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NSANJA YA OLONDA SEPTEMBER 2014

Baibulo Lotchedwa Peshitta Limatithandiza Kudziwa Zokhudza Mabaibulo Omwe Anamasuliridwa Kalekale

Baibulo Lotchedwa Peshitta Limatithandiza Kudziwa Zokhudza Mabaibulo Omwe Anamasuliridwa Kalekale

Mu 1892, Mayi Agnes Smith Lewis ndi mayi Margaret Dunlop Gibson, omwe anali amapasa, anayenda ulendo wa masiku 9 kupita ku St. Catherine. Pa ulendowu, anayenda pa ngamila ndipo anadzera m’chipululu n’kukafika kuderali lomwe linali m’mbali mwa phiri la Sinai. N’chifukwa chiyani azimayiwa, omwe anali a zaka zoposa 40, anayenda ulendo wautali chonchi pa nthawi imene kuyenda kunali koopsa? Yankho la funsoli lingakuthandizeni kukhulupirira kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola.

Mayi Agnes Smith Lewis ali kunyumba ya ansembe yotchedwa St. Catherine

YESU atatsala pang’ono kupita kumwamba, analamula ophunzira ake kuti alalikire “mu Yerusalemu, ku Yudeya konse ndi ku Samariya, mpaka kumalekezero a dziko lapansi.” (Machitidwe 1:8) Ophunzira a Yesu anamvera lamuloli ndipo ankalalikira mwakhama komanso molimba mtima. Akulalikira ku Yerusalemu, anthu anayamba kutsutsa kwambiri ntchito yawo moti mpaka Sitefano anaphedwa. Zitatere ophunzira a Yesu ambiri anathawira mumzinda wa Antiokeya, ku Siriya. Mzindawu unali umodzi wa mizinda ikuluikulu kwambiri mu Ufumu wa Roma ndipo unali pa mtunda wa makilomita pafupifupi 550 kumpoto kwa Yerusalemu.—Machitidwe 11:19.

Ophunzirawa atafika ku Antiokeya, anapitiriza kulalikira “uthenga wabwino” wonena za Yesu ndipo anthu ambiri amene sanali Ayuda anakhulupirira uthenga umene ankalalikira. (Machitidwe 11:20, 21) Ngakhale kuti anthu ambiri a mumzindawu komanso a m’madera ozungulira ankalankhula Chigiriki, chilankhulo chenicheni cha anthuwa chinali Chisiriya.

UTHENGA WABWINO UNAMASULIRIDWA M’CHISIRIYA

M’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., Akhristu olankhula Chisiriya anachuluka mumzinda wa Antiokeya Chifukwa cha zimenezi, panafunika kuti uthenga wabwino. umasuliridwe m’Chisiriya. Choncho zikuoneka kuti mbali zina za Chipangano Chatsopano zinamasuliridwa koyambirira m’Chisiriya osati m’Chilatini.

Cha m’ma 170 C.E. wolemba mabuku wina wa ku Siriya, dzina lake Tatian, anaphatikiza mabuku ovomerezeka a Mauthenga Abwino n’kupanga kabaibulo kachigiriki kapena kachisiriya kotchedwa Diatessaron. Mawu amenewa ndi achigiriki ndipo  amatanthauza “mabuku a Mauthenga Abwino 4.” Kenako munthu wina wa ku Siriya komweko dzina lake Ephraem, amene anakhalako kuyambira m’ma 310 mpaka m’ma 373 C.E., analemba nkhani yofotokoza za kabaibulo kotchedwa Diatessaron. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti Akhristu a ku Siriya ankagwiritsa ntchito kabaibulo kameneka.

N’chifukwa chiyani tiyenera kuchita chidwi ndi kabaibulo ka Diatessaron? M’zaka za m’ma 1800 C.E., akatswiri ena amaphunziro ankanena kuti mabuku a Mauthenga Abwino analembedwa pakati pa zaka za m’ma 130 ndi 170 C.E. Choncho ankati nkhani yokhudza moyo wa Yesu imene inalembedwa m’mabukuwa si yolondola. Koma mipukutu yakale ya kabaibulo ka Diatessaron imene inapezeka, ndi umboni wakuti mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino, omwe ndi Mateyu, Maliko, Luka ndi Yohane, anali atayamba kale kupezeka ambirimbiri pofika zaka zapakati pa 130 ndi 170 C.E. Izi zikusonyeza kuti mabukuwa analembedwa nthawi imeneyi isanafike. Kuwonjezera pamenepa, nthawi imene Tatian ankaphatikiza mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino n’kupanga kabaibulo kotchedwa Diatessaron, anagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mabuku ovomerezeka a Uthenga Wabwino. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti pa nthawiyi anthu ankaona kuti mabuku owonjezera a Uthenga Wabwino ndi osavomerezeka.

Mpukutu wa mabuku 5 oyambirira a m’Baibulo lachisiriya lotchedwa Peshitta. Mpukutuwu uli ndi deti la 464 C.E., ndipo ndi wachiwiri pa mipukutu yakale imene ili ndi deti

Chakumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 1400 C.E., anthu ambiri a kumpoto kwa Mesopotamia anayamba kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lomasuliridwa m’Chisiriya. Zikuoneka kuti Baibuloli linamasuliridwa m’zaka za m’ma 100 kapena 200 C.E., ndipo munali mabuku onse a m’Baibulo kupatulapo 2 Petulo, 2 Yohane, 3 Yohane, Yuda ndi Chivumbulutso. Baibuloli amalitchula kuti Peshitta ndipo mawu amenewa amatanthauza “Losavuta” kapena “Lomveka.” Baibulo lotchedwa Peshitta ndi limodzi mwa Mabaibulo akale kwambiri komanso ndi limene linamasuliridwa koyambirira kuchokera m’Chigiriki.

Chinthu china chochititsa chidwi n’choti mpukutu wina wa Baibulo la Peshitta unali ndi deti lofanana ndi 459/460 C.E. Pa mipukutu yonse ya Mabaibulo akale, ndi mpukutu wokhawu umene uli ndi deti lochita kulembedwa. Cha m’ma 508 C.E., Baibulo la Peshitta analimasuliranso ndipo pa nthawiyi anaikamo mabuku 5 amene munalibe aja. Baibulo latsopanoli linkadziwika kuti Philoxenian Version.

ANAPEZA MIPUKUTU INANSO YOLEMBEDWA M’CHISIRIYA

Pafupifupi mipukutu yonse imene inalipo m’zaka za m’ma 1800 C.E., inali ya zaka za m’ma 400 C.E. kapena chakachi chitadutsa. Pa chifukwa chimenechi, akatswiri a Baibulo ankachita chidwi kwambiri ndi Mabaibulo amene analembedwa nthawi imeneyi isanafike monga Baibulo lachilatini lotchedwa Vulgate ndi lachisiriya lotchedwa Peshitta lija. Pa nthawi imeneyi, ena ankakhulupirira kuti Baibulo la Peshitta linachita kumasuliridwanso kuchokera ku Baibulo lina lakale lachisiriya. Koma palibe umboni woti panali Baibulo lotereli. Popeza zikuoneka kuti panali Baibulo lachisiriya la m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., Baibulo limeneli likanapezeka likanathandiza anthu, makamaka akatswiri a Baibulo, kudziwa zambiri zokhudza Mabaibulo omwe anamasuliridwa kale kwambiri. Koma kodi Baibulo limeneli linalipodi? Ngati linalipo, kodi zikanatheka kulipeza?

Mawu amene poyamba anali mu mpukutu wotchedwa Sinaitic Syria akuoneka pang’ono m’mbali ndipo ndi mabuku a Mauthenga Abwino

Inde, linalipo. Ndipotu panapezeka mipukutu iwiri yachisiriya. Mpukutu woyamba unalembedwa cha m’ma 400 C.E. Mpukutuwu unali umodzi mwa mipukutu yambiri yachisiriya imene inatengedwa m’chaka cha 1842 m’nyumba yokhala ansembe yomwe inali kuchipululu cha Nitrian m’dziko la Egypt, n’kukaikidwa kumalo ena osungira zinthu zakale a ku Britain. Mpukutuwu anaupatsa dzina lakuti Curetonian Syriac chifukwa William Cureton ndi amene anaupeza komanso kuufalitsa. William Cureton anali wachiwiri kwa woyang’anira mipukutu yakale kumalo osungirako zinthu zakalewa. Mu mpukutuwu munali mabuku a Mauthenga Abwino ndipo anawalemba kuyambira Mateyu, Maliko, Yohane kenako Luka.

Mpukutu wachiwiri umapezekabe mpaka pano ndipo umatchedwa Sinaitic Syriac. Azimayi awiri amapasa amene tawatchula kumayambiriro kwa nkhaniyi aja ndi amene anapeza mpukutuwu. Ngakhale kuti pa nthawiyi Mayi Agnes analibe digiri ya kuyunivesite, iwo anaphunzira zinenero 8 za m’mayiko ena ndipo chimodzi mwa zinenerozi chinali Chisiriya. Mu 1892, Mayi Agnes anapeza mpukutuwu m’nyumba ya ansembe yotchedwa St. Catherine ku Egypt.

Mayi Agnes anapeza mpukutuwu m’kabati yomwe inali m’nyumbayi. Mayiwa anafotokoza kuti, “mpukutuwu sunkaoneka bwino, unali wakuda kwambiri ndipo mapepala ake anali omatirirana chifukwa unakhala zaka zambiri  usanatsegulidwe.” Mawu oyambirira amene analembedwa mu mpukutuwu anafufutidwa * n’kulembamo nkhani yokhudza azimayi oyera mtima. Komabe Mayi Agnes anaona kuti mawu ena oyambirirawo ankaonekabe m’munsi ndi pamwamba pa masamba ena a mpukutuwu. Mawu amene ankaoneka m’mwambawo anali akuti “wa Mateyu,” “wa Maliko” ndi “wa Luka.” Apatu mayiwa anali atapeza mpukutu wolembedwa m’Chisiriya wokhala ndi mabuku a Mauthenga Abwino atatu. Panopa akatswiri a maphunziro amakhulupirira kuti mpukutuwu unalembedwa chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 300 C.E.

Mpukutuwu ndi umodzi mwa mipukutu yofunika kwambiri ya Baibulo. Mipukutu ina imene inapezeka ndi yachigiriki monga Codex Sinaiticus ndi Codex Vaticanus. Panopa anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti mipukutu iwiri ija, wa Sinaitic ndi wa Curetonian, ndi mipukutu yakale ya Mauthenga Abwino yachisiriya yomwe inalembedwa chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., kapena chakumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 200 C.E.

“MAWU A MULUNGU WATHU ADZAKHALA MPAKA KALEKALE”

Kodi mipukutu imeneyi ingathandize anthu amene amakonda kuphunzira Baibulo masiku ano? Inde. Mwachitsanzo, taganizirani za mawu omaliza aatali amene amapezeka mu Uthenga Wabwino wa Maliko, omwe m’Mabaibulo ena amapezeka pambuyo pa Maliko 16:8. Mawuwa amapezeka mu mpukutu wachigiriki wotchedwa Codex Alexandrinus womwe unalembedwa m’ma 400 C.E., mu mpukutu wachilatini wotchedwa Vulgate komanso m’mipukutu ina. Komabe mipukutu yachigiriki iwiri, yomwenso anthu amaiona kuti ndi yodalirika, imene inalembedwa m’ma 300 C.E., yomwe ndi Codex Sinaiticus komanso Codex Vaticanus, imathera ndi Maliko 16:8. Komanso, mu mpukutu wa Sinaitic Syriac simupezeka mawu omaliza aatali amenewa. Uwu ndi umboni winanso wosonyeza kuti poyamba mawuwa munalibe mu Uthenga Wabwino woyambirira wa Maliko ndipo anachita kuwonjezeredwa pambuyo pake.

Taganiziranso chitsanzo china ichi. M’zaka za m’ma 1800 C.E., pafupifupi Mabaibulo onse amene analipo anamasulira lemba la 1 Yohane 5:7, 8 mosonyeza ngati Mulungu, Yesu komanso mzimu woyera ndi ofanana. Koma zimenezi zinali zosiyana ndi mmene lembali linamasuliridwira m’mipukutu yachigiriki yakale kwambiri komanso m’Baibulo lotchedwa Peshitta. Zonsezi ndi umboni wosonyeza kuti Mabaibulo amene anamasulira lemba la 1 Yohane 5:7, 8 mosonyeza ngati Mulungu, Yesu ndi Mzimu Woyera ndi ofanana, anamasulira molakwika.

Apatu n’zoonekeratu kuti Yehova Mulungu wateteza Mawu ake monga mmene analonjezera. Baibulo limati: “Udzu wobiriwirawo wauma. Maluwawo afota. Koma mawu a Mulungu wathu adzakhala mpaka kalekale.” (Yesaya 40:8; 1 Petulo 1:25) Choncho, Baibulo lotchedwa Peshitta linathandiza kuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo umasuliridwe molondola m’zinenero zambiri.

^ ndime 15 Kale anthu ankatha kufufuta nkhani za mu mpukutu n’kulembamo zina.

Onaninso

Baibulo Ndi Buku Lochokera Kwa Mulungu

Kodi Baibulo lingakuthandizeni bwanji kupirira mavuto anu? N’chifukwa chiyani muyenera kukhulupirira maulosi a m’Baibulo?