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GALAMUKANI! MARCH 2015

Kamphepo Kayaziyazi Komanso Dzuwa Ndi Mankhwala

Kamphepo Kayaziyazi Komanso Dzuwa Ndi Mankhwala

M’MA 1900, asayansi anatulukira mankhwala opha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Madokotala ankaona kuti mankhwala amenewa athandiza kuthetsa matenda osiyanasiyana. Poyamba zinaoneka kuti mankhwalawa akuthandizadi. Koma chifukwa chowagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tinawazolowera moti tinasiya kufa ndi mankhwalawa.

Chifukwa cha zimenezi, asayansi anaganiza zoonanso njira zopewera tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, zomwe asayansi akale anapeza. Imodzi mwa njira zimenezi ndi kuwothera dzuwa komanso kukhala pamalo pomwe pakuomba kamphepo kayaziyazi.

Njira Imene Asayansi Akale Anapeza

Asayansi akale a ku England ankauza anthu kuti kamphepo kayaziyazi komanso dzuwa ndi mankhwala. Mwachitsanzo, dokotala wina, dzina lake John Lettsom, ankauza makolo a ana omwe akudwala TB kuti azionetsetsa kuti anawo akuwothera dzuwa komanso kukhala pamalo pomwe pakuomba kamphepo kayaziyazi. Mu 1840, dokotala winanso dzina lake George Bodington, ananena kuti anthu omwe amagwira ntchito panja monga alimi komanso abusa, sadwaladwala TB poyerekeza ndi anthu omwe amakhala nthawi yaitali akugwira ntchito muofesi kapena amene amangobindikira m’nyumba.

Panalinso Florence Nightingale yemwe anatchuka kwambiri chifukwa cha njira zomwe ankagwiritsa ntchito posamalira asilikali omwe anavulala pa nkhondo ya ku Crimea. Florence ankakonda kufunsa kuti: “Kodi munayamba mwalowapo m’chipinda cha munthu wina . . . usiku mawindo ali otseka kapena m’mawa asanatsegule mawindo? Kodi m’chipindamo munali mpweya wabwino?” Apa Florence ankatanthauza kuti kusiya mawindo ali otseka kwa nthawi yaitali, kumapangitsa kuti m’nyumba mukhale mpweya woipa. Florence Nightingale ankalimbikitsa kuti m’chipinda cha wodwala muzikhala motsegula n’cholinga choti muzilowa mphepo. Florence ananenanso kuti: “Ndapezanso  kuti chinthu china chofunika kwambiri kwa odwala n’choti ayenera kumakhala panja . . . n’kumaothera dzuwa.” Pa nthawiyi anthu ambiri ankakhulupiriranso kuti kuyanika zofunda ndi zovala padzuwa kumathandiza kuti munthu asamadwaledwale.

Panopa sayansi yapita patsogolo kwambiri. Komabe zimene asayansi apeza sizikusiyana ndi zomwe asayansi akale ankanenazi. Mwachitsanzo, kafukufuku wina yemwe anachitika mu 2011 ku China, anasonyeza kuti ophunzira amene ankagona mopanikizana m’zipinda za pakoleji ina yomwe inalibe mawindo okwanira, “ankadwaladwala matenda opatsirana kudzera mu mpweya.”

Komanso bungwe loona za umoyo padziko lonse linanena kuti, m’nyumba mukamalowa kamphepo kayaziyazi, zimathandiza kupewa matenda. Mu 2009, bungweli linatulutsa mabuku a malangizo olimbikitsa ogwira ntchito pachipatala kuti azitsegula mawindo a zipinda zogona odwala pofuna kuchepetsa kufalikira kwa matenda. *

Koma mwina mungadzifunse kuti, ‘Kodi kuothera dzuwa komanso kamphepo kayaziyazi zimathandiza bwanji kuti munthu asamadwaledwale?’

Zimapha Tizilombo Toyambitsa Matenda

Kafukufuku yemwe a unduna woona zachitetezo m’dziko la United Kingdom anachita, akuyankha funso limeneli. Asayansi ankafuna kudziwa kuti zitakhala kuti bomba lokhala ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda laphulika mumzinda wa London, mpweya woipa ungakhalepo kwa nthawi yaitali bwanji. Kuti adziwe ngati tizilombo toyambitsa matendati tingapitirizebe kukhala ndi moyo mu mpweya, ochita kafukufukuwo anatenga timabakiteriya totchedwa E. coli n’kutiika pa ulusi wa kangaude ndipo kenako anaika ulusiwo panja. Kafukufukuyu anachitika usiku chifukwa anthu amakhulupirira kuti dzuwa limapha mabakiteriya amenewa. Kodi anapeza zotani?

Patatha maola awiri, pafupifupi mabakiteriya onse anafa. Koma ataikanso mabakiteriyawo m’katoni pamalo omwewo, potha maola awiri anapeza kuti mabakiteriya ambiri sanafe. N’chiyani chinachititsa zimenezi? Zikuoneka kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timafa tikaombedwa ndi mphepo. Koma panopa asayansi sanadziwebe kuti zimenezi zimatheka bwanji.

Dzuwa nalonso limapha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Magazini ina inanena kuti “tizilombo tambiri toyambitsa matenda monga chimfine, timafa tikawombedwa ndi dzuwa.”—Journal of Hospital Infection.

Popeza taona kuti kamphepo kayaziyazi komanso dzuwa ndi mankhwala, si bwino kumangobindikira m’nyumba. Muzikonda kukhala panja nthawi zina n’kumaothera dzuwa komanso kupitidwa kamphepo kayaziyazi. Zimenezi zingakuthandizeni kuti musamadwaledwale.

^ ndime 8 Nthawi zina zinthu monga phokoso, akuba, fungo loipa lochokera panja komanso malangizo opewera ngozi yamoto, zingapangitse kuti anthu asatsegule mawindo.