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GALAMUKANI! MAY 2015

 TIONE ZAKALE

Al-Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmi

NTHAWI zambiri anthu akamatchula mitengo ya zinthu komanso akamayeza kulemera kwa zinthu, amagwiritsa ntchito manambala. Manambala ake ndi 0 mpaka 9. Anayambitsa njira yogwiritsa ntchito manambalayi ndi Ahindu komanso Aarabu. Zikuoneka kuti njirayi inayambira ku India ndipo kenako akatswiri ena amaphunziro amene ankalemba m’Chiarabu anafikitsa njirayi kumayiko a azungu m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500. Mmodzi mwa akatswiriwa anali Muhammad ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, yemwe n’kutheka kuti anabadwa m’chaka cha 780 C.E. ndipo mwina anabadwira m’dziko lomwe masiku ano limatchedwa Uzbekistan. Anthu ambiri amati Al-Khwarizmi anali “katswiri wa masamu achiarabu.” N’chifukwa chiyani zili choncho?

KATSWIRI WA MASAMU ACHIARABU

Al-Khwarizmi analemba zokhudza madisimo. Awa ndi manambala omwe amakhala ndi pointi, mwachitsanzo 0.1 kapena 2.5. Komanso m’buku lake lina anafotokoza njira ina yothandiza kwambiri posova masamu. (The Book of Restoring and Balancing) Njirayi imatchedwa algebra m’Chingelezi ndipo mawuwa anachokera ku mawu achiarabu akuti al-jabr. Wolemba mabuku wina, dzina lake Ehsan Masood ananena kuti: “Pa njira zonse zosovera masamu zimene anthu anatulukirapo, algebra ndi njira yabwino kwambiri komanso yothandiza pa nkhani za sayansi.” *

Wolemba mabuku wina analemba kuti: “Kuyambira kale ana asukulu amangoona kuti masamu a algebra, amene Al-Khwarizmi anayambitsawa, ndi ovuta kwambiri moti aphunzitsi akamawaphunzitsa, amaona kuti akungowavutitsa.” Komatu cholinga cha Al-Khwarizmi poyambitsa njirayi chinali kuthandiza anthu kuti asamavutike akamachita malonda, akamagawa chuma komanso akamachita kafukufuku.

Patadutsa zaka zambiri, akatswiri ena a masamu a ku mayiko a azungu monga Galileo ndi Fibonacci anamutayira kamtengo Al-Khwarizmi  chifukwa choti anafotokoza bwino mmene tingagwiritsire ntchito njira ya algebra posova masamu. Zimene Al-Khwarizmi anafotokoza zinathandiza anthu kufufuza zambiri zokhudza masamu a algebra, arithmetic ndi trigonometry. Masamu a trigonometry anathandiza akatswiri a maphunziro a ku Middle East kuti azitha kuwerengetsera kutalika kwa zinthu zamakona atatu komanso kukula kwa makona akewo. Zinawathandizanso kudziwa zambiri zokhudza sayansi ya zinthu zakuthambo. *

Ehsan Masood ananena kuti, pa njira zonse zosovera masamu zimene anthu anatulukirapo, algebra ndi njira yabwino kwambiri

Anthu amene anagwiritsa ntchito zimene Al-Khwarizmi anapezazi, anatulukiranso njira zosovera masamu pogwiritsa ntchito madisimo. Komanso anatulukira njira zatsopano zodziwira kukula kwa malo komanso kuchuluka kwa mpweya ndi zinthu zamadzimadzi. Akatswiri a zomangamanga a ku Middle East anayamba kugwiritsa ntchito njira zimenezi kale kwambiri zisanafike m’mayiko a azungu. Anthu a m’mayikowa anayamba kudziwa masamuwa pa nthawi imene Matchalitchi Achikhristu a m’mayiko awo ankamenyana ndi Asilamu. Asilikali amene anamenya nkhondozi anaphunzira masamuwa ndipo atabwerera kwawo anayamba kuwagwiritsa ntchito. Komanso Asilamu ophunzira omwe anawagwira pa nkhondozi n’kupita nawo kwawo monga akapolo, anathandiza kuti kumenekonso anthu ayambe kugwiritsa ntchito masamuwa.

ANTHU AMBIRI ANAYAMBA KUGWIRITSA NTCHITO MASAMU ACHIARABU

Zimene Al-Khwarizmi analemba zinamasuliridwa m’Chilatini. Anthu ambiri amaona kuti katswiri wina wamasamu wa ku Italy, dzina lake Fibonacci, yemwe ankatchedwanso Leonardo wa ku Pisa, anagwira ntchito yotamandika pothandiza kuti anthu a kumayiko a azungu azigwiritsa ntchito manambala omwe Ahindu komanso Aarabu anayambitsa. Anaphunzira za manambalawa pamene ankayenda m’mayiko omwe ali m’mbali mwa nyanja ya Mediterranean ndipo kenako analemba buku lofotokoza za masamuwa.

Panatenga nthawi yaitali kwambiri kuti njira zosovera masamu zomwe Al-Khwarizmi anayambitsa ziyambe kutchuka. Koma panopa, njirazi n’zothandiza kwambiri pa nkhani za sayansi komanso luso lopanga zinthu zamakono. Zimathandizanso kwambiri pa nkhani zamalonda ngakhalenso popanga zinthu zosiyanasiyana.

^ ndime 5 M’masamu a masiku ano a algebra, manambala amene sakudziwika amaimiridwa ndi x, y kapena zilembo zina. Mwachitsanzo akalemba kuti x + 4 = 6. Tikafuna kudziwa kuti x akuimira chiyani, timapanga 6 - 4 n’kupeza 2. Choncho x akuimira 2.

^ ndime 7 Akatswiri a sayansi ya zinthu zakuthambo a ku Greece ndi amene anali oyamba kuchita zimenezi. Akatswiri a maphunziro achisilamu ankagwiritsa ntchito njirayi pofuna kudziwa kumene kuli mzinda wa Mecca womwe ndi wofunika kwambiri m’chipembedzo chachisilamu. Masiku anonso, Asilamu amayang’ana komwe kuli mzinda wa Mecca akamapemphera ndiponso akamazinga nyama. Komanso akamaika maliro, amawayang’anitsa komwe kuli mzindawu.