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GALAMUKANI! MARCH 2015

 TIONE ZAKALE

Malamulo Omwe Anagawanitsa Dziko

Malamulo Omwe Anagawanitsa Dziko

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS atabwerako ku ulendo wake woyamba wokafufuza malo ku America mu 1493, mafumu a ku Spain ndi Portugal anayamba kukanganirana malo omwe Colombus anatulukira. Onse ankafuna azichita malonda komanso kulamulira madera omwe Colombus anatulukirawo. Zitatere mfumu ya ku Spain inapempha Papa Alexander VI kuti athetse nkhaniyo.

MAFUMU KOMANSO APAPA ANAPANGITSA KUTI DZIKO LIGAWIDWE

Dziko la Spain, la Portugal komanso apapa ankanena kuti malo omwe Colombus anatulukira ndi awo. Mu 1455, Papa Nicholas V anauza dziko la Portugal kuti ali ndi ufulu wofufuza malo ndi zilumba zomwe zili m’nyanja ya Atlantic kufupi ndi ku Africa ndipo zimene apezezo zikhale zawo. Mu 1479, pa pangano lotchedwa Alcáçovas, Mfumu Afonso V wa ku Portugal ndi mwana wake John, anapereka zilumba za Canary kwa Ferdinand ndi Isabella omwe anali mafumu a ku Spain. Nalonso dziko la Spain linapereka ku dziko la Portugal dera la ku Africa kuti lizilamulira zilumba za Azore, Cape Verde ndi Madeira komanso lizichita malonda m’maderawa. Patatha zaka ziwiri, Papa Sixtus IV anavomereza panganoli ndipo ananena kuti malo onse omwe angatulukiridwe kum’mwera ndi kum’mawa kwa zilumba za Canary azikhala a dziko la Portugal.

John atakhala mfumu ya ku Portugal n’kuyamba kudziwika kuti John II, anayamba kunena kuti madera omwe Columbus anatulukira anali a dziko la Portugal. Koma Ferdinand ndi Isabella sanagwirizane ndi zimenezi moti anasuma nkhaniyi kwa Papa Alexander VI. Iwo ankafuna kuti maderawa akhale m’manja mwawo komanso kuti akhazikitsemo Chikhristu.

Papa Alexander VI analamula kuti dzikoli ligawidwe pawiri

Pofuna kuthetsa nkhaniyi, Papa Alexander VI anagamula kuti maderawo apite ku dziko la Spain. Anati wagamula zimenezi “pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zimene Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse”  wamupatsa. Anagamulanso kuti dziko ligawidwe pawiri kuyambira kumadzulo kwa zilumba za Cape Verde. Anati dera lakumadzulo komanso malo onse omwe azipezeka m’derali azikhala a dziko la Spain, pomwe dera linalo linapita kumbali ya dziko la Portugal. Anagamulanso kuti dziko la Spain likhale ndi mphamvu yolamulira madera ena a kum’mawa mpaka kukafika ku India. Koma zimenezi zinakwiyitsa koopsa John II wa ku Portugal, chifukwa anthu ake anali atangotulukira kumene malo ena a ku Africa, zimene zikusonyeza kuti dera lozungulira Indian Ocean ku Africa linali m’manja mwawo.

ANALIGAWANSO KACHIWIRI

Posagwirizana ndi zomwe Alexander * anagamulazi, John II anaganiza zokambirana yekha nkhaniyi ndi Ferdinand ndi Isabella. Wolemba mabuku wina, dzina lake William Bernstein, anati: “Ferdinand ndi Isabella anavomereza zofuna za John II chifukwa ankadziwa kuti anthu a ku Portugal ndi ouma mtima. Anachitanso zimenezi chifukwa ankaona kuti iwowo ali kale ndi madera abwino a ku America.” Choncho mu 1494, dziko la Spain ndi la Portugal linasainirana pangano lotchedwa Tordesillas. Panganoli linatchulidwa dzinali potengera dzina la tauni yotchedwa Tordesillas, yomwe ili ku Spain.

Pa panganoli, anagwirizana kuti mfundo yoti adulirane malire imene Alexander ananena ikhalepobe, koma malirewo awasunthire kumadzulo. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti Africa ndi Asia yense akhale m’manja mwa Portugal, pomwe America akhale m’manja mwa dziko la Spain. Kusuntha kwa malirewa kunachititsa kuti dera lomwe linadzakhala dziko la Brazil, lomwe pa nthawiyo anali asanalitulukire, likhalenso m’manja mwa dziko la Portugal.

Lamulo lomwe linapatsa dziko la Spain ndi la Portugal mphamvu zoti madera ena akhale m’manja mwawo komanso kuti aziteteza madera amene awatulukira, linabweretsa mavuto ambiri. Mayikowa ankagwiritsa ntchito lamuloli ngati chifukwa chomenyana ndi aliyense wofuna kulanda maderawa ndipo nkhondozi zinaphetsa anthu ambiri. Lamuloli linapangitsanso kuti anthu omwe ankakhala m’maderawa aziponderezedwa komanso kudyeredwa masuku pamutu. Linachititsanso kuti kwa zaka zambiri m’maderawa muzichitika nkhondo polimbirana malo komanso nyanja.

^ ndime 9 Kuti mudziwe zambiri zokhudza Papa Alexander VI, yemwe anali wokonda ziphuphu kwambiri, werengani nkhani yakuti, “Alexander VI Papa Amene Samuiwala ku Rome,” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya June 15, 2003, tsamba 26 mpaka 29.