngakhale kakhungwa kakang’ono ka sinamoni kankadula kwambiri, chifukwa aliyense ankafuna kugula zinthu zonunkhira.”—The Book of Spices

Makalavani onyamula zinthu zonunkhira ankayenda ulendo wa makilomita 1,800 kudutsa ku Arabia. (Yobu 6:19) M’Baibulo muli nkhani ya Aisimaeli, amalonda omwe ananyamula zinthu zonunkhira monga mafuta a ‘labidanamu, a basamu komanso makungwa a utomoni wonunkhira.’ (Genesis 37:25) Amalondawa ankachokera ku Giliyadi kupita ku Iguputo. Ana aamuna a Yakobo anagulitsa Yosefe, yemwe anali mng’ono wawo, kwa amalondawa.

“ANKASUNGA CHINSINSI”

Dilili

Kwa zaka zambiri, amalonda a ku Arabia ndi amene ankachita malonda ogulitsa zinthu zonunkhira. Amalondawa ndi amene ankagulitsa kasiya ndi sinamoni wambiri amene ankapezeka ku Asia. Pofuna kuti anthu a m’madera ozungulira nyanja ya Mediterranenean asamapite okha kum’mawa kukagula zinthu zonunkhira, anthu a ku Arabia anayamba kufalitsa bodza loti pankakhala matatalazi kuti munthu agule zinthu zonunkhirazo. Buku lija linanenanso kuti: “Amalonda a ku Arabia ankasunga chinsinsi kuti anthu asadziwe zoti zimene ankanenazi linali bodza lankunkhuniza.”

Chitowe

Kodi bodza lake linali lotani? Wolemba mbiri yakale wina wa zaka za m’ma 400 B.C.E., dzina lake Herodotus, ananena kuti amalonda a ku Arabia ankati kumene amapeza zonunkhira kunali mbalame zoopsa. Ankati mbalamezi zinkamanga zisa zamakungwa a mtengo wa sinamoni pamwamba pa phiri, poti munthu sangathe kufikapo. Ndiye kuti munthu apeze zonunkhirazi ankaika nyama yambiri pansi pa phirilo. Ndiyeno  mbalame inkabwera kudzatenga nyamayo n’kukaiika m’chisa chake ndipo chisacho chinkagwa pansi chifukwa cholemedwa. Zikatere munthu ankathamanga n’kukatola chisacho, chomwe chinkakhala cha makungwa a sinamoni n’kugulitsa kwa amalonda aja. Buku lija linati nkhani zabodzazi zinafala kwambiri ndipo zinapangitsa kuti anthu aziganiza kuti sinamoni ndi wovuta kwambiri kum’peza. Izi zinapangitsa kuti sinamoni azigulitsidwa modula kwambiri.

Minti

Koma paja amati palibe chinsinsi. Choncho patapita nthawi, anthu anatulukira kuti amalonda a ku Arabia ankanama. Zimenezi zinapangitsa kuti anthu enanso ayambe kuchita malondawa. Moti pofika zaka za pakati pa 1 ndi 99 B.C.E., mzinda wa Alexandria ku Iguputo unali chimake cha malonda a zinthu zonunkhira. Anthu oyendetsa sitima atajaira kudutsa panyanja ya India potengera mmene mphepo ikuyendera, sitima za Aroma zinayamba kumadutsa panyanjayi kuchoka ku Iguputo kupita ku India. Izi zinachititsa kuti zinthu zonunkhira zizipezeka paliponse ndipo zinayamba kutchipa.

Masiku ano anthu saona kuti zinthu zonunkhira ndi zamtengo wapatali ngati golide. Ndipo ndi ochepa amene angaganize kuti zinthuzi ndiye mphatso zoyenera kupatsa mfumu. Komabe anthu ambiri padziko lonse, amagwiritsabe ntchito zinthu zonunkhirazi ngati mankhwala, perefyumu komanso ngati zokometsera m’zakudya. Fungo lake labwino limapangitsa kuti anthu ambiri azizikonda ngati mmene zinalilinso zaka zambirimbiri kalelo.

Sinamoni

^ ndime 3 M’Baibulo mawu amene anawamasulira kuti “zinthu zonunkhira,” nthawi zambiri satanthauza zokometsera m’zakudya. Koma amatanthauza zinthu zonunkhira zochokera zomera.

^ ndime 4 “Mafuta a basamu” anali mafuta onunkhira kapena utomoni wochokera ku mitengo komanso zitsamba.

Onaninso

Aisiraeli Anapempha Kuti Akhale ndi Mfumu

Mulungu anasankha Sauli kuti akhale mfumu Aisiraeli atapempha kuti akhale ndi mfumu. N’chifukwa chiyani Mulungu anachotsa Sauli n’kuika Davide kuti akhale mfumu?