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Nsanja ya Olonda  |  Na. 4 2017

Elias Hutter Anamasulira Mabaibulo Othandiza Kwambiri

Elias Hutter Anamasulira Mabaibulo Othandiza Kwambiri

KODI mungathe kuwerenga Baibulo lolembedwa m’Chiheberi choyambirira? N’kutheka kuti simungakwanitse komanso mwina simunaonepo Baibulo lachiheberi. Komabe, mungamvetse kuti Baibulo ndi buku lamtengo wapatali ngati mutadziwa zambiri za katswiri wina yemwe anamasulira Mabaibulo awiri m’Chiheberi. Katswiriyu anakhalapo m’zaka za m’ma 1500 ndipo dzina lake ndi Elias Hutter.

Elias Hutter anabadwa mu 1553 m’tauni yaing’ono ya Görlitz m’dziko la Germany. Masiku ano dera limeneli lili kumalire a dzikoli ndi Poland komanso Czech Republic. Hutter anaphunzira zinenero za mayiko a kum’mawa kwa Asia pa Lutheran University mumzinda wa Jena. Ali ndi zaka 24 zokha, anasankhidwa kuti akhale pulofesa wa Chiheberi mumzinda wa Leipzig. Kenako anayambitsa sukulu mumzinda wa Nuremberg ndipo pasukuluyi anthu ankaphunzira Chiheberi, Chigiriki, Chilatini komanso Chijeremani pa zaka 4 zokha. Pa nthawi imeneyo, panalibe sukulu kapena yunivesite imene inkakwanitsa kuchita zimenezi.

“BAIBULOLI NDI LOKONGOLA KWAMBIRI”

Tsamba loyamba la Baibulo lachiheberi la Hutter lomwe linasindikizidwa mu 1587

Mu 1587, Hutter anatulutsa Baibulo lachiheberi la Chipangano Chakale. Baibuloli linkatchedwa Derekh ha-Kodesh, kutanthauza “Msewu wa Chiyero.” Dzinali linachokera palemba la Yesaya 35:8. Baibulo limeneli lili ndi chikuto chokongola kwambiri. Zimenezi ndi zogwirizana ndi mawu omwe ena ananena akuti: “Chilichonse chimene chilimo chikusonyeza kuti Baibuloli ndi lokongola kwambiri.” Chinanso chimene chinachititsa Baibuloli kukhala lofunika kwambiri ndi choti anthu ankaligwiritsa ntchito pophunzira Chiheberi.

Kuti timvetse chifukwa chake tikuti Baibuloli linathandiza kwambiri, tiyeni tikambirane mavuto awiri amene anthu ankakhala nawo akamawerenga Baibulo m’Chiheberi. Choyamba, Chiheberi chili ndi afabeti yachilendo yomwe ambiri saidziwa. Chachiwiri, masinde a mawu ambiri a chinenerochi amakhala ndi mawu kumayambiriro kwake (m’phatikiram’mbuyo) kapena kumapeto (m’phatikiram’tsogolo). Izi zimachititsa kuti zikhale zovuta kwa munthu amene akuphunzira chinenerochi kuzindikira tsinde la mawu. Mwachitsanzo, taganizirani za tsinde la mawu achiheberi omwe amatchulidwa kuti ne’phesh (amalembedwa chonchi, נפשׁ), kutanthauza “mzimu.” Pa Ezekieli 18:4, koyambirira kwa mawuwa kuli mawu akuti ha (omwe ndi, ה), ndipo akaphatikizidwa ndi tsinde lija, amalembedwa kuti, han·ne’phesh (הנפשׁ). Kwa munthu amene akuphunzira kumene chinenerochi, mawu akuti, han·ne’phesh (הנפשׁ) angaoneke ngati osiyana kwambiri ndi mawu akuti, ne’phesh (נפשׁ).

Choncho kuti athandize anthu amene ankaphunzira pasukulu yake, Hutter anagwiritsa ntchito luso linalake posindikiza Baibulo limene anamasulira. Iye ankadetsa  kwambiri masinde a mawu ndipo mawu okhala koyambirira kapena kumapeto aja sankawadetsa. Zimenezi zinkathandiza ophunzirawo kuti asamavutike kuzindikira tsinde la mawu. Choncho zinali zophwekerako kuphunzira Chiheberi. Anthu amene anamasulira Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika lachingelezi lokhala ndi malifalensi, anagwiritsanso ntchito njira imeneyi pomasulira mawu a m’munsi. * Tsinde la mawu analidetsa kwambiri pomwe mawu akumayambiriro kapena kumapeto sanawadetse. Zithunzi zili pamwambazi zikusonyeza mmene anagwiritsira ntchito njira imeneyi pa Ezekieli 18:4 m’Baibulo la Hutter komanso m’Baibulo lachingelezi la malifalensi pa mawu a m’munsi.

ANAMASULIRA BAIBULO LA CHIPANGANO CHATSOPANO M’CHIHEBERI

Hutter anasindikizanso Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano la zinenero 12. Baibuloli linasindikizidwa mumzinda wa Nuremberg mu 1599 ndipo limadziwika kuti Nuremberg Polyglot. Pa zinenero 12 zimenezi, Hutter ankafuna kuti pakhalenso Chiheberi. Koma anazindikira kuti ngakhale akanafufuza bwanji, sakanapeza Baibulo lachiheberi ndipo akanangowononga ndalama. * Choncho, anaganiza zomasulira yekha Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano kuchokera m’Chigiriki kupita m’Chiheberi. Ngakhale kuti sinali ntchito yamasewera, pamene chaka chinkatha, Hutter anali atamaliza kumasulira Baibuloli.

Kodi Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano limene Hutter anamasulirali linali labwino? Inde. Katswiri wina wachiheberi wa m’ma 1800, dzina lake Franz Delitzsch analemba kuti: “Baibulo lachiheberi limene Hutter anamasulira limasonyeza kuti ankachidziwa bwino chinenerochi ndipo linathandiza Akhristu kumvetsa bwino mfundo zina zimene ambiri sankazidziwa. Baibuloli ndi lothandizabe kwa omasulira masiku ano chifukwa m’malo ambiri anagwiritsa ntchito mawu olondola.”

MABAIBULOWA AKUTHANDIZABE MASIKU ANO

Hutter sanalemere ndi ntchito imene anagwirayi chifukwa Mabaibulo ake sanayende malonda. Komabe, Mabaibulo akewa anathandiza kwambiri ndipo ndi othandizabe mpaka pano. Mwachitsanzo, mu 1661 William Robertson anakonzanso ndi kusindikiza Baibuloli. Nayenso Richard Caddick anakonza ndi kusindikizanso Baibuloli mu 1798. Pamene Hutter ankamasulira Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano kuchokera ku Chigiriki kupita m’Chiheberi, mawu akuti Kyʹri·os (Ambuye) ndiponso akuti The·osʹ (Mulungu) anawamasulira kuti “Yehova” (יהוה, JHVH). Anachita zimenezi pamavesi amene anagwira mawu kuchokera m’chipangano chakale komanso pamene ankaona kuti mawuwo akunena za Yehova. Zimenezi ndi zochititsa chidwi chifukwa anthu ambiri omwe anamasulira Chipangano Chatsopano sanaike dzina la Mulungu m’Mabaibulo awo. Koma zimene Hutter anachitazi ndi umboni winanso woti dzina la Mulungu liyenera kubwezeretsedwa m’malo onse omwe dzinali linkapezeka m’mipukutu yakale ya Malemba Achigiriki.

Choncho, mukaona dzina la Mulungu lakuti Yehova m’Chipangano Chatsopano kapena mukaona mawu okhala ndi tsinde lakuda kwambiri m’Baibulo lachingelezi la malifalensi, muzikumbukira Mabaibulo a Elias Hutter komanso zimene iye anachita.

^ ndime 7 Onani mawu a m’munsi achiwiri pa Ezekieli 18:4 komanso Zakumapeto 3B, m’Baibulo la malifalensi.

^ ndime 9 Zikuoneka kuti panali akatswiri ena m’mbuyomo amene anamasulirapo Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chiheberi. Mmodzi wa anthu amenewa anali Simon Atoumanos ndipo analimasulira cha m’ma 1360. Wina anali Oswald Schreckenfuchs, wa ku Germany ndipo anamasulira Baibulo lake cha m’ma 1565. Mabaibulo amenewa sanasindikizidwe ndipo sapezeka masiku ano.

Onaninso

Kodi Baibulo Limaphunzitsa Chiyani Kwenikweni?

Tanthauzo la Dzina la Mulungu Ndiponso Mmene Tingaligwiritsire Ntchito

N’chifukwa chiyani m’Mabaibulo ambiri amene anthu ena anamasulira mulibe dzina lenileni la Mulungu? Kodi ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu?

MOYO WA PA BETELI

Chionetsero cha Baibulo Cholemekeza Dzina la Mulungu

Malowa anatsegulidwa mu 2013, kumalikulu anthu apadziko lonse. Mabaibulo amene anaperekedwa anali akale kwambiri.