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NSANJA YA OLONDA DECEMBER 2014

Kodi Mumzinda wa Timgad Munkachitika Zotani?

Kodi Mumzinda wa Timgad Munkachitika Zotani?

MU 1765, munthu wina wofufuza malo, dzina lake Scotsman James Bruce, anatulukira chipilala china m’chipululu cha ku Algeria. Chipilalachi, mbali yake ina inali itakwiririka mumchenga. Pa nthawiyi sanazindikire kuti pamalopa ndi pomwe kale panali mzinda wina wotukuka wa Aroma. Mzindawu ndi umene unali waukulu kwambiri pa mizinda yonse ya Aroma yomwe inali kumpoto kwa Africa. Poyamba unkatchedwa Thamugadi ndipo panopa umadziwika kuti Timgad.

Mu 1881, patapita zaka zoposa 100, akatswiri ofufuza zinthu zakale a ku France anayamba kufukula pamalopo kuti adziwe zambiri zokhudza mzinda wa Timgad. Zimene anapeza zinawathandiza kudziwa kuti, ngakhale kuti pamalowa panalibe zomera komanso panali posalongosoka, anthu amene ankakhalapo kalero anali olemera kwambiri. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani Aroma anamanga mzindawu? Nanga tingaphunzire chiyani zokhudza mzindawu komanso anthu amene ankakhalamo?

ANAUMANGA KUTI ALIMBITSE UFUMU WAWO

Chisanafike chaka cha 100 B.C.E., Aroma anayamba kulamulira chigawo cha kumpoto kwa Africa. Koma anthu ambiri a m’chigawochi, sankafuna kuti aziwalamulira. Choncho, ankatsutsa kwambiri ulamuliro wa Aroma. Kodi Aroma akanatani kuti agwirizane ndi anthuwa? Asilikali achiroma a m’gulu linalake anakhwimitsa chitetezo ndipo anamanga makampu m’dera lamapiri lomwe panopa ndi kumpoto kwa Algeria. Asilikaliwa ankalonderanso chigawochi. Kenako anamanga mzinda wa Timgad, ndipo anachita zimenezi kuti alimbitse ufumu wa Roma.

Atamanga mzindawu ananena kuti aumanga n’cholinga choti muzikhala asilikali opuma pa ntchito. Koma zoona zinali zoti ankafuna kutseka pakamwa anthu a kumpoto kwa Africa n’cholinga choti asamatsutse ulamuliro wawo. Cholinga chawochi chinathekadi. Popeza mzinda wa Timgad unali wotukuka kwambiri, anthu ozungulira mzindawu akapita kukagulitsa malonda ankakopeka kwambiri ndipo ankalakalaka atamakhala mumzindawu. Koma anthu amene ankaloledwa kukhala mumzindawu anali nzika za Roma basi. Kuti munthu akhale nzika ya Roma, ankafunika kukhala msilikali wachiroma kwa zaka 25. Choncho, anthu ambiri anayamba kulowa usilikali n’cholinga choti iwowo ndi ana awo akhale nzika za Roma, kuti azitha kukhala mumzindawu.

Patapita nthawi, anthuwa sankakhutira ndi kungokhala nzika za Roma. Choncho ena anayamba kukhala ndi maudindo akuluakulu mumzinda wa Timgad komanso m’mizinda ina yomwe inali pansi pa ulamuliro wa Aroma. Izi zinangopangitsanso kuti Aroma akwaniritse cholinga chawo chija. Mmene pankatha za 50, anthu ambiri omwe ankakhala mumzinda wa Timgad anali a kumpoto kwa Africa.

ZIMENE ANACHITA KUTI AKOPE ANTHU

Msika wina wa mumzinda wa Timgad

Kodi Aroma anachita chiyani kuti anthuwa azikonda ulamuliro wawo? Choyamba, ankatsatira mfundo yoti nzika zonse zizichitiridwa zinthu mofanana. Nduna ina  ya Roma, dzina lake Cicero, ndi imene inkalimbikitsa mfundoyi. Mwachitsanzo, anthu amene poyamba sanali Aroma aja ankapatsidwa malo ofanana ndi asilikali achiroma opuma pa ntchito. Aliyense ankakhala ndi malo omanga nyumba okwana masikweya mita 20 ndipo pakati pa nyumba ndi nyumba ina pankakhala njira. Anthu onse okhala mumzindawu ankasangalala chifukwa choona kuti aliyense ankachitiridwa zinthu mofanana.

Monga zinalili m’mizinda yambiri ya Aroma, anthu a mumzindawu ankakumana m’misika kuti amve nkhani zatsopano komanso kuti achite masewera osiyanasiyana. Mumzindawu munali tinjira tomwe tinkakhala ndi mthunzi ndipo munthu ankasangalala kwambiri kuyenda m’tinjirati kukakhala dzuwa. Munalinso mabafa osalipiritsa omwe anthu ankatha kupita kukasambako. Mabafawa anali okongola ndipo anthu akamasamba ankamva kaphokoso ka madzi. Mumzinda wa Timgad munalinso zitsime za madzi ozizira bwino, ndipo anthu ankakonda kucheza pafupi ndi zitsimezi. Anthu omwe sankakhala mumzindawu ankasirira kwambiri zimenezi, ndipo kwa iwo moyo woterewu unali maloto chabe.

Manda okongoletsedwa ndi zithunzi za milungu yomwe inkakhala itatuitatu

Chinthu chinanso chomwe chinakopa kwambiri anthu a kumpoto kwa Africa chinali bwalo lalikulu la za masewera la mumzindawo. M’bwaloli munkatha kulowa anthu oposa 3,500 ndipo anthu a mumzindamu komanso a m’matauni ozungulira ankakonda kupita kubwaloli. Azisudzo ankachita zinthu zosiyanasiyana pofuna kusangalatsa anthu. Koma zambiri mwa zinthu zimenezi zinkakhala zoipa, chifukwa zinkalimbikitsa chiwerewere komanso chiwawa.

Chipembedzo cha Aroma chinakopanso anthu ambiri. Aroma ankakongoletsa pansi ndi pamakoma a mabafa awo ndi zinthu zosonyeza zikhulupiriro zachikunja. Popeza nthawi zambiri anthu mumzindawu ankapita kumabafawa, anayamba kukonda milungu komanso chipembedzo chachiroma. Aroma anakwanitsa kukopa anthu a kumpoto kwa Africa kuti ayambe kutsatira chikhalidwe chawo. Umboni wa zimenezi ndi woti nthawi zambiri manda a anthuwa ankawakongoletsa pojambulapo milungu yawo komanso ya Aroma, yomwe inkakhala itatuitatu.

MMENE MZINDAWU UNATHERA

Mfumu Trajan itamanga mzindawu mu 100 C.E., Aroma analimbikitsa anthu a kumpoto kwa Africa kuti azilima mbewu za m’gulu la chimanga komanso kuti azipanga vinyo ndiponso mafuta a maolivi. Pasanapite nthawi, mzindawu unakhala kuchimake kwa zinthuzi ndipo anthu a m’madera onse a ufumu wa Roma, ankagula zinthu zimenezi mumzindawu. Mofanana ndi mizinda ina, yomwe inali pansi pa ufumu wa Roma, mzinda wa Timgad unatukuka kwambiri pa nthawiyi. Kenako, chiwerengero cha anthu a mumzindawu chinawonjezeka kwambiri ndipo ena anayamba kukhala kunja kwa mzindawu.

Anthu amene ankakhala mumzinda wa Timgad analemera kwambiri chifukwa choti ankachita malonda ndi anthu a m’mizinda ina ya mu ufumu wa Roma. Koma alimi sankapindula kwambiri ndi zokolola zawo. Choncho cha m’ma 200 C.E., alimi ang’onoang’ono anayamba kuukira boma chifukwa chosagwirizana ndi zinthu zopanda chilungamo zomwe zinkachitika komanso chifukwa cha kukwera kwa misonkho. Ena mwa anthuwa, omwe poyamba analowa Chikatolika, anagwirizana ndi gulu lina la anthu lomwe linkati ndi Akhristu enieni ndipo linaukira tchalitchi cha Katolika. Gululi linachita zimenezi chifukwa linkaona kuti m’tchalitchichi munkachitika zachinyengo.—Onani bokosi lakuti, “Ankanama Kuti Ndi Akhristu Enieni.”

Zimenezi zinapangitsa kuti pakhale nkhondo yapachiweniweni komanso kukangana pa nkhani yachipembedzo. Panalinso magulu ena omwe ankafuna kulanda boma. Patapita zaka zambiri zimenezi zikuchitika,  ufumu wa Roma unalibenso mphamvu pa chigawo cha kumpoto kwa Africa. M’zaka za m’ma 500 C.E., mzinda wa Timgad unawotchedwa ndi anthu a mtundu wachiarabu ndipo panatha zaka zoposa 1,000 anthu asakuganizanso za mzindawu.

ANKAGANIZA KUTI AKUSANGALALA

Mwala womwe unalembedwa m’Chilatini kuti: “Kusaka, kusamba, kusewera ndiponso kuseka n’kumene kumachititsa kuti munthu akhale wosangalala”

Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale a ku France atafukula pamalo pomwe panali mzindawu, anadabwa kwambiri ndi zimene anapeza. Anapeza mwala womwe unalembedwa m’Chilatini kuti: “Kusaka, kusamba, kusewera ndiponso kuseka n’kumene kumachititsa kuti munthu akhale wosangalala.” Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale wa ku France, anati mawuwa, “akusonyeza maganizo amene anthu ambiri a mumzindawu anali nawo. Iwo ankaona kuti chofunika kwambiri pa moyo ndikusangalala basi, ndipo sankaganiza za mawa. Anthuwa ankaona kuti munthu amene amachita zimenezi ndiye wozindikira.”

Kwa nthawi yaitali, Aroma ankakhala moyo woterewu. Mtumwi Paulo ananena kuti anthu ambiri pa nthawiyo anali ndi maganizo akuti: “Tiyeni tidye ndi kumwa, pakuti mawa tifa.” Ngakhale kuti anthu a ku Roma anali opemphera, cholinga chawo chachikulu chinali kusangalala basi. Sankaona kuti pali zinthu zina zomwe angachite pa moyo wawo, zimene zingakhale zofunika kwambiri kuposa kusangalala. Paulo anachenjeza Akhristu anzake kuti asamale ndi anthu oterewa. Iye anati: “Musasocheretsedwe. Kugwirizana ndi anthu oipa kumawononga makhalidwe abwino.”—1 Akorinto 15:32, 33.

Ngakhale kuti anthu a mumzinda wa Timgad anakhalako zaka pafupifupi 1,500 zapitazo, zimene ankachita zimachitikanso masiku ano. Anthu ambiri amangoganiza za lero basi. Amachita zinthu ngati mmene Aroma ankachitira ndipo saganizira zotsatira zake. Koma Baibulo limapereka malangizo othandiza pa nkhaniyi. Limati: “Zochitika za padzikoli zikusintha.” Choncho limatilimbikitsa kuti ‘tisamagwiritse ntchito dzikoli mokwanira,’ kapena kuti tisamatengeke ndi zinthu za m’dzikoli.—1 Akorinto 7:31.

Masiku ano pamene panali mzinda wa Timgad pali bwinja. Uwu ndi umboni wakuti kutsatira mawu amene analembedwa pamwala aja, sikungathandize munthu kukhala ndi moyo wosangalala komanso waphindu. Chimene chingathandize munthu kukhala ndi moyo wosangalala komanso waphindu ndi kutsatira mfundo ya m’Baibulo yakuti: “Dziko likupita limodzi ndi chilakolako chake, koma wochita chifuniro cha Mulungu adzakhala kosatha.”—1 Yohane 2:17.

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