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NSANJA YA OLONDA (YOPHUNZIRA) DECEMBER 2015

Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano Lokonzedwanso Lomwe Linatuluka mu 2013

Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano Lokonzedwanso Lomwe Linatuluka mu 2013

BAIBULO LA DZIKO LATSOPANO lachingelezi lakonzedwapo kangapo. Ndiyeno posachedwapa analikonzanso ndipo pa nthawiyi anasinthamo zambiri. Baibulo lokonzedwansoli linatuluka mu 2013. Tsopano m’Baibuloli muli mawu ocheperapo ndipo mawu ena anawamasulira mosiyana ndi poyamba. Mavesi a machaputala ena, panopa awalemba mwandakatulo. Komanso m’malo ena anawonjezera mawu am’munsi. N’zosatheka kuti m’nkhaniyi tifotokoze zonse zomwe zinasintha m’Baibuloli, koma tiyeni tikambirane zinthu zikuluzikulu zochepa.

Mawu ena ofunika kwambiri m’Baibulo anawamasulira mosiyana ndi poyamba. Monga tafotokozera m’nkhani yapitayi, mawu ake ndi Sheoli, Hade komanso mawu achiheberi ndiponso achigiriki otanthauza “moyo.” Koma palinso mawu ena amene anawasintha.

Mwachitsanzo, pofotokoza mmene Yesu anaphedwera, poyamba m’Baibulo lachingelezi anagwiritsa ntchito mawu amene angatanthauze kupha munthu momubaya ndi mtengo. Koma tsopano anasintha n’kunena kuti “anamukhomera pamtengo” ndipo izi zikufotokoza bwino mmene anaphedwera. (Mat. 20:19; 27:31) Komanso mawu akuti “khalidwe lotayirira” anawasintha n’kugwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “khalidwe lopanda manyazi,” omwe ndi ogwirizana ndi mawu achigiriki amene amasonyeza mtima umene munthu wakhalidweli amakhala nawo. Komanso mawu amene poyamba ankawagwiritsa ntchito pomasulira mawu akuti “kuleza mtima,” ankachititsa anthu kuganiza kuti mawuwo akutanthauza “kuvutika kwa nthawi yaitali.” Choncho anawasintha n’kugwiritsa ntchito mawu ena omveka bwino. Pa Agalatiya 5:19-22, mawu otanthauza “maphwando aphokoso” amene anawagwiritsa ntchito poyamba, ankamveka achikale. Choncho mawuwa anawasintha n’kugwiritsa ntchito mawu ena osavuta kumva. Mawu akuti “kukoma mtima kosatha” omwe ali pamavesi monga Salimo 36:5 ndi Salimo 89:1, anawasinthanso n’kuika mawu ena olondola kwambiri amene amagwirizana ndi mawu oyambirira otanthauza “kukhulupirika.”

Mawu ena amene kale anawamasulira mofanana m’mavesi onse, m’Baibuloli anawamasulira mogwirizana ndi nkhani yake. Mwachitsanzo, mawu achiheberi akuti ʽoh·lamʹ ankawamasulira kuti “nthawi yaitali yomwe malire ake sakudziwika.” Koma mawuwa angatanthauzenso “nthawi yosatha.” Choncho m’Baibuloli mawuwa anawamasulira mosiyana. Mwachitsanzo, pa  Salimo 90:2 anagwiritsa ntchito mawu omwe akutanthauza nthawi yosatha, pomwe pa Mika 5:2 anagwiritsa ntchito mawu amene akutanthauza nthawi yaitali yosadziwika, komabe yokhala ndi malire.

Mawu achiheberi ndi achigiriki amene anawamasulira kuti “mbewu” amapezekapezeka m’Baibulo. Nthawi zina mawuwa amanena za mbewu zenizeni koma nthawi zina amaimira “mwana” kapena “ana.” Poyamba, Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachingelezi linamasulira mawuwa kuti “mbewu” pa Genesis 3:15 komanso paliponse pamene ankapezeka. Koma panopa anthu olankhula Chingelezi sakonda kugwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “mbewu” akamanena za “ana.” Choncho m’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli, mawuwa anawamasulira kuti “ana” pa Genesis 3:15 komanso pamavesi ena ogwirizana ndi nkhaniyi.” (Gen. 22:17, 18; Chiv. 12:17) Koma m’mavesi ena monga Genesis 1:11, Salimo 22:30 ndi Yesaya 57:3, anawamasulira mogwirizana ndi nkhani yake.

Mawu ambiri omwe ankafotokoza zinthu mophiphiritsa anawasintha. M’Baibulo lachingelezi lokonzedwansoli, m’mavesi ena sanagwiritse ntchito mawu ophiphiritsa a chilankhulo choyambirira. Pofotokoza chifukwa chake, mawu a mu Zakumapeto A1 m’Baibuloli amanena kuti Baibulo lomasuliridwa bwino ndi limene “limathandiza anthu kumvetsa tanthauzo la mawu ngati kumasulira mawuwo mmene analembedwera kungapangitse kuti tanthauzo lake lisinthe kapena lisamveke bwino.” Koma ankagwiritsabe ntchito mawu ophiphiritsa m’Baibuloli akaona kuti mawuwo sangalepheretse munthu kumva zolondola. Mwachitsanzo, mawu akuti “ndimafufuza . . . mitima” omwe ali pa Chivumbulutso 2:23, m’zilankhulo zambiri amamveka bwinobwino. Koma mawu akuti “ndimafufuza impso” omwe ali pavesi lomweli, m’zilankhulo zina angakhale ovuta kumvetsa. Choncho m’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli anawamasulira kuti “ndimafufuza maganizo a munthu,” zomwe ndi zogwirizana ndi tanthauzo lenileni la mawuwa. Mawu ena amene ali pa Deuteronomo 32:14 sankapereka tanthauzo loyenera chifukwa ankamveka ngati akunena kuti ‘tirigu wokhala ndi mafuta a impso.’ Choncho anawasintha n’kunena kuti “tirigu wabwino kwambiri.” Komanso mawu a Mose a pa Ekisodo 6:12, poyamba anawamasulira kuti, “ndine wosadulidwa milomo.” Zimenezi zinali zovuta kumvetsa m’zilankhulo zambiri. Choncho, panopa mawuwo anawasintha n’kunena kuti “ndimalankhula movutikira.”

Mawu ena achiheberi onena za amuna anawasintha. M’Chiheberi muli mawu amene amasonyezeratu ngati munthu akunena za mwamuna kapena mkazi. Komabe mawu ena omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ponena za amuna, amathanso kunena za akazi. Chitsanzo cha mawu amenewa chikupezeka pa Ekisodo 1:7; 35:29 ndi pa 2 Mafumu 8:12. Poyamba, mawuwa anawamasulira kuti, “ana aamuna a Isiraeli.” Koma nkhani yake ikusonyeza kuti akunenanso za akazi. Choncho m’Baibulo lachingelezi lokonzedwansoli, anawasintha n’kuwamasulira kuti “Aisiraeli.”

Pa mfundo ngati yomweyi, mawu achiheberi amene amatanthauza kuti “ana aamuna,” pa Genesis 3:16 mu Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachingelezi lakale, anawamasulira kuti “ana.” Koma mawu omwewa pa Ekisodo 22:24, anawamasulira kuti “ana aamuna.” Komabe m’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli mawuwa anawasintha ndipo tsopano vesili limanena kuti: “Ana anu akhale ana amasiye.” Pogwiritsa ntchito mfundo yomweyi, mawu akuti “mwana wamwamuna wamasiye” amene anali pa Deuteronomo 10:18 ndi pa Yobu 6:27, anawasintha n’kunena kuti, “mwana wamasiye.” Mawu atsopanowa ndi amene akugwirizana ndi mawu a m’Baibulo la Septuagint. Komanso pa Mlaliki 12:1 anachotsa mawu osonyeza ngati akunena za amuna okha, n’kuikapo mawu osonyeza kuti akunena za amuna ndi akazi omwe.

Mawu ena ochokera ku Chiheberi anasintha. M’Chiheberi muli aneni awiri, kapena kuti maverebu, amene amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mneni wina  amamugwiritsa ntchito akamanena za zinthu zomwe zikuchitika ndipo zikupitirira. Pomwe wina amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokoza zinthu zomwe zachitika ndipo zatha. Poyamba, Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachingelezi paliponse pamene panali aneniwa, lisanawatchule linkayamba ndi mawu owonjezera osonyeza kuti zinthuzo zikupitirira, zikuchitika mobwerezabwereza kapena zachitika ndipo zatha. *

Koma Baibulo lokonzedwansoli limangogwiritsa ntchito mawu owonjezerawo pamene akufunika, osati paliponse. Mwachitsanzo, pa Genesis 1:3, pamene pali mawu akuti “pakhale kuwala,” sanagwiritse ntchito mawuwa chifukwa sipakufunika kusonyeza kuti Mulungu ananena zimenezi mobwerezabwereza. Koma pa Genesis 3:9, mawuwa anawagwiritsa ntchito chifukwa zikuoneka kuti Yehova anaitana Adamu mobwerezabwereza. Zimenezi zathandiza kuti Baibulo lokonzedwansoli likhale lomveka bwino komanso lisakhale ndi mawu ambiri.

Machaputala ambiri anawalemba mwandakatulo potengera mmene analembedwera poyambirira

Nkhani zina zinalembedwa ngati ndakatulo. Anthu amene analemba Baibulo, nkhani zambiri anazilemba ngati ndakatulo. M’zilankhulo zambiri, ndakatulo zimakhala ndi mawu omveka mofanana. Koma ndakatulo zachiheberi zimakhala ndi mawu otsutsana kapena mfundo zofanana. Ndipo ndakatulozi zimadziwika chifukwa cha mmene asanjira mfundo zake.

Poyamba mu Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachingelezi, buku la Yobu ndi la Masalimo linalembedwa mosonyeza kuti ndi ndakatulo kapena nyimbo. Kalembedwe kameneko kankathandiza kuti munthu aziona mosavuta mfundo zikuluzikulu komanso kuti azitha kuzikumbukira. M’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli, mabuku a Miyambo, Nyimbo ya Solomo komanso machaputala ena a m’mabuku aulosi, anawalembanso ngati ndakatulo. Anachita zimenezi chifukwa ndi zogwirizana ndi mmene olemba Baibulo analembera mabukuwa. Chitsanzo ndi pa Yesaya 24:2, pamene mzera uliwonse uli ndi mawu awiri otsutsana. Yesaya analemba chonchi pofuna kutsindika mfundo yakuti palibe angathawe chiweruzo cha Mulungu. Choncho mu Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lokonzedwanso analemba mavesi ngati amenewa mwandakatulo pofuna kuthandiza owerenga kuona kuti cholinga cha wolembayo sichinali kungobwereza mawu, koma ankafuna kutsindika uthenga wake.

M’Chiheberi ndi zovuta kusiyanitsa ngati nkhani yalembedwa ngati ndakatulo kapena ayi ndipo omasulira Mabaibulo amasiyana maganizo pa nkhaniyi. Choncho mavesi amasindikizidwa ngati ndakatulo kapena ayi potengera zimene omasulirawo asankha. Mavesi ena omwe sanalembedwe mwandakatulo amakhalanso ndi mawu ngati andakatulo, mawu ophiphiritsa komanso zinthu zina zothandiza kutsindika mfundo yofunika.

M’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli, kumayambiriro kwa buku lililonse kuli mawu ofotokoza zimene zili m’bukulo. Mbaliyi ndi yothandiza kwambiri, makamaka m’buku la Nyimbo ya Solomo chifukwa imathandiza kudziwa anthu osiyanasiyana amene ananena mawu a m’bukuli.

Kuphunzira zolemba zachiheberi ndi zachigiriki kunathandizanso pokonza Baibuloli. Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano loyambirira linamasuliridwa pogwiritsa ntchito zolemba zachiheberi za Amasorete komanso Baibulo lodziwika bwino lachigiriki la Westcott ndi Hort. Koma akatswiri ofufuza zinthu zakale akhala akumvetsa bwino mavesi ena a m’Baibulo chifukwa chofufuza m’zolemba zakale monga m’mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufa. Zinthu zambiri zimene apezazo anazisunga m’makompyuta. Choncho zimakhala zosavuta kufufuza n’kudziwa zolemba zachiheberi kapena zachigiriki zomwe akatswiri ambiri amaona kuti n’zolondola. Zonsezi zinathandiza a m’Komiti Yomasulira Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano kuti amvetse mavesi ena ndipo n’chifukwa chake anasintha zinthu zina m’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli.

Mwachitsanzo, pa 2 Samueli 13:21, m’Baibulo lachigiriki la Septuagint muli mawu akuti: “Koma [Davide] sanafune kukhumudwitsa Aminoni mwana wake chifukwa ankamukonda popeza anali mwana wake woyamba.” Mawuwa sankapezeka m’Mabaibulo oyambirira a Dziko Latsopano chifukwa m’zolemba za Amasorete munalibenso mawu amenewa. Koma pofufuza anapeza kuti mawuwa amapezeka m’mipukutu yakalekale ija ya ku Nyanja Yakufa, choncho anawaika m’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli. Zoterezi zinachititsanso kuti dzina la Mulungu libwezeretsedwe m’mavesi 5 a m’buku la 1 Samueli. Komanso zimene anapeza m’zolemba zakale zachigiriki zinachititsa kuti asinthe kasanjidwe ka ziganizo za pa Mateyu 21:29-31. Choncho mavesi ena anawasintha chifukwa cha umboni umene anapeza m’zolemba zina zakale zachigiriki.

M’nkhaniyi tangotchula zinthu zochepa chabe zimene anasintha m’Baibulo lokonzedwansoli zomwe zapangitsa kuti anthu ambiri aziliona kuti ndi losavuta kuwerenga komanso lomveka bwino. Akuliona kuti ndi mphatso yochokera kwa Mulungu, amene amafuna kuti tizilankhula naye.

^ ndime 10 Onani mawu a mu Zakumapeto 3C mu Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika lachingelezi lokhala ndi malifalensi, omwe akufotokoza aneni achiheberi osonyeza kuti zinthu zikupitirira.