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GALAMUKANI! NA. 5 2016

 TIONE ZAKALE

Aristotle

Aristotle

ZAKA zoposa 2,300 zapitazo, Aristotle analemba mfundo zambiri zokhudza sayansi komanso nzeru za anthu. Anthu akhala akuphunzira ndiponso kuchita chidwi ndi zimene analembazo ndipo zinamasuliridwa m’zilankhulo zambiri. Pulofesa wina wa mbiri yakale dzina lake James MacLachlan analemba kuti: “Anthu a ku Europe ankakhulupirira mfundo za Aristotle zokhudza chilengedwe kwa zaka pafupifupi 2,000.” Nawonso Akatolika, Asilamu komanso anthu a matchalitchi ena akhala akuphunzitsa mfundo zina za Aristotle.

Aristotle Analemba Mabuku a Nkhani Zosiyanasiyana

Aristotle analemba nkhani zosiyanasiyana zokhudza zinthu monga makhalidwe, zilankhulo, malamulo, mphamvu yokoka, kayendedwe ka zinthu, zosangalatsa, ndakatulo, ndale, luso lolankhula ndi kulemba, sayansi ya zakuthambo, ya zinthu zamoyo komanso sayansi ya kaganizidwe ka anthu. Iye analembanso za mzimu wa munthu, womwe ankakhulupirira kuti umafa. Koma amadziwika kwambiri chifukwa cha zimene analemba zokhudza sayansi ya zamoyo ndiponso mfundo zimene munthu ayenera kutsatira kuti atsimikizire zinthu zinazake.

Kale akatswiri amaphunziro a ku Greece ankayang’anitsitsa zinthu za m’chilengedwe, kuziganizira mofatsa, kenako ankapeza njira imene angazifotokozere. Iwo ankaona kuti ngati ataganizira kwambiri mfundo zimene akuzidziwa kale akhoza kumvetsa zinthu zambiri zokhudza chilengedwe.

Zimenezi zinathandiza akatswiriwo kumvetsa zinthu zina zolondola, monga zoti zinthu za m’chilengedwe zimayenda mwadongosolo. Koma vuto n’lakuti analibe zipangizo zowathandiza kuona zinthu zakutali komanso zing’onozing’ono kwambiri. Choncho anthu anzeruwo, kuphatikizapo Aristotle, nthawi zina sankatulukira zolondola. Mwachitsanzo, ankakhulupirira kuti mapulaneti ndiponso nyenyezi zimayenda mozungulira dziko lapansi. Pa nthawi imeneyo, anthu ankaona kuti mfundoyi ndi yosatsutsika. Buku lina linati: “Zimene anthu  ankaona komanso kuganiza zinkachititsa kuti azikhulupirira maganizo a anthu a ku Greece oti zinthu zakuthambo zimayenda mozungulira dziko lapansi.”—The Closing of the Western Mind.

Maganizo olakwikawa anakhudza moyo wa anthu ambiri chifukwa si asayansi okha amene ankaphunzitsa zimenezi.

Akatolika Anayamba Kuphunzitsa Mfundo za Aristotle

Kale ku Europe anthu ambiri omwe ankati ndi Akhristu ankaona kuti zimene Aristotle ankaphunzitsa ndi zoona. Atsogoleri a tchalitchi cha Katolika ankaphatikiza mfundo za Aristotle m’zimene ankaphunzitsa. Munthu wina wodziwika kwambiri amene ankachita zimenezi anali Thomas Aquinas. (Anabadwa cha m’ma 1224 ndipo anakhala ndi moyo pafupifupi zaka 50.) Patapita nthawi, mfundo yoti zinthu zakuthambo zimayenda mozungulira dziko lapansi inakhala mbali ya zikhulupiriro za Akatolika. Atsogoleri a matchalitchi ena monga Calvin ndiponso Luther anayambanso kuphunzitsa zimenezi ndipo ankanena kuti ndi mfundo yochokera m’Baibulo.—Onani bokosi lakuti, “ Sankamvetsa Bwino Malemba.”

Anthu ambiri ankaona kuti zimene Aristotle ankaphunzitsa ndi zoona

Wolemba mabuku wina dzina lake Charles Freeman anati: “Zinali zovuta kusiyanitsa zikhulupiriro zina za Akatolika ndi zimene Aristotle ankaphunzitsa chifukwa zinkafanana kwambiri.” Choncho anthu ankanena kuti zinali ngati Aquinas “anabatiza” Aristotle kuti akhale Mkatolika. Komabe Freeman analembanso kuti zoona zake n’zakuti “Aquinas ndi amene anakhala wotsatira wa Aristotle.” Zinali ngati tchalitchi chonse cha Katolika chinkatsatira Aristotle. N’chifukwa chake atsogoleri a tchalitchi cha Katolika anakakamiza katswiri wina wa sayansi ya zakuthambo ndiponso ya masamu dzina lake Galileo kuti asiye kuphunzitsa zoti dziko limayenda mozungulira dzuwa. * Anachita zimenezi ngakhale kuti Galileo anali atapeza umboni wotsimikizira zomwe ankaphunzitsazo. Koma n’zochititsa chidwi kuti Aristotle ankadziwa kuti mfundo zasayansi zimatha kusintha asayansi akatulukira mfundo zina zatsopano. Matchalitchi akanachita bwino kuzindikiranso mfundoyi.

^ ndime 11 Kuti mudziwe zambiri pa nkhaniyi, onani nkhani yakuti, “Galileo’s Clash With the Church” mu Galamukani! yachingelezi ya April 22, 2003.