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NSANJA YA OLONDA JUNE 2014

Kodi Anthu Atatu Amene Ankafufuza Choonadi M’zaka za m’ma 1500 Anapeza Zotani?

Kodi Anthu Atatu Amene Ankafufuza Choonadi M’zaka za m’ma 1500 Anapeza Zotani?

“CHOONADI n’chiyani?” Limeneli ndi funso limene Pontiyo Pilato, yemwe anali bwanamkubwa wa chigawo cha Yudeya, anafunsa Yesu m’nthawi ya atumwi. Pa nthawiyo n’kuti Yesu akuimbidwa mlandu ndi Pilatoyo. (Yohane 18:38) Koma sikuti Pilato ankafunadi kudziwa choonadi. Iye anafunsa funso limeneli chifukwa cha zimene ankaganiza pa nkhani ya choonadi. Pilato ankaganiza kuti palibe chimene tingati ichi ndiye choonadi. Ankaona kuti aliyense akhoza kusankha yekha malinga ndi zimene amakhulupirira kapena zimene anaphunzitsidwa. Masiku ano anthu ambiri amakhalanso ndi maganizo amenewa.

M’zaka za m’ma 1500, zinali zovuta kwa anthu a ku Ulaya kuti adziwe ziphunzitso zolondola. Poyamba anthuwa anaphunzitsidwa kuti azimvera papa komanso azitsatira zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkaphunzitsa. Koma kenako anasokonezeka kwambiri anthu ena otsutsa Chikatolika atayamba kuphunzitsa zinthu zina. Kodi pamenepa iwo akanadziwa bwanji zolondola?

Pa nthawiyi, panali anthu atatu amene ankafufuza kuti apeze choonadi. * Kodi anthuwa anapeza zotani? Nanga kodi akanakwanitsa bwanji kudziwa zimene zinali zoona komanso zomwe zinali zabodza? Tiyeni tione.

‘BAIBULO . . . LIZIKHALA PATSOGOLO’

Munthu woyamba anali Wolfgang Capito, yemwe ankakhulupirira kwambiri zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkaphunzitsa. Capito anaphunzira za mankhwala, malamulo komanso zokhudza chipembedzo ndipo kenako anakhala wansembe pa parishi inayake mu 1512. Patapita nthawi anakhala mlangizi wa bishopu wamkulu wa ku Mainz.

Poyamba Capito anayesetsa kufooketsa anthu amene ankatsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika, omwe ankalalikira zosiyana ndi zimene tchalitchichi chinkaphunzitsa. Koma posapita nthawi, nayenso anayamba kugwirizana ndi mfundo za anthuwa. Kodi iye ankachita chiyani? Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale, dzina lake James M. Kittelson, analemba kuti pakakhala ziphunzitso zosiyana, Capito ankakhulupirira kuti “njira yabwino yodziwira zolondola ndi kufufuza m’Baibulo, chifukwa ndi lomwe lingatiuze zoona.” Choncho, Capito anayamba kuona kuti chiphunzitso chakuti pa nthawi ya misa mkate ndi vinyo zimasintha n’kukhala thupi ndi magazi enieni a Khristu, n’chosagwirizana ndi Malemba. (Onani bokosi lakuti, ‘ Muzitsimikizira Ngati Zilidi Zoona.’) Mu 1523, Capito anasiya ntchito yolangiza bishopu wamkulu ija, ndipo anakakhala mumzinda wa Strasbourg. Mzinda umenewu ndi kumene kunali kuchimake kwa anthu otsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika.

Kunyumba kwa Capito n’kumene anthu otsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika ankakumana n’kumakambirana nkhani za chipembedzo komanso zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa. Ngakhale kuti ambiri a anthuwa ankakhulupirirabe Utatu, buku lina linasonyeza kuti Capito  “sankatchulanso Utatu mu zolemba zake.” (The Radical Reformation) N’chifukwa chiyani ankachita zimenezi? Capito anachita chidwi ndi mmene katswiri wina wa zachipembedzo wa ku Spain, dzina lake Michael Servetus, anagwiritsira ntchito Baibulo potsutsa chiphunzitso cha Utatu. *

Capito anachita zinthu mosamala chifukwa ankadziwa kuti anthu ambiri sangagwirizane naye akadziwa zoti wayamba kutsutsa chiphunzitso cha Utatu. Komabe zimene ankalemba zinkasonyeza kuti asanakumane ndi Servetus, anali atayamba kale kukayikira chiphunzitsochi. Patapita nthawi, wansembe wina wakatolika analemba kuti Capito ndi anzake “ankakumana mwamseri n’kumakambirana zokhudza ziphunzitso zosamvetsetseka za Chikatolika ndipo kenako anayamba kutsutsa chiphunzitso cha Utatu.” Patatha zaka 100, anthu ena analemba kuti Capito anali woyambirira, pa mndandanda wa anthu odziwika bwino amene analemba zotsutsa chiphunzitsochi.

Wolfgang Capito ankaona kuti, “kunyalanyaza Malemba” ndi kumene kunachititsa kuti anthu ambiri asiye kukhulupirira tchalitchi cha Katolika

Capito ankakhulupirira kuti choonadi chimapezeka m’Baibulo. Iye analemba kuti: “Pa nkhani ya Mulungu, nthawi zonse Baibulo ndiponso lamulo la Khristu, zizikhala patsogolo.” Dr. Kittelson analemba kuti, Capito “ankanenetsa kuti, kunyalanyaza Malemba n’kumene kunachititsa kuti anthu ambiri asiye kukhulupirira tchalitchi komanso kuti asadziwe choonadi.”

Munthu wina amene analinso ndi maganizo amenewa ndi Martin Cellarius, yemwenso ankadziwika kuti Martin Borrhaus. Iye ankakhala kunyumba kwa Capito m’chaka cha 1526.

‘KUDZIWA MULUNGU WOONA’

Buku la Martin Cellarius lakuti, On the Works of God limene analembamo kusiyana kwa ziphunzitso za tchalitchi ndi zimene Baibulo limanena. Ili ndi tsamba limene pali mutu wa bukuli

Cellarius anabadwa m’chaka cha 1499. Iye analinso munthu wakhama pophunzira zachipembedzo komanso nzeru za anthu. Analinso mphunzitsi pasukulu ina ya mumzinda wa Wittenberg ku Germany. Popeza mzindawu ndi kumene kunayambira zotsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika, Cellarius ankadziwana bwino ndi Martin Luther komanso anthu ena amene ankatsutsa zimene tchalitchichi chinkaphunzitsa. Ndiye kodi Cellarius akanatha bwanji kusiyanitsa pakati pa mfundo za anthu ndi choonadi cha m’Malemba?

Buku lina limanena kuti Cellarius ankakhulupirira kuti zinthu monga “kuphunzira mwakhama Malemba, kuyerekezera mavesi, kupemphera komanso kulapa,” ndi zimene zingamuthandize munthu kudziwa zolondola. (Teaching the Reformation) Kodi Cellarius anapeza zotani atafufuza mosamala zimene Baibulo limanena?

Mu July 1527, Cellarius anatulutsa buku lofotokoza zimene anapeza. (On the Works of God) Iye analemba kuti zinthu monga buledi ndi vinyo zimene zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa misa ndi zophiphiritsa chabe. Mogwirizana ndi zimene Pulofesa Robin Barnes ananena, Cellarius analembanso m’buku lakeli, “zinthu zosonyeza kuti maulosi ena a m’Baibulo amasonyeza kuti kutsogoloku kudzachitika zinthu zoopsa koma kenako zinthu zidzayamba kuyenda bwino padzikoli.”—2 Petulo 3:10-13.

Chinthu china chochititsa chidwi kwambiri m’buku la Cellarius, chinali zimene analemba zokhudza Yesu Khristu. Ngakhale kuti sanatsutse mwachindunji chiphunzitso cha Utatu, iye anasonyeza kuti pali kusiyana pakati pa “Atate Wakumwamba” ndi “mwana wake Yesu Khristu.” Analembanso kuti Yesu ndi mmodzi mwa milungu komanso mmodzi mwa ana a Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse.—Yohane 10:34, 35.

Ngakhale kuti zolemba zambiri za anthu a m’zaka za m’ma 1500 zinkasonyezeratu kuti olembawo ankakhulupirira Utatu, Robert Wallace analemba m’buku lake lina kuti zolemba za Cellarius zinkakhala zosiyana ndi zolemba za anthu amenewa. * (Antitrinitarian Biography, 1850) Choncho akatswiri ambiri a maphunziro amaona kuti Cellarius sankakhulupirira chiphunzitso cha Utatu. Ena amati iye anali mmodzi wa anthu amene Mulungu anawagwiritsa ntchito “kuthandiza anthu kudziwa zolondola zokhudza Mulungu woona komanso Khristu.”

 ANKAKHULUPIRIRA KUTI CHOONADI CHIDZADZIWIKA

Mu 1527, munthu wina yemwenso ankaphunzira zokhudza chipembedzo dzina lake Johannes Campanus, ankakhala mumzinda wa Wittenberg. Anthu ankaona kuti Campanus analinso mmodzi wa anthu omwe ankaphunzira zachipembedzo mwakhama pa nthawiyo. Ngakhale kuti anthu ambiri omwe ankatsutsa Chikatolika ankakhala mumzindawu, Campanus anayamba kukayikira zimene Martin Luther ankaphunzitsa. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani ankachita zimenezi?

Campanus anatsutsa chiphunzitso choti pa nthawi ya misa, mkate ndi vinyo zimasintha n’kukhala thupi ndi magazi enieni a Khristu. Anatsutsanso chiphunzitso cha Martin Luther chakuti pa mgonero wa Ambuye, thupi ndi magazi a Yesu zimabwera n’kukhala limodzi ndi mkate komanso vinyo. Mogwirizana ndi zimene André Séguenny analemba, Campanus ankakhulupirira kuti “mkate umakhalabe mkate, kungoti umaimira thupi la Khristu.” Mu 1529, ku Marburg kunachitika msonkhano wina. Cholinga cha msokhanowu, chinali kukambirana nkhani zokhudza ziphunzitso zimenezi. Koma Campanus sanaloledwe kuti afotokoze zimene anapeza m’Malemba zokhudza nkhaniyi. Kenako anthu otsutsa ziphunzitso za Katolika aja anayamba kumupewa.

M’buku ili lakuti, Restitution, Johannes Campanus analembamo zosonyeza kuti ankakayikira chiphunzitso cha Utatu

Zimene zinakhumudwitsa kwambiri Martin Luther komanso anzakewa ndi zimene Campanus ankakhulupirira zokhudza Atate, Mwana ndi mzimu woyera. M’buku lake lina lakuti Restitution, limene linatuluka mu 1532, Campanus analemba kuti Yesu ndi Atate wake ndi anthu awiri osiyana. Iye anafotokoza kuti Atate ndi Mwana, ndi “amodzi” m’njira yofanana ndi mmene zilili kuti mwamuna ndi mkazi wake ndi “thupi limodzi,” kutanthauza kuti ndi ogwirizana, ngakhale kuti ndi anthu awiri. (Yohane 10:30; Mateyu 19:5) Campanus ananena kuti, posonyeza kuti Atate ndi wamphamvu kuposa Mwana, Malemba amagwiritsanso ntchito fanizo lomweli ndipo amati: “Mutu wa mkazi ndi mwamuna, ndipo mutu wa Khristu ndiye Mulungu.”—1 Akorinto 11:3.

Nanga kodi Campanus ananena zotani pa nkhani ya mzimu woyera? Apanso iye anagwiritsa ntchito Malemba ndipo anati: “Palibe lemba limene limasonyeza kuti Mzimu Woyera ndi mbali ya Utatu . . . Baibulo limasonyeza kuti mzimu wa Mulungu ndi mphamvu imene Mulunguyo amaigwiritsa ntchito pochita zinthu zosiyanasiyana.”—Genesis 1:2.

Luther ankati Campanus ndi munthu wonyoza Mulungu komanso mdani wa Mwana wa Mulungu. Munthu wina wa m’gulu la Luther ananena kuti Campanus ankayenera kunyongedwa. Komabe Campanus sanafooke ndi zimenezi. Buku lina linanena kuti: “Campanus ankaona kuti zomwe zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri asiye kukhulupirira tchalitchi cha Katolika, zinali zakuti atsogoleri sankaphunzitsa zolondola ngati mmene atumwi ankachitira. Ananenanso kuti chifukwa china n’choti atsogoleriwa sankamvetsa zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhani ya kusiyana kwa Mulungu ndi Yesu.”

Ngakhale kuti Campanus ankaona kuti “zipembedzo komanso anthu otsutsa Chikatolika” sanamuthandize kupeza choonadi, analibe maganizo oyambitsa chipembedzo. Iye ankakhulupirira kuti tchalitchi cha Katolika chidzakonza zinthu ndipo chidzabwezeretsa ziphunzitso zoyambirira za Chikhristu. Koma patapita nthawi, akuluakulu a Katolika anamanga Campanus, ndipo iye anakhala m’ndende kwa zaka zoposa 20. Olemba mbiri yakale amakhulupirira kuti Campanus anamwalira m’chaka cha 1575.

 “TSIMIKIZIRANI ZINTHU ZONSE”

Kuphunzira mwakhama Baibulo kunathandiza Capito, Cellarius, Campanus ndiponso anthu ena kuti athe kusiyanitsa choonadi ndi zinthu zabodza. Ngakhale kuti si zonse zimene anthuwa ankakhulupirira zomwe zinali zogwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa, iwo anafufuza Malemba modzichepetsa ndipo ankaona kuti zinthu zolondola zimene anapeza ndi za mtengo wapatali.

Mtumwi Paulo analimbikitsa Akhristu anzake kuti: “Tsimikizirani zinthu zonse. Gwirani mwamphamvu chimene chili chabwino.” (1 Atesalonika 5:21) Pofuna kukuthandizani kufufuza choonadi, a Mboni za Yehova anatulutsa buku lakuti, Kodi Baibulo Limaphunzitsa Chiyani Kwenikweni? Bukuli lasonyezedwa patsamba 16 ya magazini ino, ndipo likupezekanso pa webusaiti yathu ya jw.org.

^ ndime 4 Onani buku lachingelezi lakuti, Jehovah’s Witnesses—Proclaimers of God’s Kingdom, pabokosi lomwe lili patsamba 44. Bukuli ndi lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

^ ndime 8 Onani nkhani ya mutu wakuti, “Michael Servetus Anafufuza Choonadi Yekhayekha,” mu Galamukani! ya May 2006. Magaziniyi ndi yofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

^ ndime 17 Bukuli linanenanso kuti polemba, Cellarius “akamanena za Khristu, ankalemba deus osati Deus. Ankalemba Deus akamanena za Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse.”