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Galamukani!  |  June 2014

 ZITHUNZI ZAKALE

Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley

Katswiri wina wa nzeru za anthu, dzina lake Frederic Harrison, ananena kuti Joseph Priestley yemwe anali “katswiri pa nkhani zasayansi, zachipembedzo, zandale komanso nzeru za anthu, yemwenso anathandiza kuti zinthu zisinthe ku France ndipo anazunzidwa popanda chifukwa, anachita zinthu zotamandika m’zaka za m’ma 1700.” Frederic Harrison ananenanso kuti, “Joseph Priestley ankachita chidwi ndi zinthu zokhudza makhalidwe abwino komanso kuphunzira zinthu zosiyanasiyana.”

KODI ndi zinthu ziti zimene Joseph Priestley anachita zimene anthu amamukumbukira nazo? Zimene analemba komanso kutulukira zimakhudza mmene anthu amaonera atsogoleri andale, zimene anthu amadziwa pa nkhani ya Mulungu komanso mpweya umene timapumawu.

Priestley akamalemba zasayansi kapena zachipembedzo, ankatsutsa mfundo zabodza ndipo ankayesetsa kupeza zoona pa nkhaniyo. Tiyeni tione mmene anachitira zimenezi.

ZIMENE ANAPEZA ZOKHUDZA SAYANSI

Atakumana ndi wasayansi wina wa ku America, dzina lake Benjamin Franklin mu 1765, Joseph Priestley anayamba kufufuza za magetsi. Pa nthawiyi ankakonda kuchita kafukufuku wa zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Chaka chotsatira, asayansi anzake anachita chidwi ndi zimene iye anapeza ndipo anamusankha kuti akhale membala wa bungwe la zasayansi lotchedwa, Royal Society of London.

Kenako, Priestley anayamba kuchita chidwi ndi sayansi ya mmene zinthu zosiyanasiyana zimapangidwira. Pasanapite nthawi, anatulukira mitundu ingapo ya mpweya monga wa ammonia ndi wa nitrous oxide. Anaphatikizanso madzi ndi mpweya wa carbon dioxide n’kupanga madzi enaake.

Mu 1774, Priestley ali kum’mwera kwa England, anatulukira mpweya wina umene umapangitsa kuti kandulo aziwala kwambiri. Kenako anatenga pang’ono mpweya woterewu n’kuuika m’botolo lagalasi ndipo anaikamonso khoswe. Khosweyo sanafe msanga poyerekeza ndi mmene akanafera zikanakhala kuti  anamuika mu mpweya wamba. Priestley anapumanso mpweyawu ndipo ananena kuti “unamuthandiza kuti azipuma mosavuta.”

Apa Joseph Priestley anali atatulikira mpweya wa okosijeni, umene anthufe timapuma. * Koma iye ankaganiza kuti watulukira mpweya wamba umene unalibe zina ndi zina zimene zimapangitsa kuti zinthu ziyake. Zimene ankaganizazi sizinali zoona, chifukwa ambiri amaona kuti “apa Priestley anagwira ntchito yotamandika kwambiri pa moyo wake.”

ZIMENE ANAPEZA ZOKHUDZA CHIPEMBEDZO

Priestley ankaona kuti zinthu zabodza zimene anthu ankanena zokhudza sayansi komanso chipembedzo, zinkalepheretsa anthu kudziwa zoona pa nkhani zimenezi. Komabe zinthu zina zimene Priestley ankakhulupirira pa nthawi imene ankafufuza zokhudza Baibulo, sizinali zogwirizana ndi zomwe Baibulo limanena. Mwachitsanzo, pa nthawi ina iye sankakhulupirira kuti Baibulo linauziridwa ndi Mulungu. Ankatsutsanso zimene Baibulo limanena zoti Yesu anali kumwamba asanabwere padziko lapansi.

“Ngati sayansi ingamuthandize munthu kudziwa choonadi, ndiye kuti Priestley anali wasayansi weniweni.”—Katherine Cullen, yemwenso anali wasayansi.

Ngakhale izi zinali choncho, Priestley ankatsutsa zinthu zabodza zimene zipembedzo zinkaphunzitsa zomwe pa nthawiyo zinali zofala ngati mmene zililinso masiku ano. Iye analemba kuti Yesu ndi atumwi ake onse atamwalira, anthu anayamba kuphunzitsa zinthu zabodza monga zakuti pali milungu itatu mwa Mulungu mmodzi komanso zoti mzimu wa munthu sufa. Analembanso kuti anthuwa ankalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito zifaniziro polambira, ngakhale kuti Baibulo limatsutsa zimenezi.

Anthu a m’dziko lakwawo anakwiya kwambiri ndi zimene Priestley analembazi komanso chifukwa choti ankathandiza kuti zinthu zisinthe ku America ndi ku France pa nkhani zandale. Choncho mu 1791, gulu la anthu osagwirizana naye linawotcha nyumba komanso labotale yake ndipo kenako iye anathawira ku United States. Ngakhale kuti anthu amamukumbukira chifukwa cha zimene anatulukira pa nkhani ya sayansi, Joseph Priestley ankakhulupirira kuti kuphunzira za Mulungu komanso cholinga chake, n’kumene kuli “kofunika kuposa chilichonse.”

^ ndime 10 Priestley asanatulukire mpweya wa okosijeni, katswiri wina wofufuza mmene zinthu zimapangidwira wa ku Sweden, dzina lake Carl Scheele anatulukirapo mpweyawu koma sanalembe zimene anatulukirazi. Patapita nthawi kuchokera pamene Priestley anatulukira mpweyawu, katswiri winanso wofufuza mmene zinthu zimapangidwira wa ku France, dzina lake Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, anatchula mpweyawu kuti okosijeni.