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GALAMUKANI! OCTOBER 2015

Nyumba za m’tauni ya Itchan Kala mumzinda wa Khiva

 ANTHU NDI MAYIKO

Dziko la Uzbekistan

Dziko la Uzbekistan

DZIKO la Uzbekistan lili pakati pa mitsinje iwiri ndipo lakhala likutchulidwa mayina osiyanasiyana monga Trans-Oxiana, Tartary, Turkistan komanso “Dziko la a Uzbek.” M’zaka za m’ma 1400, amalonda ankakonda kudutsa m’dzikoli chifukwa cha msewu wina waukulu womwe unkachokera ku China kupita kunyanja ya Mediterranean kuti akachite malonda. Anthu ambiri a m’dzikoli amakonda kulima thonje ndiponso amakonda kugulitsa makalapeti okongola kwambiri opangidwa ndi thonje, silika komanso ubweya.

Chikhalidwe cha anthu a m’dzikoli chakhala chikusinthasintha chifukwa chotengera zochita za olamulira awo komanso anthu ena otchuka. Mwachitsanzo anthu ena amphamvu kwambiri ndi magulu awo a asilikali anadutsapo m’madera a mapiri komanso m’zipululu za m’dzikoli. Anthu ake ndi monga Alekizanda Wamkulu, yemwe anakumana ndi wachikondi wake Roxane m’dzikoli, Genghis Khan wa ku Mongolia komanso Timur yemwe ankadziwikanso kuti Tamerlane. Timur anali nzika ya dzikoli ndipo analamulira ufumu wina, womwe unali wamphamvu kwambiri.

Zovala za ku Uzbekistan

M’madera ambiri a m’dzikoli muli nyumba komanso zipilala zokongola kwambiri. Nyumba ndi zipilala zambiri zinapangidwa ndi matailosi abuluu ndipo amazigwiritsa ntchito ngati sukulu.

 Msewu Waukulu Umene Amalonda Ankadutsa. Amalonda ankakonda kudutsa mumsewuwu kuyambira kale kwambiri chisanafike chaka cha 1 C.E. Msewu umenewu unkagwira ntchito mpaka pamene anthu anayamba kuyenda panyanja kuchokera ku India kupita kunyanja ya Mediterranean chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1400. Monga tafotokozera kale, mbali ina ya msewuwu inadutsa m’dziko la Uzbekistan ndipo unathandiza kwambiri pa nkhani zamalonda padziko lonse.

Akupanga kalapeti

Nyanja ya Aral. Poyamba nyanjayi inali imodzi mwa nyanja zikuluzikulu padziko lonse. Koma panopa nyanjayi ikuphwera chifukwa anthu anapatutsa madzi a mitsinje yomwe inkathira m’nyanjayi kuti azichita ulimi wothirira. Koma dziko la Uzbekistan likuyesetsa kuthana ndi vutoli mothandizana ndi mayiko ena a ku Central Asia.

Afabeti ya ku Uzbekistan yakhala ikusintha. Poyamba anthu a ku Uzbekistan ankalankhula zinenero zosiyanasiyana. Koma Asilamu atalanda dzikoli m’zaka za m’ma 700 C.E., anthu a m’dzikoli anayamba kulankhula komanso kulemba zinthu m’Chiarabu. Ndiyeno dzikoli litalowa mu ulamuliro wa Soviet Union, linayamba kugwiritsa ntchito afabeti yachilatini. Koma pofika chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1930, afabeti yachilatiniyi inalowedwa m’malo ndi afabeti yachisililiki. Kenako m’chaka cha 1993 boma la Uzbekistan linakhazikitsa afabeti ina yachilatini.

Zipatso zouma zikugulitsidwa pamsika