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GALAMUKANI! FEBRUARY 2013

 ZITHUNZI ZAKALE

Plato

Plato

Plato anabadwa mu 427 B.C.E n’kumwalira mu 347 B.C.E. Iye anali Mgiriki ndipo ankaphunzitsa nzeru za anthu. Anabadwira ku Athens m’banja lolemera ndipo anaphunzira m’masukulu apamwamba a ku Girisi. Iye ankatsatira kwambiri nzeru za Socrates komanso otsatira a Pythagoras, yemwenso anali katswiri wamasamu.

ATAYENDA m’madera a ku Mediterranean komanso kuchita nawo zandale mumzinda wa Syracuse, ku Sicily, Plato anabwerera ku Athens komwe anatsegula sukulu yotchedwa Academy. Sukuluyi inali yoyamba ku Ulaya konse ndipo ndi kumene anthu ankaphunzirako masamu komanso nzeru za anthu.

ZIMENE PLATO ANKAPHUNZITSA

Zimene anthu ambiri amakhulupirira masiku ano n’zimene Plato ankaphunzitsa. Ena mwa anthu amene amakhulupirira ziphunzitso za Plato ndi amene amati ndi Akhristu ndipo amaona ngati zimene amakhulupirirazo zinachokera m’Baibulo. Chiphunzitso chodziwika kwambiri cha Plato n’chakuti munthu akafa, mzimu wake umakhalabe ndi moyo.

“Plato ankakonda kwambiri kuphunzitsa zoti munthu akamwalira, mzimu wake umakhalabe ndi moyo.”—Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy

Plato ankachita chidwi kwambiri ndi zimene zimachitika munthu akamwalira. Buku lina linanena kuti: “Plato ankakonda kwambiri kuphunzitsa zoti munthu akamwalira, mzimu wake umakhalabe ndi moyo.” Iye ankakhulupirira kwambiri kuti “munthu akafa, mzimu wake umapita kwinakwake komwe umakadikirira kuti ukalandire mphoto kapena chilango,” mogwirizana ndi zimene munthuyo ankachita ali moyo. *Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy.

 MMENE ZIPHUNZITSO ZA PLATO ZINAFALIKILIRA

Sukulu ya Plato inatsegulidwa mu 387 B.C.E n’kutha mu 529 C.E. Pa nthawi yonseyi sukuluyi inali yotchuka kwambiri. Ziphunzitso za Plato zinatchuka kwambiri m’mayiko amene ankatsatira kwambiri mfundo za ku Girisi ndi Roma. Myuda wina wa ku Alexandria, yemwe anali katswiri wa nzeru za anthu, dzina lake Philo, anayamba kutsatira nzeru za Plato. Kenako atsogoleri ambiri a matchalitchi anayambanso kutsatira nzeru za Plato. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti zipembedzo zachiyuda komanso zachikhristu zitengere ziphunzitso zambiri zachikunja, kuphatikizapo chiphunzitso choti munthu akamwalira mzimu wake umakhalabe ndi moyo.

Dikishonale ina inanena kuti: “Ziphunzitso zambiri zachikhristu zinachokera ku zimene Plato ankaphunzitsa, ndipo akuluakulu ena azipembedzo zachikhristu, omwe anthu ena amawaona kuti ndi anzeru, anangobera nzeru za Plato basi.” (The Anchor Bible Dictionary) Taonani zina mwa zimene mabuku ena anena zokhudza chiphunzitso cha Plato.

Zimene Plato ananena: “[Munthu akamwalira,] chinthu chinachake chimene chimakhala m’thupi mwathu, chomwe timachitcha kuti mzimu wosafa, chimachoka n’kupita kwa milungu, ndipo kumeneko . . . chimakaweruzidwa. Ngati munthuyo amachita zabwino sachita mantha koma ngati amachita zoipa amaopa kuweruzidwa.”—Plato—Laws, Book XII.

Zimene Baibulo limanena: Baibulo siliphunzitsa kuti pali chinachake chomwe chimakhalabe ndi moyo munthu akamwalira. Baibulo likamanena za mzimu wa munthu, limanena za mphamvu imene imachititsa kuti munthuyo akhale wamoyo. Munthuyo akafa, ndiye kuti mphamvu imeneyo yatha ndipo palibe china chilichonse chimene chimapitirizabe kukhala ndi moyo. * N’chimodzimodzinso ndi nyama. Taonani malemba otsatirawa:

  • “Munthu woyambirira, Adamu, anakhala munthu wamoyo.”—1 Akorinto 15:45.

  • “Mulungu anati: ‘Dziko lapansi likhale ndi zamoyo monga mwa mitundu yake, nyama zoweta, nyama zokwawa, komanso nyama zakutchire.’”—Genesis 1:24.

  • “Moyo wanga ufe.”—Numeri 23:10.

  • “Moyo umene ukuchimwawo ndi umene udzafe.”—Ezekieli 18:4.

Apa n’zoonekeratu kuti Baibulo siliphunzitsa kuti munthu akafa pali chinachake chimene chimapitiriza kukhalabe ndi moyo. Ndiye dzifunseni kuti, ‘Kodi zimene ndimakhulupirira n’zochokera m’Baibulo kapena n’zimene Plato ankaphunzitsa?’

^ ndime 7 Ngakhale kuti Plato ndi amene anatchukitsa chiphunzitso chimenechi, sikuti iye ndi amene anachiyambitsa. Zipembedzo zambiri zachikunja zakhala zikukhulupirira chiphunzitso chimenechi m’njira zosiyanasiyana. Zina mwa zipembedzo zimenezi ndi za ku Iguputo ndi Babulo.

^ ndime 12 Baibulo limaphunzitsa kuti munthu akafa amangokhala ngati wagona, ndipo amangoyembekezera kuti adzaukitsidwe. (Mlaliki 9:5; Yohane 11:11-14; Machitidwe 24:15) Koma zimene anthu amakhulupirira kuti munthu amakhala ndi chinachake chomwe sichifa munthuyo akamwalira n’zosamveka chifukwa ngati pali chinachake chomwe sichifa, ndiye kuti palibe chifukwa choti akufa adzaukitsidwe.