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NSANJA YA OLONDA (YOPHUNZIRA) DECEMBER 2013

‘Tsikuli Lidzakhala Chikumbutso Chanu’

‘Tsikuli Lidzakhala Chikumbutso Chanu’

“Tsiku limeneli lidzakhala chikumbutso kwa inu, ndipo muzichitira Yehova chikondwerero.”—EKS. 12:14..

1, 2. Kodi ndi tsiku liti limene Akhristu ayenera kuliganizira ndipo n’chifukwa chiyani?

KODI ndi tsiku liti limene mumalikumbukira chaka ndi chaka? Anthu amene ali pa banja akhoza kukumbukira tsiku la ukwati wawo. Anthu ena akhoza kukumbukira zinthu zikuluzikulu zimene zinachitika m’dziko lawo monga tsiku limene dzikolo linalandira ufulu. Koma kodi mukudziwa za tsiku limene anthu akhala akulikumbukira kwa zaka zoposa 3,500?

2 Tsikuli ndi la Pasika ndipo ndi tsiku limene Aisiraeli anamasulidwa ku ukapolo ku Iguputo. N’chifukwa chiyani nafenso tiyenera kuganizira zimene zinachitika pa tsikuli? Chifukwa chakuti limakhudza zinthu zofunika kwambiri pa moyo wathu. Mwina mungaganize kuti, ‘N’zoona kuti Ayuda amachitabe Pasika, koma ineyo sinditsatira Chiyuda. Ndiye palibe chifukwa choti ndiziganizira za tsikulo.’ Koma lemba la 1 Akorinto 5:7 lingatithandize kudziwa chifukwa chake. Limati: “Khristu waperekedwa monga nsembe yathu ya pasika.” Ndiyeno kuti timvetse bwino mawuwa, tiyenera kudziwa za Pasika amene Aisiraeli ankachita ndiponso kuona kugwirizana kwake ndi lamulo limene Akhristu anapatsidwa.

N’CHIFUKWA CHIYANI ANKACHITA PASIKA?

3, 4. Kodi chinachitika n’chiyani kuti mwambo wa Pasika uyambike?

3 Anthu ambirimbiri padzikoli, ngakhalenso amene si Ayuda, amadziwa zinthu zina zimene zinachitika kuti mwambo wa Pasika uyambike. N’kutheka kuti anawerenga nkhaniyi m’buku la Ekisodo kapena anauzidwa ndi ena. Apo ayi anaonera filimu yosonyeza zimene zinachitika.

4 Aisiraeli atakhala akapolo ku Iguputo kwa zaka zambiri, Yehova anatumiza Mose ndi Aroni kuti akauze Farao zoti amasule Aisiraeliwo. Farao anali wokula mtima kwambiri ndipo sanalole zimenezi. Choncho Yehova anabweretsa miliri yoopsa m’dzikolo. Mliri womaliza unali wopha ana oyamba kubadwa a Aiguputo ndipo utangochitika,  Farao anamasula Aisiraeli.—Eks. 1:11; 3:9, 10; 5:1, 2; 11:1, 5.

5. Kodi Aisiraeli anayenera kuchita chiyani pokonzekera kupulumutsidwa? (Onani chithunzi patsamba 17.)

5 Nkhaniyi inachitika chakumapeto kwa mwezi wa March m’chaka cha 1513 B.C.E. Pa kalendala ya Aisiraeli, mwezi wake unali wa Abibu womwe kenako anadzayamba kuutcha Nisani. * Kodi Aisiraeli anayenera kuchita chiyani asanamasulidwe? Mulungu anauza Aisiraeli kuti pa tsiku la 10 la mweziwu ayambe kukonzekera zimene adzachite pa tsiku la 14. Aisiraeli ankaona kuti tsiku limayamba dzuwa likalowa n’kutha likadzalowanso tsiku lotsatira. Pa Nisani 14, banja lililonse linayenera kupha nkhosa kapena mbuzi yamphongo n’kupaka magazi ake pamafelemu achitseko. (Eks. 12:3-7, 22, 23) Ndiyeno banjalo linkafunika kuotcha nyamayo n’kuidya limodzi ndi mkate wopanda chofufumitsa komanso masamba. Mngelo wa Mulungu anadutsa m’dzikolo n’kupha ana oyamba kubadwa a Aiguputo. Koma ana a Aisiraeli omvera sanaphedwe ndipo anamasulidwa.—Eks. 12:8-13, 29-32.

6. N’chifukwa chiyani Aisiraeli ankayenera kuchita Pasika chaka chilichonse?

6 Izi n’zimene zinachitika ndipo chaka chilichonse Aisiraeli ankafunika kukumbukira mmene Mulungu anawapulumutsira. Mulungu anawauza kuti: “Tsiku limeneli lidzakhala chikumbutso kwa inu, ndipo muzichitira Yehova chikondwerero m’mibadwo yanu yonse. Limeneli ndi lamulo mpaka kalekale, kuti muzichita chikondwerero chimenechi.” Pambuyo pochita Pasika pa 14, pankachitika chikondwerero china cha masiku 7 otsatira. Ngakhale kuti tsiku lenileni la Pasika linali pa Nisani 14, mawu akuti Pasika ankagwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokoza chikondwerero chonse cha masiku 8. (Eks. 12:14-17; Luka 22:1; Yoh. 18:28; 19:14) Pasika anali chimodzi mwa zikondwerero zimene Aisiraeli analamulidwa kuti azichita chaka chilichonse.—2 Mbiri 8:13.

7. Kodi Yesu anayambitsa mwambo uti pa tsiku limene anachita Pasika womaliza?

7 Popeza Yesu ndi ophunzira ake anali Ayuda ndipo ankatsatira Chilamulo cha Mose, iwo ankachita Pasika chaka chilichonse. (Mat. 26:17-19) Pa nthawi imene iwo anachita Pasika womaliza, Yesu anayambitsa mwambo wina woti otsatira ake azichita chaka ndi chaka. Mwambo wake ndi wa Chakudya Chamadzulo cha Ambuye. Koma kodi anayenera kuuchita liti?

TSIKU LA CHAKUDYA CHAMADZULO CHA AMBUYE

8. Kodi tingakhale ndi funso liti lokhudza tsiku lochita Pasika ndiponso Chakudya Chamadzulo cha Ambuye?

8 Yesu anayambitsa mwambo wa Chakudya Chamadzulo cha Ambuye atangomaliza Pasika wotsiriza. Choncho ophunzira ake anayenera kuchita mwambo watsopanowu pa tsiku la Pasikalo. Koma mwina mwaona kuti tsiku limene timachita Chikumbutso cha imfa ya Khristu limasiyana ndi deti la Pasika pa makalendala ena. N’kutheka kuti madetiwo amasiyana ndi tsiku limodzi kapena angapo. N’chifukwa chiyani madetiwo amasiyana choncho? Zimene Mulungu analamula Aisiraeli zingatithandize kupeza yankho. Mose atanena kuti “banja lililonse la Isiraeli lidzaphe nkhosa yawo,” anawauza nthawi imene ayenera kuchita zimenezi pa Nisani 14.—Werengani Ekisodo 12:5, 6.

9. Malinga ndi Ekisodo 12:6, kodi nkhosa inayenera kuphedwa pa nthawi iti pa tsiku la Pasika? (Onani bokosi lakuti  “Kodi Nthawi Yake Inali Iti?”)

9 Buku lina lofotokoza Malemba Achiheberi limanena kuti lemba la Ekisodo 12:6 limati nkhosayo inayenera kuphedwa “pakati pa madzulo awiri.” Mabaibulo ena amagwiritsanso ntchito mawu omwewo koma ena amagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “madzulo.” Pomwe Mabaibulo ena amamasulira mawuwo kuti “madzulo  kuli kachisisira” kapena kuti “dzuwa litangolowa kumene.” Choncho nkhosa inayenera kuphedwa kumayambiriro kwa tsiku la Nisani 14, dzuwa litalowa koma kusanade kwenikweni.

10. (a) Kodi ena amaganiza kuti nkhosa inkaphedwa nthawi yanji? (b) Kodi zimenezi zingabweretse funso liti?

10 Patapita nthawi, Ayuda ena anayamba kuganiza kuti zinkatenga maola ambiri kuti nkhosa zonse zimene zinabweretsedwa kukachisi ziphedwe. Choncho ankaganiza kuti mawu a pa Ekisodo 12:6 ankanena za chakumapeto kwa Nisani 14, pakati pa nthawi imene dzuwa layamba kupendeka kufika pamene lalowa. Koma ngati zinali choncho, kodi zikanatheka kuti Aisiraeli adye Pasika pa Nisani 14 pomwepo? Pulofesa wina amene ndi katswiri wa Chiyuda chakale anati: ‘Tsiku latsopano linkayamba dzuwa litalowa, choncho ankapha nkhosa pa tsiku la 14 koma ankachita Pasika ndiponso kudya pa tsiku la 15. Zinali choncho ngakhale kuti sizinalembedwe mwatsatanetsatane m’buku la Ekisodo.’ Analembanso kuti: ‘Mabuku achiyuda . . . safotokoza n’komwe mmene Aisiraeli ankadyera Pasika, Kachisi asanawonongedwe’ mu 70 C.E.

11. (a) N’chiyani chinachitikira Yesu pa tsiku la Pasika mu 33 C.E.? (b) N’chifukwa chiyani tsiku la Nisani 15 mu 33 C.E. linali Sabata “lalikulu”? (Onani mawu a m’munsi.)

11 Koma kodi Pasika wa mu 33 C.E. anachitika bwanji? Pa Nisani 13 pamene “tsiku loyenera kupha nyama yoperekera nsembe ya pasika” linkayandikira, Khristu anauza Petulo ndi Yohane kuti: “Pitani mukatikonzere pasika kuti tidye.” (Luka 22:7, 8) Pa Nisani 14 dzuwa litalowa, ‘nthawi inakwana’ kuti adye Pasika. Tinganene kuti tsikulo linali Lachinayi madzulo. Yesu ndi atumwi ake anadya Pasika kenako Yesuyo anayambitsa mwambo wa Chakudya Chamadzulo cha Ambuye. (Luka 22:14, 15) Usiku umenewu, iye anagwidwa ndi kuimbidwa mlandu. Anapachikidwa cha m’ma 12 koloko masana pa Nisani 14 ndipo anafa madzulo ake. (Yoh. 19:14) Choncho “Khristu [anaperekedwa] monga nsembe yathu ya pasika” pa tsiku limene nkhosa ya Pasika inaphedwa. (1 Akor. 5:7; 11:23; Mat. 26:2) Yesu anaikidwa m’manda chakumapeto kwa tsikulo, tsiku la Nisani 15 lisanayambe. *Lev. 23:5-7; Luka 23:54.

CHIKUMBUTSOCHI CHINGAKUTHANDIZENINSO

12, 13. Kodi ana a Aisiraeli ankachita chiyani pa chikondwerero cha Pasika?

12 Tiyeni tikambiranenso zimene zinachitika  ku Iguputo zija. Mose ananena kuti anthu a Mulungu ankayenera kukumbukira Pasika ndipo linali lamulo “mpaka kalekale.” Pochita mwambowu, ana awo ankayenera kufunsa tanthauzo la zimene ankachitazo. (Werengani Ekisodo 12:24-27; Deut. 6:20-23) Choncho ngakhale kwa ana aang’ono, Pasika anali “chikumbutso” chofunika kwambiri.—Eks. 12:14.

13 Makolo ankafunika kuphunzitsa ana awo mfundo zofunika zokhudza mwambowu. Ndiyeno anawo anafunika kudzaphunzitsanso ana awo. Mfundo ina imene anayenera kuwaphunzitsa inali yakuti Yehova amateteza anthu ake. Ana ankaphunzira kuti Yehova ndi Mulungu weniweni ndiponso wamoyo. Iye amakonda kwambiri anthu ake ndiponso kuwathandiza. Anasonyeza zimenezi poteteza ana oyamba kubadwa a Aisiraeli pamene ‘ankapha Aiguputo ndi mliri.’

14. Kodi makolo achikhristu angagwiritse ntchito nkhani ya Pasika pophunzitsa ana awo mfundo iti?

14 N’zoona kuti makolo achikhristu safotokozera ana awo chaka ndi chaka tanthauzo la Pasika. Koma kodi mumaphunzitsanso ana anu mfundo yakuti Mulungu amateteza anthu ake? Kodi mumawasonyeza kuti inuyo mumakhulupirira ndi mtima wonse kuti Yehova amatetezabe anthu ake? (Sal. 27:11; Yes. 12:2) Kodi mumakambirana nawo zimenezi m’njira yosangalatsa kapena mumangowauza zochita? Yesetsani kukambirana ndi banja lanu mfundo imeneyi kuti nonse muzikonda kwambiri Yehova.

Pokambirana ndi ana anu nkhani ya Pasika, kodi ndi mfundo ziti zimene mungatsindike? (Onani ndime 14)

15, 16. Kodi tingagwiritse ntchito bwanji nkhani ya Pasika komanso nkhani zina za m’buku la Ekisodo?

15 Koma pali zinthu zinanso zimene tingaphunzire pa nkhani ya Pasika. Yehova anapulumutsa Aisiraeli ‘n’kuwatulutsa mu Iguputo.’ Taganizirani zimene Yehova anachita pa nthawiyo. Iye ankawatsogolera ndi mtambo ndi moto. Anagawa Nyanja Yofiira kuti Aisiraeliwo adutse, moti madziwo anali ngati makoma kumanja ndi kumanzere. Ndiyeno atangomaliza kuwoloka, madziwo anabwerera n’kumiza asilikali onse a ku Iguputo. M’pake kuti Aisiraeliwo atapulumutsidwa anaimba kuti: “Ndiimbira Yehova . . . Waponyera m’nyanja mahatchi ndi okwera pamahatchiwo. Mphamvu ndi nyonga yanga ndi Ya, pakuti wandipulumutsa.”—Eks. 13:14, 21, 22; 15:1, 2; Sal. 136:11-15.

16 Ngati ndinu kholo, kodi mumathandiza ana anu kukhulupirira kuti Yehova amapulumutsa? Kodi zolankhula zanu komanso zimene mumasankha zimasonyeza kuti inuyo mumakhulupirira kwambiri zimenezi? Mwinatu mungachite bwino kukambirana pa Kulambira kwa Pabanja nkhani ya pa Ekisodo chaputala 12 mpaka 15. Pochita zimenezi muzitsindika mmene Yehova anapulumutsira anthu ake. Pa nthawi ina mungakambirane mfundo yomweyi pogwiritsa ntchito Machitidwe 7:30-36 kapena Danieli 3:16-18, 26-28. Tonsefe, kaya ndife achinyamata kapena achikulire, tiyenera kukhulupirira kuti Yehova sanasiye kupulumutsa anthu ake. Anapulumutsa anthu ake m’nthawi ya Mose ndipo adzatipulumutsanso m’tsogolomu.—Werengani 1 Atesalonika 1:9, 10.

 NAFENSO TIZIKUMBUKIRA

17, 18. Kodi kuganizira mmene Aisiraeli anagwiritsira ntchito magazi pa Pasika woyamba kuyenera kutikumbutsa za chiyani?

17 Akhristu oona sachita mwambo wa Pasika. Chilamulo cha Mose chinkanena kuti anthu azichita mwambowu, koma Akhristufe sititsatira Chilamulocho. (Aroma 10:4; Akol. 2:13-16) M’malomwake, timakumbukira chinthu china chofunika kwambiri chomwe ndi imfa ya Mwana wa Mulungu. Komabe pali zinthu zina zimene ankachita pa Pasika zomwe ndi zofunikanso kwa ife.

18 Kuwaza magazi a nkhosa pamafelemu a chitseko kunathandiza Aisiraeli kuti atetezeke. Masiku ano, sitipereka nsembe za nyama kwa Mulungu pa tsiku la Pasika kapena pa tsiku lina lililonse. Koma pali nsembe yabwino kwambiri imene ingatiteteze kwamuyaya. Mtumwi Paulo analemba za “mpingo wa woyamba kubadwayo, mpingo wa iwo amene analembedwa kumwamba.” Apa ankanena za Akhristu odzozedwa omwe amatetezedwa ndi “magazi owaza” kapena kuti magazi a Yesu. (Aheb. 12:23, 24) Akhristu amene adzakhale ndi moyo wosatha padzikoli amadaliranso magazi omwewo kuti atetezedwe. Iwo ayenera kukumbukira nthawi ndi nthawi mawu akuti: “Kudzera mwa iyeyu, tinamasulidwa ndi dipo la magazi ake, inde, takhululukidwa machimo athu, malinga ndi chuma cha kukoma mtima kwake kwakukulu.”—Aef. 1:7.

19. Kodi zimene Aisiraeli ankachita ndi nkhosa ya Pasika zingatithandize bwanji kukhulupirira ulosi?

19 Pamene Aisiraeli ankapha nkhosa ya Pasika, sanayenera kuthyola mafupa ake. (Eks. 12:46; Num. 9:11, 12) Nanga bwanji za “Mwanawankhosa wa Mulungu” amene anabwera kudzapereka dipo? (Yoh. 1:29) Iye anapachikidwa pakati pa achifwamba awiri. Kenako Ayuda anapempha Pilato kuti mafupa a anthu opachikidwawo athyoledwe. Izi zikanathandiza kuti anthuwo afe msanga n’cholinga choti asakhalebe pamitengoyo mpaka tsiku la Nisani 15, lomwe linali Sabata “lalikulu.” Asilikali anathyola miyendo ya achifwambawo “koma atafika pa Yesu, sanamuthyole miyendo poona kuti wafa kale.” (Yoh. 19:31-34) Mofanana ndi zimenezi, nkhosa ya Pasika sankaithyola mafupa. Choncho tinganene kuti nkhosayi inali “mthunzi” wa zimene zinachitika pa Nisani 14 mu 33 C.E. (Aheb. 10:1) Komanso zimene zinachitikazi zinakwaniritsa mawu a pa Salimo 34:20 ndipo zimenezi ziyenera kutilimbikitsa kukhulupirira kwambiri ulosi.

20. Kodi zimene zinkachitika pa Pasika zimasiyana bwanji ndi zimene zimachitika pa Chakudya Chamadzulo cha Ambuye?

20 Koma zinthu zina zimene ankachita pa Pasika zinali zosiyana ndi zimene zimachitika pa Chakudya Chamadzulo cha Ambuye. Izi zimasonyeza kuti Pasika amene Ayuda ankachita sankaimira zimene Khristu anauza ophunzira ake kuti azichita pokumbukira imfa yake. Ku Iguputo, Aisiraeli anadya nyama ya nkhosa koma osati magazi ake. Izi n’zosiyana ndi zimene Yesu anauza ophunzira ake kuti azichita. Iye ananena kuti anthu okalamulira “mu ufumu wa Mulungu” ayenera kudya mkate ndiponso kumwa vinyo. Zinthuzi ndi zizindikiro za thupi lake ndiponso magazi ake. Tidzakambirana bwinobwino zinthu zimenezi m’nkhani yotsatira.—Maliko 14:22-25.

21. Kodi kudziwa za Pasika kungatithandize bwanji?

21 Komabe zimene Mulungu anachitira Aisiraeli pa Pasika zinali zazikulu kwambiri ndipo tikhoza kuphunzirapo zambiri. N’zoona kuti Pasika anali “chikumbutso” kwa Ayuda osati Akhristu. Koma Akhristufe tiyenera kudziwa za Pasika ndiponso kukumbukira mfundo zimene tikuphunzirapo chifukwa ndi mbali ya ‘Malemba onse amene anauziridwa ndi Mulungu.’—2 Tim. 3:16.

^ ndime 5 Dzina lakuti Nisani anayamba kuligwiritsa ntchito atachoka ku ukapolo ku Babulo. Ngakhale zili choncho, m’nkhani ino tiziligwiritsa ntchito ponena za mweziwu, womwe ndi woyambirira pa kalendala yachiyuda.

^ ndime 11 Tsiku la Nisani 15 linali tsiku loyamba la Chikondwerero cha Mikate Yopanda Chofufumitsa ndipo nthawi zonse linkakhala tsiku la sabata. Koma m’chaka cha 33 C.E. tsikuli linali pa Loweruka, lomwe mlungu uliwonse linkakhala la sabata. Choncho popeza kuti tsiku la Nisani 15 mu 33 C.E. linali la sabata pa zifukwa ziwiri zimenezi, ankanena kuti linali Sabata “lalikulu.”—Werengani Yohane 19:31, 42.