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Galamukani!  |  Na. 6 2016

 TIONE ZAKALE

Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus

DESIDERIUS ERASMUS anabadwa cha m’ma 1469 ndipo poyamba ankaonedwa kuti anali wanzeru kwambiri pa akatswiri onse a ku Europe. Koma kenako anayamba kumuona kuti anali wamantha komanso wampatuko. Pa nthawiyo anthu ankatsutsana kwambiri pa nkhani zachipembedzo ndipo Erasmus analimba mtima kuulula zinthu zolakwika zimene atsogoleri achikatolika komanso atsogoleri ena ankachita. Masiku ano iye amadziwika kuti ndi munthu amene anasintha kwambiri zinthu pa nkhani ya zipembedzo za ku Europe. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani zili choncho?

ZIMENE ANAPHUNZIRA KOMANSO ZIMENE ANKAKHULUPIRIRA

Erasmus ankadziwa kwambiri Chigiriki komanso Chilatini. Choncho anayerekezera Mabaibulo achilatini monga Latin Vulgate ndi zolemba zakale za Malemba Achigiriki, kapena kuti Chipangano Chatsopano. Zimenezi zinamuthandiza kuzindikira kuti anthu onse ayenera kudziwa mfundo za m’Baibulo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, anaona kuti ndi bwino kuti Baibulo limasuliridwe m’zinenero zimene anthu wamba ankalankhula.

Erasmus ankalimbikitsa kwambiri zoti tchalitchi cha Katolika chisinthe mmene chinkachitira zinthu. Ankachita zimenezi chifukwa ankaona kuti Mkhristu ayenera kukhala ndi makhalidwe achikhristu nthawi zonse, osati kumangochita miyambo inayake yopanda tanthauzo. Choncho anthu atayamba kutsutsa tchalitchichi, atsogoleri achikatolika anayamba kumukayikira kuti iyeyo ndi amene ankawatsogolera.

Erasmus analimba mtima kuulula zinthu zolakwika zimene atsogoleri achikatolika komanso atsogoleri ena ankachita

M’nkhani zimene analemba, Erasmus anaulula chinyengo cha atsogoleriwa komanso khalidwe lawo lodzikuza. Anaululanso kuti apapa ankalimbikitsa nkhondo chifukwa chofuna kutchuka. Ankatsutsanso atsogoleri amene ankadyera anthu masuku pamutu pogwiritsa ntchito miyambo yachipembedzo monga kuulula machimo, kulambira oyera mtima, kusala kudya ndiponso maulendo okaona malo opatulika. Ankadananso ndi zoti tchalitchi chizilipiritsa anthu kuti akhululukidwe machimo komanso zoti chiziletsa anthu ena kukwatira.

 BAIBULO LAKE LA CHIPANGANO CHATSOPANO

Mu 1516, Erasmus anatulutsa Baibulo lake loyamba la Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chigiriki. Limeneli linali Baibulo la Malemba Achigiriki loyamba kusindikizidwa komanso kutulutsidwa. Baibuloli linali ndi mawu achigiriki ndi achilatini komanso mawu ofotokozera. Iyeyo ndi amene anamasulira mawu achilatiniwo. Mmene anamasulira Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chilatini zinali zosiyana ndi m’Baibulo la Latin Vulgate. Erasmus anapitiriza kulikonzanso Baibulo lakeli ndipo patapita nthawi anatulutsa lina losiyana kwambiri ndi la Latin Vulgate.

Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano la Erasmus

Chinthu china chimene anasintha m’Baibulo lake ndi lemba la 1 Yohane 5:7. M’Baibulo la Latin Vulgate anawonjezera mawu ena palembali n’cholinga choti mfundo yoti pali milungu itatu mwa mulungu mmodzi izioneka ngati yoona. Mawu amene anawonjezeredwa palembali ndi akuti: “Kumwamba kuli Atate, Mawu ndi Mzimu Woyera ndipo onsewa ndi mmodzi.” Erasmus sanaike mawuwa m’Baibulo lake la Chipangano Chatsopano chifukwa choti m’zolemba zachigiriki zomwe anafufuza munalibe mawuwa. Koma kenako tchalitchi cha Katolika chinamukakamiza kuti aike mawuwa m’Baibulo lachitatu lokonzedwanso limene anatulutsa.

Baibulo lokonzedwanso la Chipangano Chatsopano limene Erasmus anatulutsa linathandiza anthu ena pomasulira Baibulo m’zinenero zosiyanasiyana za ku Europe. Mwachitsanzo, Martin Luther, William Tyndale, Antonio Brucioli ndi Francisco de Enzinas anagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Erasmus pomasulira Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chijeremani, Chingelezi, Chitaliyana ndi Chisipanishi.

Erasmus anakhala ndi moyo pa nthawi imene anthu ankatsutsana kwambiri pa nkhani zachipembedzo ndipo anthu amene ankafuna kusintha zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika ankaona kuti Baibulo lake ndi lothandiza kwambiri. Anthu ena ankaona kuti Erasmus anali m’gulu la anthu ofuna kusintha zinthuwo. Koma mikangano yokhudza chipembedzo itayambika, iye sanalowerere nawo. N’zochititsa chidwi kuti zaka zoposa 100 zapitazo, katswiri wina dzina lake David Schaff analemba kuti Erasmus “anamwalira asakugwirizana ndi chipembedzo chilichonse. Akatolika anamukana ndipo iye sanalowenso m’chipembedzo china chilichonse.”

Onaninso

DOCUMENTARIES

Ankalemekeza Kwambiri Baibulo—Kachigawo ka Vidiyo (William Tyndale)

Umboni wakuti ankakonda kwambiri Baibulo umaonekera mu ntchito imene anagwira imene imatithandizabe masiku ano.