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NSANJA YA OLONDA MARCH 2014

Mmene Mawu a Mulungu Anafikira ku Spain M’zaka za m’ma 500 Mpaka 1500 AD

Mmene Mawu a Mulungu Anafikira ku Spain M’zaka za m’ma 500 Mpaka 1500 AD

“Ndili ndi chikhulupiriro kuti mulimonse mmene zingakhalire, pa ulendo wanga wa ku Sipaniya [Spain] nthawi ina iliyonse, ndidzaonana nanu. Ndikadzacheza nanu mpaka kukhutira, mudzandiperekeza pa ulendo wangawo.”—Aroma 15:24.

MTUMWI Paulo analembera Akhristu a ku Roma mawu amenewa cha m’ma 56 C.E. Baibulo silinena ngati Paulo anapitadi ku Spain kapena ayi. Komabe, kaya kudzera mwa Paulo kapena amishonale ena, uthenga wabwino wa m’Baibulo unafika ku Spain m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E.

Pasanapite nthawi, Chikhristu chinayamba kufalikira ku Spain. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, kunkafunika Baibulo lomasuliridwa m’Chilatini. Izi zinali choncho chifukwa choti pomafika mu 100 C.E., n’kuti patapita zaka zambiri anthu a ku Spain ali pansi pa ulamuliro wa Roma ndipo anthu ambiri ankalankhula Chilatini.

MABAIBULO ACHILATINI ANATHANDIZA KWAMBIRI

Anthu a ku Spain omwe anali oyambirira kukhala Akhristu anamasulira Mabaibulo angapo m’Chilatini, ndipo Mabaibulo onsewa ankadziwika kuti Vetus Latina Hispana. Jerome asanamalize kumasulira Baibulo lachilatini lotchuka kwambiri lotchedwa Vulgate, cha m’ma 400 C.E., anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito Mabaibulo amenewa. Mabaibulowa anagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zaka zambiri.

Baibulo la Jerome, lomwe analimalizira ku Betelehemu ku Palesitina, silinatenge nthawi kuti lifike ku Spain. Munthu wina wolemera kwambiri, yemwenso ankakonda kuphunzira Baibulo dzina lake Lucinius, atangomva kuti Jerome akumasulira Baibulo lachilatini, ankafunitsitsa kupeza Baibulo limeneli. Iye anatumiza anthu 6 ku Betelehemu kuti akakopere zimene Jerome wamasulira ndi kupita nazo ku Spain. M’kupita kwa nthawi, anthu anayamba kukonda kwambiri Baibulo la Vulgate kuposa la Vetus Latina Hispana. Komabe Mabaibulo awiri onsewa anathandiza kuti anthu a ku Spain aziwerenga Baibulo komanso kumvetsa uthenga wake. Koma pamene ufumu wa Roma unkapita kumapeto, ku Spain kunali zinenero zambirimbiri ndipo panalibe Mabaibulo a zinenero zimenezi.

BAIBULO LOLEMBEDWA PAMASILETI

Cha m’ma 400 C.E., mitundu ina ya ku Germany inagonjetsa dziko la Spain ndipo inayamba kukhala m’dzikoli. Anthuwa ankalankhula Chigotiki, anali achipembedzo chachikhristu ndipo sankakhulupirira Utatu. Iwo anabwera ndi Baibulo lawo lotchedwa Ulfilas’ Gothic. Baibuloli linkagwiritsidwa ntchito ku Spain mpaka chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 500 C.E., pamene mfumu ya anthuwa inasiya chipembedzo chawo n’kulowa Chikatolika. Mfumuyi inasonkhanitsa mabuku onse a chipembedzochi, kuphatikizapo Baibulo lija, n’kuwawotcha. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti mabuku onse achigotiki asapezekenso ku Spain.

Sileti, la m’ma 500 C.E., lomwe panalembedwapo mbali ya Baibulo m’Chilatini

Koma Mawu a Mulungu anapitirizabe kufalikira ku Spain. Ngakhale kuti chinenero chachigotiki chinayamba kulankhulidwa ku Spain, anthu ambiri ankalankhulabe Chilatini, zomwe zinachititsanso kuti m’kupita kwa nthawi anthu a pachilumba cha Iberia azilankhula zinenero zosiyanasiyana. * Zolemba zakale kwambiri za m’Chilatini zinkadziwika kuti masileti a Visigotiki chifukwa zinkalembedwa pamasileti. Zolembazi ziyenera kuti zinalembedwa cha m’ma 500 kapena 600 C.E. Pasileti lina panalembedwa mbali ya buku la Masalimo komanso Mauthenga Abwino ndipo pasileti lina panalembedwa Salimo 16 lonse.

Kupezeka kwa Malemba Opatulika pamasileti kukusonyeza kuti pa nthawiyo, ngakhale anthu wamba ankawerenga komanso kukopera Mawu a Mulungu. Zikuoneka  kuti aphunzitsi ankagwiritsa ntchito zolemba zimenezi pophunzitsa ana kulemba ndi kuwerenga. Masileti anali otchipa poyerekeza ndi mapepala amene amonke a nthawi imeneyo ankagwiritsa ntchito pomasulira Mabaibulo.

Kachidutsa ka m’Baibulo lotchedwa León Bible. Ngakhale kuti Mabaibulo oterewa ndi amtengo wapatali kwambiri, sanathandize kwenikweni kuti Mawu a Mulungu afalikire

Baibulo lina lalikulu kwambiri la zithunzi, lomwe anthu amaliona kuti ndi lamtengo wapatali, amalisunga m’tchalitchi cha San Isidoro mumzinda wa León, ku Spain. Chibaibulochi chinalembedwa cha m’ma 960 C.E. ndipo chili ndi masamba 1,028. Ndi chachikulu masentimita 47 mulitali, masentimita 34 mulifupi ndipo n’cholemera makilogalamu 18. Palinso Baibulo lina lotchedwa Bible of Ripoll ndipo panopa likusungidwa m’nyumba yosungira mabuku ku Vatican. Baibuloli linalembedwa cha m’ma 1020 C.E. ndipo nalonso ndi lalikulu komanso lili ndi zambiri. Pomasulira Mabaibulo amenewa pankakhala ntchito yaikulu zedi. Mwachitsanzo, ankatenga tsiku lonse kuti alembe chilembo choyambirira cha chaputala, ndipo ankatenga mlungu wathunthu kuti akonze mmene mawu a patsamba limene pamakhala dzina la Baibulo, adzaonekere. Ngakhale kuti Mabaibulowa ndi amtengo wapatali kwambiri, sanathandize kwenikweni kuti Mawu a Mulungu afalikire.

BAIBULO LACHIARABU

Cha m’ma 700 C.E., Asilamu anagonjetsa chilumba china ku Spain ndipo izi zinachititsa kuti Chiarabu chiyambe kulankhulidwa pachilumbapa. M’madera amene ankalamulidwa ndi Asilamu, anthu ankalankhula kwambiri Chiarabu kuposa Chilatini, ndipo zimenezi zinapangitsa kuti pafunike Baibulo la chinenero chatsopanochi.

M’zaka za m’ma 400 mpaka 700 C.E., Baibulo lachilatini ndi lachiarabu linathandiza kuti anthu a ku Spain aziwerenga Mawu a Mulungu

Choncho ziyenera kuti ku Spain kunali Timabaibulo tambiri tachiarabu, makamaka ta Uthenga Wabwino, m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka 1500 AD. Koma zikuoneka kuti m’zaka za m’ma 700 C.E., Bishopu John, wa ku Seville anamasulira Baibulo lonse m’Chiarabu. N’zomvetsa chisoni kuti ambiri mwa Mabaibulowa sapezekanso masiku ano. Pali Kabaibulo kamodzi kokha komasulira Uthenga Wabwino ka m’zaka za m’ma 900 C.E. kamene kakusungidwabe m’tchalitchi china mumzinda wa León, ku Spain.

Kabaibulo kachiarabu ka Uthenga Wabwino ka m’ma 900 C.E.

MABAIBULO ACHISIPANISHI

Pomafika kumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka 1500 AD, anthu ambiri a pachilumba cha Iberia ankalankhula Chikasitilia. Chinenero chatsopanochi  chinathandiza kuti anthu ambiri aphunzire Mawu a Mulungu. * Mbali ina ya Baibulo lakale kwambiri limene linamasuliridwa m’Chisipanishi inkapezeka m’chikalata china cha m’ma 1200 C.E. Mbali imeneyi inali mavesi onena za ulendo wa Aisiraeli, mabuku a m’Baibulo 5 oyambirira, buku la Aheberi, Mauthenga Abwino komanso mabuku a m’Baibulo omwe analembedwa ngati makalata.

Mfumu Alfonso ya 10 inathandiza kuti Baibulo limasuliridwe m’Chisipanishi

Akuluakulu a matchalitchi sanasangalale ndi Baibulo la m’Chisipanishi limeneli. Choncho, pa msonkhano umene anachita ku Tarragona mu 1234, anakhazikitsa lamulo loti Mabaibulo onse amene anamasuliridwa m’zinenero zomwe zinkalankhulidwa m’dzikoli, aperekedwe kwa atsogoleri a matchalitchi kuti awawotche. Mwamwayi, lamuloli silinapangitse kuti anthu asiye kumasulira Baibulo. Mfumu Alfonso ya 10, yomwe inalamulira kuyambira mu 1252 mpaka 1284, inkafuna kuti Baibulo limasuliridwe m’chinenero china chatsopano ndipo inathandiza kuti zimenezi zitheke. Ena amati mfumuyi ndi imene inayambitsa kuti anthu azilemba Chisipanishi. Mabaibulo amene anamasuliridwa pa nthawiyi ndi monga lotchedwa Pre-Alfonsine ndiponso la Alfonsine limene linadzatulutsidwa pambuyo pake, lomwe linali lalikulu kuposa Mabaibulo a m’Chisipanishi amene analipo pa nthawiyo.

Masamba ena a Baibulo lotchedwa Pre-Alfonsine (kumanzere) ndi lotchedwa Alfonsine (kumanja)

Kumasuliridwa kwa Mabaibulo amenewa kunathandiza kuti Chisipanishi chizilembedwa komanso kuti chikhale ndi mawu okwanira. Ponena za Baibulo la Pre-Alfonsine, katswiri wina dzina lake Thomas Montgomery, ananena kuti: “Amene anamasulira Baibuloli anagwira ntchito yotamandika, chifukwa linali looneka bwino komanso lolondola. . . . Mawu amene anagwiritsa ntchito anali osavuta kumva, oyeneradi anthu osadziwa kwenikweni Chilatini.”

Komabe Mabaibulo awiri amenewa sanawamasulire kuchokera ku zinenero zomwe Baibulo linalembedwa, koma ankawamasulira kuchokera ku Baibulo lachilatini la Vulgate. Kuchokera cha m’ma 1300 C.E., akatswiri odziwa Chiyuda anamasulira Mabaibulo angapo a Malemba Achiheberi, kapena kuti Chipangano Chakale, kuchokera ku Chiheberi chakale. Pa nthawiyi, ku Spain kunali Ayuda ambiri kuposa dziko lililonse ku Ulaya. Ayudawa anali ndi mipukutu yachiheberi yabwino kwambiri yomwe inawathandiza pa ntchito yawoyi. *

Chitsanzo cha Mabaibulo amenewa ndi Baibulo lotchedwa Alba Bible, limene linamalizidwa kumasulira cha m’ma 1400 C.E. Munthu wina wotchuka wa ku Spain, dzina lake Luis de Guzmán, analamula Moisés Arragel kuti amasulire Baibulo m’Chikasitizo chomwe chinali Chisipanishi chosasakanirana ndi zinenero zina. Iye ananena kuti anachita zimenezi pa zifukwa ziwiri. Anati: “Choyamba, Mabaibulo a zinenero zosiyanasiyana zomwe zinachokera ku Chilatini amene alipo masiku ano, si olondola. Ndipo chachiwiri, anthu ngati ifeyo timafunika Baibulo lokhala ndi mfundo zothandiza owerenga zimene zimalembedwa m’mphepete mwa mavesi ena kuti zizitithandiza kumvetsa mawu ovuta.” Zimene anachitazi zikusonyeza kuti anthu a m’nthawi yake anali ndi chidwi chofuna kuwerenga komanso kumvetsa Baibulo. Zikusonyezanso kuti pa nthawiyi n’kuti Mabaibulo ambiri a zinenero zosiyanasiyana atayamba kale kupezeka ku Spain.

Anthu amene anamasulira komanso kukopera Baibulo m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500 C.E., anagwira ntchito yotamandika kwambiri ndipo izi zinathandiza kuti anthu a ku Spain akhale ndi Baibulo m’zinenero zawo. Wolemba mbiri wina, dzina lake Juan Orts González, anati: “Zimene anthu amenewa anachita zinapangitsa  kuti anthu a ku Spain azidziwa bwino Baibulo kuposa anthu a ku Germany ndi England, isanafike nthawi ya Martin Luther.”

“Anthu a ku Spain ankadziwa bwino Baibulo kuposa anthu a ku Germany ndi England, isanafike nthawi ya Martin Luther.”—Juan Orts González, wolemba mbiri yakale.

Komabe, chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka 1500 AD, khoti la kafukufuku la Akatolika la ku Spain, linaletsa zoti anthu azimasulira Baibulo kapena kukhala nalo lawolawo. Izi zinachititsa kuti kwa nthawi yaitali Baibulo likhale buku loletsedwa ku Spain. Tikutero chifukwa panadutsa zaka 300 kuti anthu ayambenso kuloledwa kumasulira komanso kukhala ndi Baibulo. Pa nthawi imene Baibulo linali loletsedwa, omasulira ena akhama anamasulira Mabaibulo achisipanishi ali kunja kwa dziko la Spain, ndipo analowetsa Mabaibulowa mozemba m’dzikoli. *

Zimene taona m’nkhaniyi zikusonyeza kuti anthu otsutsa akhala akuyesetsa m’njira zambiri kuti Mawu a Mulungu asapezeke. Komabe, anthu amenewa analephera kupangitsa kuti anthu asamve Mawu a Mulungu.—Salimo 83:1; 94:20.

Anthu akhama kwambiri amene anamasulira Baibulo m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500 AD, anathandiza kuti Baibulo likhale buku lodziwika bwino ku Spain komanso kuti lizipezeka paliponse. Omasulira Baibulo a masiku anonso amatengera chitsanzo cha anthu akhama amenewa, amene anamasulira Baibulo mu Chilatini, Chigotiki, Chiarabu ndi Chisipanishi. Zimenezi zachititsa kuti masiku ano, anthu ambiri amene amalankhula Chisipanishi, azikuwerenga Mawu a Mulungu m’chilankhulo chimene chimawafika pa mtima.

^ ndime 10 Zinenero zimenezi ndi monga Chikasitilia, Chikatalani, Chigaleshani ndi Chipwitikizi.

^ ndime 17 Masiku ano pali anthu 540 miliyoni omwe amalankhula Chisipanishi monga chinenero cha makolo awo.

^ ndime 20 Onani nkhani yakuti “Alfonso de Zamora Anayesetsa Kumasulira Malemba Molondola Ndipo Anagwiritsa Ntchito Dzina la Mulungu,” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya December 1, 2011.

^ ndime 23 Onani nkhani yakuti, “Nkhondo ya Casiodoro de Reina Kaamba ka Baibulo la Chispanya,” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya June 1, 1996.