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Nsanja ya Olonda  |  Na. 6 2017

N’chifukwa Chiyani Pali Mabaibulo Osiyanasiyana?

N’chifukwa Chiyani Pali Mabaibulo Osiyanasiyana?

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani masiku ano pali Mabaibulo osiyanasiyana? Kodi mukamva kuti patuluka Baibulo latsopano mumaona kuti likuthandizani kumvetsa Mawu a Mulungu, kapena mumaona kuti likhoza kungokusokonezani? Mu nkhaniyi tiona chiyambi cha Mabaibulo amenewa ndipo zimenezi zitithandiza kudziwa zambiri zokhudza Mabaibulo.

Koma kodi ndani analemba Baibulo, nanga linalembedwa liti?

CHIYAMBI CHA BAIBULO

Baibulo linagawidwa m’zigawo ziwiri. Chigawo choyamba chili ndi mabuku 39, momwe muli “mawu opatulika a Mulungu.” (Aroma 3:2) Mulungu anauzira amuna okhulupirika kuti alembe mabuku amenewa, kuyambira mu 1513 B.C.E. mpaka kudutsa chaka cha 443 B.C.E. Choncho panatenga zaka pafupifupi 1,100 kuti amalize kulemba mabuku amenewa. Popeza mabuku ambiri analembedwa m’Chiheberi, chigawo cha Baibulo chimenechi timachitchula kuti Malemba Achiheberi. Chigawochi chimadziwikanso kuti Chipangano Chakale.

Chigawo chachiwiri cha Baibulo chili ndi mabuku 27 ndipo amenewanso ndi “mawu a Mulungu.” (1 Atesalonika 2:13) Mulungu anauzira ophunzira a Yesu Khristu okhulupirika kuti alembe mabuku amenewa, kuyambira mu 41 C.E. mpaka mu 98 C.E. Choncho panatenga zaka pafupifupi 60 kuti mabukuwa alembedwe. Mabuku ambiri analembedwa m’Chigiriki, ndipo chigawo chimenechi timachitchula kuti Malemba Achigiriki. Chigawochi chimadziwikanso kuti Chipangano Chatsopano.

Mabuku okwana 66 amenewa ndi amene amapanga Baibulo, lomwe lili ndi uthenga wochokera kwa Mulungu kupita kwa anthufe. Komano n’chifukwa chiyani anthu anatulutsa Mabaibulo ena? Pali zifukwa zikuluzikulu zitatu:

  • Kuti anthu azitha kuwerenga Baibulo m’chilankhulo chawo.

  • Kuti akonze masipelo olakwika amene anthu analemba pokopera Baibulo.

  • Kuti achotse mawu achikale n’kuika amakono amene anthu akugwiritsa ntchito.

 Tiyeni tione mmene anagwiritsira ntchito mfundo zitatu zimenezi pomasulira Mabaibulo awiri oyambirira.

BAIBULO LACHIGIRIKI LA SEPTUAGINT

Kutatsala zaka pafupifupi 300 kuti Yesu abadwe padzikoli, akatswiri ena achiyuda anayamba kumasulira Malemba Achiheberi m’Chigiriki. Baibulo limene anamasuliralo linkadziwika kuti Baibulo Lachigiriki la Septuagint. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani anaganiza zoti amasulire Baibuloli? Ankafuna kuthandiza Ayuda ambiri amene pa nthawiyo sankalankhulanso Chiheberi koma Chigiriki. Choncho ankafuna kuwathandiza kuti azithabe kuwerenga “malemba oyera.”​—2 Timoteyo 3:15.

Baibulo Lachigiriki la Septuagint linathandizanso anthu olankhula Chigiriki omwe sanali Ayuda kuti adziwe zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa. N’chifukwa chiyani tikutero? Pulofesa wina dzina lake W. F. Howard anati: “Linayamba kuonedwa kuti ndi Baibulo la Akhristu ndipo amishonale awo ankapita m’masunagoge ‘n’kumasonyeza anthu umboni wochokera m’Malemba woti Yesu ndi Mesiya.’” (Machitidwe 17:3, 4; 20:20) Malinga ndi zimene ananena katswiri wina dzina lake F. F. Bruce, zimenezi zinachititsa kuti Ayuda ambiri “asiye kokonda Baibulo la Septuagint.”

Malemba Achigiriki atamaliza kulembedwa, ophunzira a Yesu anaphatikiza mabuku amenewa ndi Baibulo la Septuagint lija n’kupanga Baibulo lonse lathunthu limene tili nalo masiku ano.

BAIBULO LACHILATINI LOTCHEDWA VULGATE

Patatha zaka 300 katswiri wina dzina lake Jerome, anatulutsa Baibulo lachilatini ndipo patapita nthawi Baibuloli linayamba kudziwika kuti Vulgate. Koma pa nthawiyi n’kuti pali kale Mabaibulo ena achilatini. Ndiye n’chifukwa chiyani Jerome anaganiza zomasuliranso Baibulo lina? Buku lina limati Jerome anachita zimenezi chifukwa choti ankafuna “kukonza mawu amene sanamasuliridwe bwino, masipelo olakwika komanso kuchotsa mfundo zimene zinawonjezeredwa ndiponso kuika mfundo zomwe zinachotsedwa.”​—The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Jerome anakonzadi ambiri mwa mavuto amenewa. Koma kenako akuluakulu a tchalitchi anachita zinthu zina zolakwika kwambiri. Analamula kuti Baibulo la Vulgate lokha, ndiye lovomerezeka ndipo lamulo limeneli linagwira ntchito kwa zaka zambiri. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri asamve uthenga wa m’Baibulo chifukwa patapita nthawi panali anthu ambiri omwe sankadziwa Chilatini.

 PANAYAMBA KUTULUKA MABAIBULO AMBIRI

Komabe pa nthawi imeneyi panali anthu ena amene ankamasulira Baibulo m’zilankhulo zina. Limodzi mwa Mabaibulo amenewa ndi lachisiriya lotchedwa Peshitta lomwe linamasuliridwa m’zaka za m’ma 400 C.E. Koma anthu ambiri analibe mwayi wowerenga Baibulo m’chilankhulo chawo mpaka m’zaka za m’ma 1300 C.E.

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1300 C.E. John Wycliffe wa ku England, anayamba ntchito yomasulira Baibulo m’Chingelezi popeza anthu ambiri ankadziwa chilankhulochi. Pasanapite nthawi yaitali, katswiri wina dzina lake Johannes Gutenberg anayamba kusindikiza mabuku. Zimenezi zinathandiza kuti akatswiri a Baibulo afalitse Mabaibulo a zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana ku Europe konse.

Anthu atatulutsa Mabaibulo osiyanasiyana achingelezi, anthu ena otsutsa anayamba kunena kuti panalibenso chifukwa choti anthu azimasulira Mabaibulo ena achingelezi. Koma m’zaka za m’ma 1700 C.E. m’busa wina, dzina lake John Lewis anati: “Pakapita nthawi, mawu amakalamba ndipo anthu ambiri sawadziwa. Choncho pamafunika kukonzanso Mabaibulo omwe anatuluka kalekale kuti mawu ake akhale osavuta kumva komanso ogwirizana ndi mmene anthu akulankhulira.”

Mosiyana ndi kale, masiku ano akatswiri a Baibulo sangavutike kwambiri kukonzanso Mabaibulo amene anamasuliridwa kalekale. Zili choncho chifukwa panopa akudziwa zambiri zokhudza zilankhulo zakale zimene anagwiritsa ntchito polemba Baibulo. Komanso pali mipukutu yodalirika ya Baibulo imene akatswiri aipeza m’zaka za posachedwapa. Zonsezi zimawathandiza kudziwa bwino mawu enieni amene olemba Baibulo anagwiritsa ntchito.

Choncho n’zothandiza kukhala ndi Baibulo lomwe latuluka posachedwa. Komabe si Mabaibulo onse amene amamasuliridwa bwino, choncho tiyenera kusamala. * Koma ngati anthu angamasulire Baibulo chifukwa chokonda Yehova, Baibulo lawolo lingathe kukhala lothandiza kwambiri.

 

^ ndime 24 Onani nkhani yakuti, “Kodi Mungadziwe Bwanji Baibulo Lomasuliridwa Bwino?” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya May 1, 2008.