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NSANJA YA OLONDA FEBRUARY 2014

 NKHANI YA PACHIKUTO

Nkhondo Yomwe Inasintha Dziko Lonse

Nkhondo Yomwe Inasintha Dziko Lonse

Zaka 100 zapitazo, anyamata ambiri anachoka kwawo kupita kukamenya nkhondo. Iwo anachita zimenezi mofunitsitsa chifukwa chokonda dziko lawo. Mu 1914 mnyamata wina wa ku America analemba kuti: “Ndine wosangalala kwambiri ndipo ndikukhulupirira kuti posachedwapa zinthu ziyamba kuyenda bwino.”

Koma pasanapite nthawi yaitali, chisangalalo chawochi chinasanduka chisoni. Palibe ankaganiza kuti magulu a asilikali akhala akumenyana kwa zaka zambiri ku Belgium ndi ku France. Pa nthawiyo anthu ankatchula nkhondoyo kuti “Nkhondo Yaikulu,” ndipo masiku ano imadziwika kuti nkhondo yayamba ya padziko lonse.

Pali zinthu zambiri zimene zimapangitsa anthu kuona kuti nkhondo imeneyi inali yaikulu kwambiri. Ena amati nkhondoyi inapha anthu pafupifupi 10 miliyoni komanso anthu pafupifupi 20 miliyoni anavulala kwambiri. Nkhondoyi inachitika chifukwa cha zinthu zolakwika zimene anthu ena anasankha. Atsogoleri a mayiko a ku Ulaya analephera kuletsa kuti mikangano imene inkachitika pakati pa mayiko isayambitse nkhondo ya dziko lonse. Koma chomvetsa chisoni n’chakuti, nkhondoyi inasintha kwambiri dziko lonse ndipo inabweretsa mavuto aakulu omwe ena amatikhudzabe mpaka pano.

 ZIMENE ZINACHITITSA KUTI ANTHU ASAMAKHULUPIRIRENSO ATSOGOLERI AWO

Nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse inayambika chifukwa cha maganizo olakwika amene anthu ena anali nawo. Buku lina linanena kuti: “Atsogoleri a mayiko a ku Ulaya, sankadziwa kuti zimene asankha ziyambitsa mavuto aakulu padziko lonse.”—The Fall of the Dynasties—The Collapse of the Old Order 1905-1922.

Patangopita milungu ingapo kuchokera pamene munthu wina yemwe ankayenera kudzakhala mfumu ya dziko la Austria ndi Hungary anaphedwa, mayiko akuluakulu a ku Ulaya anayamba kumenyana. Poyamba iwo sankadziwa kuti nkhondoyi ikhala yaikulu kwambiri. Mkulu wina wa boma ku German atafunsidwa kuti n’chiyani chinachititsa kuti pachitike nkhondo yaikulu chonchi, anayankha mokhumudwa kuti, “Palibe akudziwa.”

Atsogoleri a mayiko amene anasankha kuti payambike nkhondo, sankadziwa kuti zimene asankhazo zibweretsa mavuto aakulu. Pasanapite nthawi asilikali amene ankamenya nkhondoyi anazindikira kuti mapulezidenti awo awanamiza, atsogoleri awo a mipingo awapusitsa ndipo akuluakulu a asilikali, awagwiritsa mwala. Kodi anachita bwanji zimenezi?

Mapulezidenti awo anawanamiza, atsogoleri awo a mipingo anawapusitsa ndipo akuluakulu a asilikali, anawagwiritsa mwala

Mapulezidenti analonjeza kuti nkhondoyi ichititsa kuti zinthu ziyambe kuyenda bwino m’mayiko awo. Mkulu wa boma wa ku Germany uja ananenanso kuti: “Tikumenyera ufulu wa dziko lathu, tikuteteza zinthu zathu ndiponso sitikufuna kuti ana athu adzavutike m’tsogolo.” Pulezidenti wakale wa ku America, dzina lake Woodrow Wilson, anathandiza nawo kupeza mawu a mfundo imene ankayendera yonena kuti nkhondoyo “ipangitsa kuti padziko lonse pakhale demokalase.” Ndipotu anthu a ku Britain ankaganiza kuti nkhondoyi, ndi “nkhondo yothetsa nkhondo zonse.” Koma zonsezi si zimene zinachitika.

Atsogoleri a mipingo anathandiza pa nkhondoyi mosangalala kwambiri. Buku lina linanena kuti: “Atsogoleri achipembedzo amayenera kuphunzitsa anthu Baibulo. Koma pa nthawiyi anatanganidwa n’kulimbikitsa anthu kuti apite ku nkhondo. Mayiko anatanganidwa kwambiri ndi nkhondoyi ndipo izi zinabweretsa udani waukulu pakati pa mayikowo.” (The Columbia History of the World) Chomvetsa chisoni n’choti, m’malo molimbikitsa anthu kuti asamadane, atsogoleri achipembedzo ndi amene ankalimbikitsa kuti anthu azidana kwambiri. Buku linanso linanena kuti: “M’malo molimbikitsa anthu kutsatira mfundo zachikhristu, atsogoleri a zipembedzo ankaphunzitsa anthu kuti azidana ndi anthu a mayiko ena. Anthu ambiri sankaona kufunika kotsatira mfundo zachikhristu ndipo ankaona kuti kukonda dziko lako ndi Chikhristu, zimayendera limodzi. Asilikali a zipembedzo zachikhristu ankapha asilikali a m’mayiko ena omwenso anali Akhristu, ndipo ankanena kuti akuchita zimenezi m’dzina la Mulungu.”—A History of Christianity.

Akuluakulu a asilikali analonjeza asilikali awo kuti apambana nkhondoyi ndipo sipatenga nthawi asanapambane. Koma zimenezi sizinachitike ndipo pasanapite nthawi asilikali anazindikira kuti magulu a asilikali a mbali inayo nawonso ndi amphamvu ndipo ndi ovuta kuwagonjetsa. Kenako asilikali ochuluka anakumana ndi mavuto ambiri monga kuvulala komanso kusokonezeka maganizo. Mogwirizana ndi zomwe ananena wolemba mbiri wina, “awa anali mavuto aakulu oti anthu sanakumanepo nawo chiyambire.” N’zosadabwitsa kuti asilikali ambiri padziko lonse anayamba kugalukira akuluakulu awo.

Kodi nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse inakhudza bwanji anthu? Wolemba mbiri wina analemba zomwe munthu wina amene anamenya nawo nkhondoyi ananena kuti: “Nkhondoyi . . . inachititsa kuti anthu ambiri asinthe mmene ankaganizira komanso mmene ankachitira zinthu.” Nkhondoyi inaphetsa anthu ambirimbiri kuposa amene anafa pa nkhondo iliyonse m’mbuyomo. Komanso anthu kulikonse anayamba kuukira maboma awo ndiponso kunyanyala ntchito.

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani nkhondoyi inasintha kwambiri dziko lonse? Kodi pali chenicheni chimene chinachititsa kuti nkhondoyi ichitike kapena zinangochitika mwa ngozi? Kodi mayankho a mafunso amenewa angatithandize kudziwa chilichonse chokhudza tsogolo la dzikoli?