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NSANJA YA OLONDA SEPTEMBER 2013

Kodi Zinenero Zathu Zinayambira pa “Nsanja ya Babele”?

Kodi Zinenero Zathu Zinayambira pa “Nsanja ya Babele”?

“Yehova anawabalalitsa pamalopo, kuti afalikire padziko lonse lapansi. Zitatero, iwo anasiya pang’onopang’ono kumanga mzindawo. Mzindawo unatchedwa Babele, chifukwa kumeneko, Yehova anasokoneza chilankhulo cha anthu onse.”—Genesis 11:8, 9.

KODI nkhani imeneyi inachitikadi? Kodi n’zoona kuti anthu anangoyamba kulankhula zinenero zosiyanasiyana kamodzin’kamodzi mmene Baibulo limanenera? Anthu ena amatsutsa zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhani ya mmene zinenero zinayambira komanso kufalikira. Munthu wina wolemba mabuku ananena kuti: “Nthano yonena za Nsanja ya Babele ndi imodzi mwa nkhani zosamveka.” Mphunzitsi wina wachiyuda ananena kuti nkhani ya Nsanja ya Babele ndi “yopeka ndipo cholinga chake n’kuyesa kufotokoza mmene zinenero zinayambira.”

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani anthu sakhulupirira nkhani ya mzinda wa Babele? Chifukwa chakuti nkhaniyi siigwirizana ndi mfundo zina zimene iwo amakhulupirira za mmene zinenero zinayambira. Mwachitsanzo, olemba mabuku ena amanena kuti zinenero sizinayambe kamodzin’kamodzi koma zakhala zikusintha pang’onopang’ono kuchokera ku chinenero chimodzi. Anthu ena amakhulupirira kuti zinenero zoyambirira zinalipo zingapo ndipo poyamba anthu ankangogwiritsa ntchito zizindikiro koma kenako anayamba kulankhula mawu enieni. Mfundo zosiyana zimenezi zimapangitsa anthu ambiri kugwirizana ndi mawu amene katswiri wina, dzina lake W. T. Fitch, analemba m’buku lake kuti: “Mpaka pano tilibe yankho lomveka pa nkhaniyi.”—The Evolution of Language.

Kodi akatswiri ofukula zinthu za m’mabwinja komanso ofufuza ena apeza zotani pa nkhani ya mmene zinenero zinayambira komanso mmene zasinthira? Kodi zimene iwo apeza zikugwirizana ndi zimene anthu amanenazi, kapena zimagwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena? Choyamba tiyeni tione zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhaniyi.

KODI ZIMENEZI ZINACHITIKIRA KUTI KOMANSO LITI?

Baibulo limanena kuti kusokonekera kwa zinenero komanso kubalalikana kwa anthu kunachitikira “m’dera la Sinara,” lomwe kenako linayamba kudziwika kuti Babulo. (Genesis 11:2) Kodi zimenezi zinachitika  liti? Baibulo limanena kuti “dziko lapansi linagawikana” m’masiku a Pelegi, yemwe anabadwa zaka pafupifupi 250 Abulahamu asanabadwe. Izi zikusonyeza kuti zimenezi zinachitika zaka 4,200 zapitazo.—Genesis 10:25; 11:18-26.

Akatswiri ena amanena kuti zinenero zonse za masiku ano, zinachokera ku chinenero chimodzi chakale chomwe amati ndi chinenero cha makolo athu ndipo anthu ankalankhula chinenerochi zaka 100,000 zapitazo. * Ena amati zinenero za masiku ano zimafanana ndi zimene zinkalankhulidwa zaka 6,000 zapitazo. Koma kodi akatswiri a zinenero angakwanitse bwanji kudziwa mmene anthu ankalankhulira zinenero zomwe panopo zinatha? Magazini ina inati: “Zimenezi ndi zovuta. Mosiyana ndi akatswiri a sayansi, akatswiri a zinenero sangathe kupeza zinthu zakale zimene zingawathandize kudziwa mmene anthu ankalankhulira kalelo.” Magaziniyi inawonjezeranso kuti akatswiri ena a zinenero amalemba mfundo zoti “akungoyerekezera.”—Economist.

Koma zoona zake n’zakuti zinthu zakale zimene zingatithandize kudziwa mmene anthu ankalankhulira zilipo. Kodi zinthu zimenezi zingatithandize bwanji kudziwa mmene zinenero zinayambira? Buku la The New Encyclopædia Britannica limati: “N’kutheka kuti zinthu zakale kwambirizi zinalembedwa zaka 4,000 kapena 5,000 zapitazo.” Kodi zinthu zimenezi zinapezeka kuti? Zinapezeka ku Mesopotamiya, pamalo pomwe kale panali mzinda wa Sinara. * Zinthu zimene zinapezekazi zimagwirizana ndi zimene zinalembedwa m’Baibulo.

ANTHU A ZILANKHULO ZOSIYANA AMAGANIZANSO MOSIYANA

Baibulo limanena kuti ku Babele, Mulungu ‘anasokoneza chilankhulo chawo, kuti asamamvane polankhula.’ (Genesis 11:7) Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti amene ankagwira ntchitoyo ‘asiye kumanga mzinda’ wa Babele ndipo anabalalika ‘n’kufalikira padziko lonse lapansi.’ (Genesis 11:8, 9) Choncho Baibulo silimanena kuti zinenero zonse zimene timayankhula masiku ano zinachokera ku chinenero chimodzi. Mmalo mwake limafotokoza kuti zinenero zambirimbiri zinayamba kamodzin’kamodzi ndipo chinenero chilichonse chinali ndi zonse zofunikira kuti anthu azimvana. Chinalinso ndi mawu okwanira ofotokozera mmene anthu akumvera, mmene akuganizira ndipo chinenero chilichonse chinali chosiyana kwambiri ndi chinzake.

Phale la ku Mesopotamia, lokhala ndi zilembo zakale lomwe linalembedwa zaka za m’ma 2000 B.C.E.

Nanga bwanji zinenero za masiku ano? Kodi ndi zofanana kapena zosiyana? Katswiri wina wa maganizo, dzina lake Lera Boroditsky, anati: “Pamene akatswiri a zinenero ankafufuza zokhudza zinenero za masiku ano (pa dziko lonse pali zinenero zoposa 7,000, koma zimene zinafufuzidwa ndi zochepa chabe) anapeza kuti n’zosiyana kwambiri.” Ngakhale kuti zinenero za m’gulu limodzi zimafanana, zimasiyana ndi zinenero za m’gulu lina. Mwachitsanzo, Chinyanja ndi Chichewa ndi zofananirako koma n’zosiyana kwambiri ndi zinenero za m’gulu lina monga Chifulenchi ndi Chisipanishi.

Zinenero zimakhudza mmene anthu amaonera komanso kufotokozera zinthu monga mtundu wa chinthu, kuchuluka kwake, malo komanso mbali imene chili. Mwachitsanzo, m’chilankhulo china munthu akhoza kunena kuti: “Kachilombo kakuterani pankono wanu wamanja.” Koma m’chilankhulo  china anganene kuti: “Kachilombo kakuterani pankono wanu wakum’mwera chakumadzulo.” Kusiyana kumeneku kungachititse kuti anthu asamamvane. N’chifukwa chake anthu amene ankamanga nsanja ya Babele analephera kupitiriza ntchitoyo chifukwa chosamvana.

KODI ZINENERO ZIMENE ZINAYAMBA PA NSANJA YA BABELE ZINALI ZENIZENI?

Kodi chinenero choyambirira chinkamveka bwanji? Baibulo limasonyeza kuti munthu woyambirira Adamu ankatha kulumikiza mawu kuti apange mayina a nyama komanso mbalame zonse. (Genesis 2:20) Adamu ananenanso ndakatulo yofotokoza mmene ankakondera mkazi wake. Mkaziyonso ananena momveka bwino malamulo amene Mulungu anawauza komanso zimene zingawachitikire akapanda kumvera malamulowo. (Genesis 2:23; 3:1-3) Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti anthu amene ankalankhula chinenero choyambirira ankatha kulankhula bwinobwino komanso kufotokoza mmene akumvera.

Kusokonekera kwa zilankhulo kumene kunachitika pa Babele kunachititsa kuti anthu azilephera kumvana komanso kuti aziganiza ndi kuchita zinthu mosiyana. Komabe chinenero chilichonse chatsopano chinali ndi mawu okwanira ofotokozera zinthu zonse. Pasanapite nthawi yaitali, anthuwo ankatha kumanga mizinda yokongola, kupanga magulu amphamvu a asilikali komanso kuchita malonda ndi mayiko ena. (Genesis 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25) Kodi akanatha kuchita zonsezi akanakhala kuti analibe mawu okwanira komanso malamulo a zilankhulo? Mogwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena, chinenero choyambirira cha anthu komanso zinenero zimene zinayambika pa Nsanja ya Babele zinali ndi mawu onse okwanira ofotokozera zinthu.

Zimene akatswiri ofufuza apeza zikutsimikizira kuti mfundo imeneyi ndi yoona. Buku lina linati: “Chikhalidwe chilichonse cha anthu chomwe chinafufuzidwa, ngakhale chimene anthu amachiona kuti n’chotsalira, chili ndi chinenero chokhala ndi mawu onse ofunikira ngati mmene zililinso ndi zinenero za anthu a chikhalidwe chomwe anthu amachitenga kuti n’chotsogola.” (The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language) N’zimenenso pulofesa wina wa pa koleji ya Harvard, dzina lake Steven Pinker, analemba m’buku lake kuti: “Palibe chinenero chotsalira.”

ANTHU AZIDZALANKHULA CHINENERO CHIMODZI

Pambuyo pa zonse zimene takambiranazi, kodi tinganene kuti zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhaniyi ndi zoona? Anthu ambiri amavomereza kuti zimene Baibulo limanena kuti zinachitika pa Nsanja ya Babele ndi zomveka kwambiri.

Baibulo limanena kuti Yehova Mulungu anasokoneza chilankhulo cha anthu chifukwa anthuwo anachita zinthu zosiyana ndi zimene Mulungu ankafuna. (Genesis 11:4-7) Komabe, iye analonjeza kuti ‘adzapatsa mitundu ya anthu chilankhulo choyera kuti onse aziitanira pa dzina lake ndi kumutumikira mogwirizana.’ (Zefaniya 3:9) “Chilankhulo choyera” chimenechi ndi choonadi chopezeka m’Mawu a Mulungu ndipo chikuthandiza anthu apadziko lonse kuti akhale ogwirizana. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti m’tsogolomu Mulungu adzathetsa chisokonezo chimene chinachitika pa Nsanja ya Babele ndipo adzapatsa anthu chinenero chimodzi kuti azikhala mogwirizana.

^ ndime 8 Mfundo zimene anthu amanena zokhudza zinenero nthawi zambiri zimatsatira maganizo akuti anthu anachokera ku anyani. Kuti mudziwe zoona zake pa maganizo amenewa onani kabuku kachingelezi kakuti The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking, kofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

^ ndime 9 Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale apeza nsanja zazitali zokhala ndi masitepe ku Sinara. Baibulo limanena kuti anthu amene ankamanga nsanja ya Babele ankamangira njerwa, osati miyala, ndipo ankagwiritsa ntchito phula mmalo mwa matope. (Genesis 11:3, 4) Buku la The New Encyclopædia Britannica linanena kuti ku Mesopotamiya miyala inali “yosowa kwambiri, mwinanso sinkapezeka n’komwe,” pamene phula linkapezeka lambiri.