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GALAMUKANI! NA. 3 2016

 TIONE ZAKALE

Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis

IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS anabadwira ku Buda (komwe kumatchedwa Budapest masiku ano ), m’dziko la Hungary. Iye anamaliza maphunziro azachipatala kuyunivesite ya Vienna ku Austria m’chaka cha 1844 ndipo analandira digiri. M’chaka cha 1846 anayamba kugwira ntchito monga wachiwiri kwa Dokotala wamkulu pa Chipatala Chachikulu cha Vienna. Iye ankagwira ntchito yothandiza amayi oyembekezera. Ngakhale kuti Semmelweis sanali wodziwika kwambiri, zimene anachita zinathandiza mabanja ambiri. Pa nthawi yomwe ankayamba kugwira ntchito, n’kuti amayi oposa 13 pa 100 alionse omwe ankachilira pachipatalachi akumamwalira chifukwa cha matenda enaake a m’chiberekero. Matendawa amayamba chifukwa cha mabakiteriya omwe amalowa m’chiberekero pakapita masiku angapo pambuyo poti mayi wabereka mwana.

Madokotala ambiri anali atayesapo kufufuza chomwe chinkayambitsa matendawa kuti achepetse chiwerengero cha amayi omwe ankamwalira, koma sizinathandize. Semmelweis ataona kuti amayi ochuluka akumwalira mozunzika, anamva chisoni ndipo anayesetsa kufufuza chimene chinkayambitsa matendawa komanso mmene angawapewere.

Chipatala chomwe Semmelweis ankagwirako ntchito chinali ndi mbali ziwiri zomwe amayi oyembekezera ankachilirako. Kumbali yoyamba kunali ophunzira udokotala, pomwe kumbali yachiwiri kunali ophunzira unamwino. Koma chomwe chinkamudabwitsa n’choti, amayi omwe ankachilira kumbali yoyamba ndi omwe ankamwalira kwambiri poyerekezera ndi mbali yachiwiri. N’chifukwa chiyani zinali choncho? Semmelweis ankadzifunsanso funso limeneli ndipo anachita zinthu zosiyanasiyana pofuna kupeza chomwe chinkayambitsa nthendayi koma sizinathandize.

Ndiyeno chakumayambiriro kwa chaka cha 1847, Semmelweis anazindikira chomwe chinkayambitsa matendawa. Iye ankagwira ntchito ndi mnzake wina dzina lake Jakob Kolletschka. Mnzakeyu anadzicheka pamene ankayeza mtembo ndipo majeremusi oopsa a mu mtembowo analowa m’magazi ake. Kenako anayamba kudwala ndipo anamwalira. Semmelweis ataona lipoti lokhudza chomwe chinapha mnzakeyu, anapeza kuti zizindikiro za matenda ake zinkafanana ndi za amayi omwe anamwalira ndi matenda am’chiberekero aja. Apatu Semmelweis ayenera kuti anazindikira kuti amayiwa ankadwala chifukwa cha majeremusi oopsa ochokera  m’mitembo yomwe madokotala ankayeza. Zikuoneka kuti madokotala omwe ankayeza mitembo asanapite kukathandiza amayi oyembekezera, ankapatsira majeremusi amayiwa mosazindikira akamawayeza kapenanso akamawathandiza kuchira. Komabe, mbali yachiwiri yomwe amayi ankachilirako sikunkamwalira anthu ambiri chifukwa anamwino omwe ankawathandiza kuchira sankayeza mitembo.

Ndiyeno nthawi yomweyo Semmelweis anakhazikitsa mfundo yoti madokotala azisamba kaye m’manja ndi madzi a mankhwala opha majeremusi asanapite kukathandiza amayi oyembekezera. Ndipotu zimenezi zinachepetsa chiwerengero cha imfa za amayi. Mwachitsanzo, mu April, 1847 kunkamwalira amayi 57 pa 100 alionse, koma pofika chakumapeto kwa chakachi kunkamwalira mayi m’modzi yekha basi.

“Cholinga cha mfundo zanga n’chofuna kuchepetsa imfa za amayi m’zipatala, kuti amuna azisangalalabe ndi akazi awo komanso kuti ana azisangalala ndi amayi awo.”—Ignaz Semmelweis

Komatu si onse omwe anasangalala ndi zimene anachitazi. Dokotala wamkulu wa pachipatalacho sankagwirizana ndi zomwe Semmelweis anapezazi chifukwa zinkatsutsana ndi mfundo zomwe iyeyo ankatsatira. Dokotalayo ankanena kuti watopa ndi khalidwe la Semmelweis lokakamira mfundo zake moti anamuchotsa ntchito pachipatalacho. Kenako Semmelweis anabwerera kwawo ku Hungary ndipo anakayamba ntchito monga dokotala wamkulu mudipatimenti yothandiza amayi oyembekezera pa chipatala cha St. Rochus m’dera la Pest. Kumenekonso anakathandiza kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha amayi omwalira ndi matenda a m’chiberekero kufika pa mayi mmodzi pa 100 alionse.

Mu 1861, iye analemba buku lofotokoza ntchito yomwe ankagwira. (The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever) Koma n’zomvetsa chisoni kuti anthu anazindikira mochedwa phindu lotsatira njira zomwe Semmelweis anapeza zopewera matenda a m’chiberekero. Zimenezitu zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri omwe akanapulumutsidwa amwalire ndi matendawa.

Semmelweis analimbikitsa madokotala a m’zipatala zomwe iye ankayang’anira kuti azisamba m’manja.—Chithunzi chojambulidwa pamanja ndi Robert Thom

Komabe patapita nthawi, Semmelweis anadziwika monga mmodzi wa anthu omwe anathandiza kupeza njira zopewera kufalitsa majeremusi. Ntchito yakeyi inathandiza anthu kuzindikira kuti tizilombo tosaoneka ndi maso tikhoza kuyambitsa matenda oopsa. Iye ndi munthu woyamba kutulukira mfundoyi ndipo yathandiza kwambiri pankhani za umoyo. Komatu n’zochititsa chidwi kuti m’Chilamulo cha Mose chomwe chinalembedwa zaka 3,000, izi zisanachitike, munali malangizo omveka bwino okhudza zimene anthu ankayenera kuchita akakhudza mtembo.