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Galamukani!  |  June 2015

 TIONE ZAKALE

Galileo

Galileo

M’zaka zapakati pa 1300 ndi 1500 C.E., asayansi komanso afilosofi a ku Europe anayamba kutulukira zinthu zomwe zinkatsutsana ndi zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkaphunzitsa. Mmodzi mwa asayansi amenewa anali Galileo Galilei ndipo anatulukira zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo.

GALILEO asanabadwe, asayansi ambiri ankakhulupirira kuti dzuwa, nyenyezi ndi mapulaneti zimazungulira dziko lapansili. Zimenezi zinalinso zina mwa zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkaphunzitsa.

Komabe, Galileo anagwiritsa ntchito chipangizo chake choonera zinthu zakuthambo ndipo anatulukira zinthu zomwe zinali zosiyana kwambiri ndi zimene asayansi ena ankakhulupirira. Mwachitsanzo, ataona kuti pakati pa dzuwa pali timadontho tomwe timayenda, anazindikira kuti dzuwa limayenda pang’onopang’ono mozungulira. Zimene anatulukirazi zinathandiza anthu kudziwa zambiri zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo. Koma zinachititsanso kuti asemphane maganizo ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika.

ANASEMPHANA MAGANIZO NDI A TCHALITCHI CHA KATOLIKA

Galileo asanatulukire zimenezi, wasayansi wina wa ku Poland, dzina lake Nicolaus Copernicus, ankanena kuti dziko lapansili limayenda mozungulira dzuwa. Galileo anafufuza zimene Copernicus analemba zokhudza mmene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera ndipo anapeza umboni woti zinali zoona. Poyamba sankafalitsa zimene anapeza poopa kuti anthu amutsutsa komanso kumunyoza. Koma patapita nthawi analephera  kupirira ndipo anayamba kufalitsa zomwe anapezazo. Asayansi ena sanagwirizane nazo ndipo pasanapite nthawi akuluakulu a tchalitchi cha Katolika anayamba kudana naye komanso kumusala.

Mu 1616, wansembe wina wotchuka, dzina lake Bellarmine anauza Galileo kuti akuluakulu a tchalitchi cha Katolika akhazikitsa lamulo loletsa zimene Copernicus ankaphunzitsa. Bellarmine anauza Galileo kuti ayenera kutsatira lamuloli. Choncho Galileo anasiya kulankhula poyera zoti dziko lapansili limayenda mozungulira dzuwa.

Kenako mu 1623 Papa Urban wa 8, yemwe anali mnzake wa Galileo, anayamba kulamulira. Choncho mu 1624 Galileo anapempha papayu kuti achotse lamulo lija. Koma m’malo molichotsa, papayo anauza Galileo kuti alembe buku lofotokoza kusiyana kwa zimene Copernicus ndi Aristotle ankaphunzitsa, koma asakhale mbali iliyonse.

Choncho Galileo analemba buku lofotokoza nkhani imeneyi. (Dialogue on the Great World Systems) Ngakhale kuti papa anauza Galileo kuti asakhale mbali iliyonse, zimene analemba m’bukuli zinasonyeza kuti ankagwirizana ndi zimene Copernicus analemba. Pasanapite nthawi anthu ena omwe ankadana ndi Galileo anayamba kunena kuti buku lakeli linkanyoza papa. Anthuwa atayamba kumuopseza komanso kunena kuti akuukira tchalitchi cha Katolika, Galileo anakakamizika kusintha maganizo pa zimene Copernicus ankaphunzitsa. Kenako mu 1633 khoti la kafukufuku la Akatolika linalamula kuti Galileo akhale pa ukaidi wosachoka panyumba komanso linaletsa kuti anthu asamawerenge mabuku ake. Galileo anamwalira pa 8 January, 1642 ali kunyumba kwake, m’mudzi wa Arcetri womwe uli pafupi ndi mzinda wa Florence.

Papa Yohane Paulo Wachiwiri anavomereza kuti tchalitchi cha Katolika chinalakwitsa kuimba Galileo mlandu chifukwa cha ntchito yake

Lamulo loti anthu asamawerenge mabuku a Galileo linagwira ntchito kwa zaka 300, koma mu 1979 akuluakulu a tchalitchichi anakambirana n’kugwirizana zoti lamuloli lithe. Kenako mu 1992, Papa Yohane Paulo Wachiwiri anavomereza kuti tchalitchi cha Katolika chinalakwitsa kuimba Galileo mlandu chifukwa cha ntchito yake.