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GALAMUKANI! SEPTEMBER 2015

 TIONE ZAKALE

Herodotus

Herodotus

KODI zinthu zinali bwanji zaka masauzande apitawo? Kodi anthu ankatsatira miyambo yotani? Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale angatithandize kudziwa mayankho a mafunso amenewa. Koma sikuti angatithandize kudziwa zonse. Komabe pali munthu wina wachigiriki yemwe ankalemba mbiri yakale ndipo anakhalako zaka pafupifupi 2,400 zapitazo. Zimene analemba zingatithandize kudziwa mmene anthu a m’nthawiyo ankakhalira. Dzina la munthu ameneyu ndi Herodotus. Iye analemba buku lomwe anafotokozamo zomwe zinkachitika m’zaka za m’ma 400 B.C.E.

Herodotus analemba za nkhondo zomwe Agiriki anamenya komanso zimene zinachititsa kuti ufumu wa Perisiya ugonjetse ufumu wa Girisi m’chaka cha 490 komanso m’chaka cha 480 B.C.E. Ndipo pamene nkhondo ya m’chaka cha 480 B.C.E. inkamenyedwa, n’kuti Herodotus ali mwana. M’buku lakeli analembanso za maufumu ena omwe anagonjetsedwa ndi dziko la Perisiya.

ANKAFUFUZA KAYE ASANALEMBE NKHANI

Herodotus anali katswiri pofotokoza nkhani. Anali ndi luso lofotokoza zinthu motsatirika ndipo mfundo zomwe ankalemba zinkakhala zogwirizana ndi zimene akunena mu nkhani yonse. Nkhani zimene Herodotus ankalemba sankazitenga kuchokera m’mabuku a boma ofotokoza mbiri yakale chifukwa mabuku oterewa sankapezekapezeka.

Kale anthu sankakonda kulemba nkhani zokhudza mbiri yakale. Koma ankazilemba pokhapokha ngati akufuna kufotokoza zinthu zapadera zomwe mtundu wawo unachita ndipo ankalemba zimenezi pazipilala. Choncho kuti Herodotus alembe nkhani, ankafunika kufufuza mokwanira, kumvetsera anthu ena akamafotokoza nkhani komanso kumva umboni wochokera kwa anthu omwe akudziwa bwino nkhaniyo. Kuti apeze anthu omwe angamuthandize kulemba nkhani, ankafunika kuyenda m’madera osiyanasiyana. Herodotus anakulira m’dera la Halicarnassus lomwe pano limatchedwa Bodrum. Derali linkalamuliridwa ndi ufumu wa Girisi ndipo lili kum’mwera kwa dziko la Turkey. Choncho pofufuza nkhani, Herodotus anayenda m’madera ambiri omwe ufumu wa Girisi unkalamulira.

Herodotus anayenda m’madera osiyanasiyana kuti apeze nkhani zoti alembe

 Anayenda kulowera kumpoto kukafika ku Nyanja Yakuda kenako anakafika ku Scythia, dera lomwe masiku ano ndi ku Ukraine. Analoweranso kum’mwera m’dziko la Palesitina komanso kumpoto kwa dziko la Iguputo. Pamene ankapita ku mayiko a kum’mawa anakafikanso ku Babulo. N’kutheka kuti anamaliza ulendo wake polowera ku chigawo chakumadzulo cha ulamuliro wa Girisi, komwe panopa ndi ku Italy. Pamene ankayenda ulendo wakewu, Herodotus ankaona zinthu zosiyanasiyana komanso ankafunsa anthu mafunso n’kumalemba zinthu zokhazo zimene ankaona kuti ndi zodalirika.

KODI ZIMENE HERODOTUS ANALEMBA ZINALIDI ZOLONDOLA?

Chidutswa cha buku lomwe Herodotus analemba

Zikuoneka kuti zimene Herodotus analemba zokhudza madera amene anayenda komanso zimene anaona n’zolondola ndithu. Analembanso zokhudza miyambo imene anthu a ku Girisi ankachita. Mwachitsanzo analemba zokhudza mmene anthu a ku Scythia ankaikira maliro a mafumu komanso mmene anthu a ku Iguputo ankakonzera maliro awo. Zimene analembazi zimagwirizana ndi zimene akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale anapeza. Anthu amanena kuti zimene Herodotus analemba zokhudza mbiri ya ufumu wa Iguputo “n’zolondola kwambiri ndipo zimaposa zimene zinalembedwa m’mabuku ena akale ofotokoza mbiri ya dzikolo.”

Komabe, si zonse zimene Herodotus analemba zomwe zinali zolondola chifukwa nthawi zina anthu ankamuuza zam’maluwa. Anthu a m’nthawi yake ankakhulupirira zinthu zambiri zabodza monga zoti anthu amatha kuthandizidwa ndi milungu. Choncho olemba mbiri amasiku ano amakayikira ngati zimene Herodotus analemba zilidi zolondola. Komabe, Herodotus anayesetsa kulemba zinthu zomwe zinali ndi umboni wokwanira. Iye ananena kuti sankangokhulupirira zilizonse zomwe anthu ankamuuza. Asanalembe chilichonse, Herodotus ankayamba kaye watsimikizira kuti zimene wamvazo n’zoona. Akaona kuti n’zabodza, sankazilemba.

Nkhani zonse zimene Herodotus analemba pa moyo wake zinalembedwa m’buku limodzi (The Histories). Tikaganizira zimene anachita kuti alembe bukuli, tinganene kuti Herodotus anagwira ntchito yotamandika.