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GALAMUKANI! SEPTEMBER 2014

 TIONE ZAKALE

Dziko la Spain Linathamangitsa Anthu Otchedwa a Morisco

Dziko la Spain Linathamangitsa Anthu Otchedwa a Morisco

Anthu ena amati pafupifupi zinthu zonse zomvetsa chisoni zomwe dziko la Spain linachitira Asilamu, zinachitika chifukwa cha tchalitchi cha Katolika. Werengani nkhaniyi kuti mudziwe zimene zinachitika.

MAFUMU a ku Spain ankafuna kuti dziko lawo likhale lachikhristu ndiponso kuti anthu onse azikhulupirira zinthu zofanana. Anthu a ku Spain ankaona kuti anthu otchedwa a Morisco ndi otsika komanso osafunika ndipo Mulungu sasangalala nawo. Iwo ankaona kuti si bwino kukhala ndi anthuwa, choncho patatha zaka zambiri dziko la Spain linaganiza zongowathamangitsa. *

ANAWAKAKAMIZA KUTI AKHALE AKATOLIKA

Kwa zaka zambiri, Asilamu a mtundu wa Mudéjar ankakhala mwamtendere ku Spain m’madera amene anali m’manja mwa Akatolika. Ndipo m’madera ena munali malamulo omwe ankapatsa anthuwa ufulu wotsatira malamulo komanso miyambo ya chipembedzo chawo.

Koma mu 1492, Mfumu Ferdinand Wachiwiri ndi Mfumukazi Isabella, omwe anali Akatolika, anagonjetsa dera lotchedwa Granada lomwe linkalamuliridwa ndi Asilamu. Derali linali mbali ya chilumba cha Iberia, ndipo linali lomalizira kulandidwa. Mofanana ndi anthu a mtundu wa Mudéjar aja, anthu a m’derali nawonso ankaloledwa kutsatira malamulo komanso miyambo ya chipembedzo chawo. Komabe pasanapite nthawi, atsogoleri a Katolika a m’madera onse anayamba kuletsa Asilamu kutsatira malamulo ndi miyambo ya chipembedzo chawo ndipo ankawakakamiza kuti alowe Chikatolika. Asilamuwa sanagwirizane ndi zimenezi ndipo mu 1499 anaukira boma la Spain. Zitatere asilikali a boma analowererapo  ndipo anathetsa mkanganowu. Koma pasanapite nthawi, Asilamu anayamba kukakamizidwa kuti ayambe Chikatolika ndipo akakana ankawathamangitsa m’dzikomo. Anthu a ku Spain ankatchula Asilamu amene alowa Chikatolika kuti a Morisco.

“ANALI AKATOLIKA DZINA LOKHA KOMANSO SANALI NZIKA ZABWINO”

Pofika mu 1526, chipembedzo chachisilamu chinali choletsedwa m’dziko lonse la Spain ndipo Asilamu anakakamizidwa kulowa Chikatolika. Komabe Asilamu ambiri ankachita zinthu zokhudza chipembedzo chawo mobisa komanso ankatsatirabe miyambo ya chikhalidwe chawo.

Choncho ngakhale kuti a Morisco anavomera kuti akhala Akatolika, anali Akatolika dzina lokha. Anthu a ku Spain sankagwirizana ndi zimenezi komabe sanawachite chilichonse chifukwa a Morisco ankalipira misonkho komanso ankagwira ntchito zosiyanasiyana. Ntchitozi zinkatukula dziko la Spain. Komabe zimene a Morisco ankachitazi, zomachitabe zinthu zokhudza chipembedzo chawo, zinkapangitsa kuti boma komanso anthu ena aziwasala. Chinanso chimene chinapangitsa kuti azisalidwa n’choti zimene ankachita akapita ku tchalitchi zinkakayikitsa ngati analidi Akatolika enieni.

Koma patapita nthawi, anthu a ku Spain anatopa ndi zochita za a Morisco ndipo anayamba kuwakakamiza kuti azitsatira miyambo yonse yachikatolika. Mu 1567, Mfumu Philip Wachiwiri anakhazikitsa lamulo loletsa a Morisco kuti asamalankhulenso chinenero chawo. Lamuloli linaletsanso kavalidwe komanso miyambo yawo. Zimenezi zinapangitsa kuti zipolowe ziyambirenso ndipo anthu ambiri anaphedwa.

A Morisco pafupifupi 300,000 anazunzidwa koopsa kenako anawathamangitsa m’dziko la Spain

Malinga ndi zimene akatswiri a mbiri yakale ananena, mafumu a ku Spain ankaona kuti a Morisco “anali akatolika dzina lokha komanso sanali nzika zabwino.” Pa chifukwa chimenechi mafumuwa anayamba kuimba mlandu a Morisco woti ankagwirizana ndi adani a dziko la Spain, zigawenga zapanyanja komanso Apulotesitanti a ku France ndi a ku Turkey. Ankati a Morisco ankachita zimenezi n’cholinga choti alande dziko la Spain. Popeza anthu a ku Spain ankadana ndi a Morisco komanso ankaopa kuti akhoza kuukira boma, mu 1609 Mfumu Philip Yachitatu inakhazikitsa lamulo loti anthuwa athamangitsidwe. * Choncho, anthuwa anayambadi kuthamangitsidwa m’dzikoli ndiponso ankazunzidwa kwambiri. Kenako dziko lonse la Spain linakhala lachikatolika.

^ ndime 4 Anthu a ku Spain ankagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti a Morisco monyoza, ponena za Asilamu omwe anayamba Chikatolika. Ufumu womaliza wachisilamu utagonjetsedwa mu 1492, anthuwa anayamba kukhala pachilumba cha Iberia. Akatswiri a mbiri yakale akamanena za anthuwa amagwiritsanso ntchito mawu omwewa, koma osati monyoza.

^ ndime 12 Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amanena kuti mfumu ina ya ku Spain inalemera kwambiri chifukwa cholanda minda ya a Morisco.