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NSANJA YA OLONDA NA. 2 2016

Kodi Ndi Ndani Amene Anagawa Machaputala ndi Mavesi a M’Baibulo?

Kodi Ndi Ndani Amene Anagawa Machaputala ndi Mavesi a M’Baibulo?

YEREKEZERANI kuti ndinu Mkhristu wa m’zaka 100 zoyambirira. Ndiyeno mpingo wanu walandira kalata yochokera kwa mtumwi Paulo. Pamene kalatayo ikuwerengedwa, mukumva kuti Paulo wagwira mawu ambiri kuchokera “m’malemba oyera,” kapena kuti m’Chipangano Chakale. (2 Timoteyo 3:15) Kenako mukunena chamumtima kuti, ‘Ndikanakonda kudziwa pamene pachokera mawu amenewo.’ Komatu zimenezi zikanakhala zovuta. N’chifukwa chiyani tikutero?

POYAMBA BAIBULO LINALIBE MACHAPUTALA NDI MAVESI

Taganizirani mmene mipukutu ya “malemba oyera” yomwe inalipo m’nthawi ya Paulo inkaonekera. Taonani chithunzi cha mbali yochepa ya buku la Yesaya lomwe linapezeka ku Nyanja Yakufa. Kodi mukuona chiyani? Mwina mwaona kuti pali mawu omwe anangolembedwa popanda zizindikiro za m’kalembedwe komanso analembedwa mothinana kwambiri. Mulibenso machaputala ndi mavesi, mosiyana ndi mmene Baibulo liliri masiku ano.

Anthu amene Mulungu anawagwiritsa ntchito polemba Baibulo, sanaligawe m’machaputala kapenanso m’mavesi. Iwo anangolemba uthenga wonse umene Mulungu anawauza n’cholinga choti anthu owerenga amve uthenga wonse osati kambali kochepa chabe. Kodi inuyo mumatani mukalandira kalata kuchokera kwa munthu amene mumamukonda? N’zodziwikiratu kuti mumawerenga kalata yonseyo, osati mbali yake chabe.

Kunena zoona zinali zovuta kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lopanda machaputala ndi mavesi. Mwachitsanzo, Paulo akamalemba makalata ake ena ankagwiritsa ntchito mawu monga akuti, “Monga mmene Malemba amanenera” kapenanso akuti “monga Yesaya ananeneratu.” (Aroma 3:10; 9:29) Ndipotu anthu omwe sankadziwa bwino “malemba oyera” ankavutika kwambiri kupeza pomwe pachokera mawuwo.

Mfundo inanso ndi yoti uthenga womwe unali mu “malemba oyera” sunkanena za nkhani imodzi yokha yochokera kwa Mulungu. Pofika chakumapeto kwa zaka 100 zoyambirira, “malemba oyera” anali ndi mabuku okwana 66. Choncho m’pake kuti masiku ano anthu amasangalala kuti Baibulo lili ndi machaputala komanso mavesi ndipo savutika kupeza mfundo yomwe akufuna. Zina mwa mfundozi ndi zimene Paulo anazigwira mawu polemba makalata ake.

Ndiyeno mwina mungafunse kuti, ‘Kodi ndi ndani amene anagawa machaputala ndi mavesi a m’Baibulo?’

KODI NDI NDANI ANAGAWA MACHAPUTALA?

M’busa wina wa ku England dzina lake Stephen Langton, yemwe anadzakhala mkulu wa mabishopu ku Canterbury, ndi amene anagawa machaputala a m’Baibulo. Iye anachita zimenezi kumapeto kwa chaka cha 1200 C.E., pa nthawi yomwe ankaphunzitsa payunivesite ya Paris, ku France.

Langton asanagawe machaputala m’Baibulo, akatswiri ena anali atayesapo kugawa Baibulo m’tizigawo ting’onoting’ono kapenanso m’machaputala. Zikuoneka kuti ankachita zimenezi pofuna kuti asamavutike kupeza mfundo zina. Choncho anthu sankavutika kufufuza mfundo yomwe akufuna m’chaputala chimodzi m’malo mofufuza m’buku lonse. Mwachitsanzo, buku la Yesaya lili ndi machaputala 66. Ndiye taganizirani ntchito yomwe ikanakhalapo kuti munthu afufuze mfundo inayake m’bukuli, likanakhala kuti silinagawidwe.

Komabe zimene akatswiriwa anachita zinali ndi mavuto ake chifukwa anali ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zogawira machaputala. Mwachitsanzo, buku la Maliko lomwe panopa lili ndi machaputala 16 okha, akatswiri ena analigawa m’machaputala pafupifupi 50. Kuyunivesite ya Paris, komwe Langton ankaphunzitsa kunali ophunzira ochokera m’mayiko ambiri ndipo ophunzirawo anapita ndi  Mabaibulo a ziyankhulo za m’mayiko awo. Koma aphunzitsi ndi ophunzirawo ankavutika kusonyezana pomwe pachokera mfundo inayake. N’chifukwa chiyani ankavutika choncho? Chinali chifukwa chakuti machaputala a m’Mabaibulo awowo anagawidwa mosiyanasiyana.

Komabe Langton anagawa machaputala a m’Baibulo m’njira yosavuta kutsatira. Buku lina linanena kuti, “Anthu ambiri komanso olemba mabuku anaikonda njira yatsopanoyi moti ndi yomwe anthu a ku Europe ankaigwiritsa ntchito kwambiri.” (The Book—A History of the Bible) Iye ndi amene anagawa machaputala omwe ali m’Mabaibulo ambiri masiku ano.

KODI NDI NDANI ANAGAWA MAVESI?

Patadutsa zaka pafupifupi 300, cha m’ma 1500, katswiri wina wosindikiza mabuku dzina lake Robert Estienne anathandiza kwambiri kuti Baibulo likhale losavuta kuwerenga. Iye anachita zimenezi n’cholinga choti anthu ambiri azikonda kuwerenga Baibulo. Anaonanso kuti panafunika kuti Mabaibulo onse azikhala ndi machaputala ndiponso mavesi ogawidwa mofanana.

Koma sikuti Estienne ndi amene anali woyamba kugawa mavesi a m’Baibulo. Tikutero chifukwa chakuti anthu ena anali atayamba kale kuchita zimenezi. Mwachitsanzo, zaka zambiri m’mbuyomo okopera mabuku achiyuda anagawa Baibulo Lachiheberi kapena kuti Chipangano Chakale m’mavesi okhaokha popanda machaputala. Komabe vuto linali lakuti m’Mabaibulo ambiri mavesiwa sanagawidwe mofanana.

Ndiyeno Estienne anagawa mavesi a mabuku a Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu kapena kuti Chipangano Chatsopano m’njira yosavuta kutsatira. Kenako anawaphatikiza ndi mavesi omwe analipo kale m’Baibulo lachiheberi kuti likhale buku limodzi. M’chaka cha 1553, Estienne anatulutsa Baibulo lonse m’Chifulenchi lokhala ndi machaputala ndi mavesi omwe ali m’Mabaibulo ambiri masiku ano. Koma anthu ena sanasangalale ndi zimenezi moti ankanena kuti mavesi achititsa kuti Baibulo ligawidwe m’tizidutswa. Ankanenanso kuti ziganizo zake zangokhala paderapadera. Ngakhale zinali choncho, anthu ena amene ankasindikiza Baibulo anayamba kutsatira njira imeneyi.

NJIRAYI INATHANDIZA KWAMBIRI OPHUNZIRA BAIBULO

Njira yogawa Baibulo m’machaputala ndi mavesi okhala ndi manambala ake inathandiza kwambiri kuti kuwerenga Baibulo kukhale kosavuta. Zimenezi zimatithandiza kuti tisamavutike kupeza vesi lomwe tikufuna. N’zoona kuti Mulungu si amene anauza anthu kuti agawe Baibulo m’machaputala ndi mavesi ndipo nthawi zina ziganizo zina zimathera panjira. Komabe njirayi imatithandiza kuti tisamavutike kupeza lemba lomwe tikufuna komanso kusonyeza ena mfundo yomwe yatisangalatsa m’vesi linalake. Ndiponso njira imeneyi imatithandiza kuti tizidula mzere kunsi kwa vesi lomwe lili ndi mfundo yomwe tikufuna kuikumbukira, ngati mmene timachitira tikapeza mfundo yothandiza m’mabuku ena omwe timawerenga.

Ngakhale kuti kugawa machaputala ndi mavesi a m’Baibulo n’kothandiza, chinthu chofunika kwambiri ndi kumvetsa uthenga wonse umene Mulungu anatipatsa. Choncho muziyesetsa kuwerenga nkhani yonse m’malo mongowerenga mavesi ochepa chabe. Kuchita zimenezi kudzakuthandizani kuti muzidziwa bwino ‘malemba oyera amene angathe kukupatsani nzeru zokuthandizani kuti mudzapulumuke.’—2 Timoteyo 3:15.

Onaninso

Kodi Tingadziwe Bwanji Kuti Baibulo Limanena Zoona?

Ngati Baibulo linachokeradi kwa Mulungu, ndiye kuti liyenera kukhala losiyana kwambiri ndi mabuku ena onse.

N’chiyani Chingakuthandizeni Kumvetsa Baibulo?

Kaya ndife anthu otani, tikhoza kumvetsa uthenga wa Mulungu umene uli m’Malemba Opatulika.