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Mboni za Yehova

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Yandikirani kwa Yehova

 MUTU 13

“Malamulo a Yehova Ali Angwiro”

“Malamulo a Yehova Ali Angwiro”

1, 2. N’chifukwa chiyani anthu ambiri salemekeza kwenikweni malamulo, komabe kodi ndi motani mmene tingayambire kukonda malamulo a Mulungu?

“KUZENGA milandu kuli ngati dzenje lakuya kwambiri lomwe pansi pake sipaoneka, . . . limameza chilichonse.” Mawu amenewo analembedwa m’buku lomwe linafalitsidwa kalelo m’chaka cha 1712. Wolemba bukuli anali kutsutsa dongosolo la zamalamulo limene milandu nthaŵi zina inali kutha zaka zingapo idakali m’khoti, mpaka anthu ofunafuna chilungamowo ndalama kufika powathera. M’mayiko ambiri, nkhani zamalamulo ndi zachiweruzo n’zovuta kwambiri, zachuluka kupanda chilungamo, tsankhu, ndi kunena paŵiripaŵiri, kotero kuti ambiri amanyansidwa nawo malamulo.

2 Tasiyanitsani zimenezo ndi mawu aŵa amene analembedwa zaka ngati 2,700 zapitazo: “Ha! Ndikondadi chilamulo chanu.” (Salmo 119:97) N’chifukwa chiyani wamasalmoyu anali ndi chikondi chachikulu moteromo? N’chifukwa chakuti chilamulo chimene anali kutamandacho, sichinakonzedwe ndi boma lililonse la anthu, koma ndi Yehova Mulungu. Pamene mukuphunzira malamulo a Yehova, mudzayamba kumva mofanana kwambiri ndi mmene anamvera wamasalmoyu. Mwa kuphunzira koteroko, mudzazindikira malingaliro a nkhani zamilandu apamwamba kwambiri m’chilengedwe chonse.

Woika Malamulo Wamkulu

3, 4. Kodi Yehova wasonyeza kukhala Woika Malamulo m’njira zotani?

3 Baibulo limatiuza kuti: “Woika lamulo ndi woweruza ndiye mmodzi.” (Yakobo 4:12) Inde, Yehova ndiye yekha amene ali Woika Malamulo weniweni. Ngakhale zinthu zakuthambo nazo zimayenda molamulidwa ndi ‘malamulo [Ake] a thambo lakumwamba.’ (Yobu 38:33, Malembo Oyera) Miyandamiyanda ya angelo oyera a Yehova nayonso imatsatira malamulo a Mulungu, pakuti angelowo ndi olinganizidwa m’maudindo odziŵika bwino ndipo  amatumikira molamulidwa ndi Yehova monga atumiki ake.—Salmo 104:4; Ahebri 1:7, 14.

4 Yehova waperekanso malamulo kwa anthu. Munthu aliyense ali ndi chikumbumtima, chomwe chimatisonyeza mmene Yehova amaonera chilungamo. Pokhala monga lamulo lam’kati mwathu, chikumbumtima chingatithandize kusiyanitsa chabwino ndi choipa. (Aroma 2:14) Makolo athu oyambirira anali ndi chikumbumtima changwiro, motero sanafunike malamulo ambiri. (Genesis 2:15-17) Komabe, anthu opanda ungwiro amafunika malamulo ochuluka kuti awatsogolere pochita chifuno cha Mulungu. Makolo akalelo onga Nowa, Abrahamu, ndi Yakobo analandira malamulo kuchokera kwa Yehova Mulungu ndi kuwapereka kwa mabanja awo. (Genesis 6:22; 9:3-6; 18:19; 26:4, 5) Yehova anadzichititsa kukhala Woika Malamulo m’njira yomwe inali isanachitikepo n’kale lonse pamene anapatsa mtundu wa Israyeli mpambo wa Malamulo kupyolera mwa Mose. Mpambo wa malamulo umenewu umatidziŵitsa zambiri za mmene Yehova amaonera chilungamo.

Chilamulo cha Mose Mwachidule

5. Kodi Chilamulo cha Mose chinali mpambo wa malamulo waukulu ndi wovuta kuumvetsa, nanga n’chifukwa chiyani mukuyankha motero?

5 Ambiri amalingalira kuti Chilamulo cha Mose chinali mpambo wa malamulo waukulu ndi wovuta kuumvetsa. Malingaliro otero si oona ngakhale pang’ono. Mpambo wonsewo uli ndi malamulo opitirira 600. Angaoneke ngati ochuluka zedi, koma taganizirani izi: Pofika kumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1900, malamulo a dziko la United States anadzaza masamba oposa 150,000 a mabuku a zamalamulo. Pa zaka ziŵiri zilizonse amawonjezera malamulo ena ngati 600! Motero kunena za kuchuluka kokha, Chilamulo cha Mose chimachepa kutalitali ndi malamulo a anthu. Komatu, Chilamulo cha Mulungu chinali kutsogolera Aisrayeli m’mbali zina zamoyo zimene malamulo a masiku ano sakhudzako n’komwe. Taonani mfundo za m’Chilamulochi mwachidule chabe.

6, 7. (a) Kodi n’chiyani chimasiyanitsa Chilamulo cha Mose ku mpambo wina uliwonse wa malamulo, ndipo lamulo lalikulu kwambiri m’Chilamulocho ndi liti? (b) Kodi Aisrayeli anali kuonetsa bwanji kuti akuvomereza ulamuliro wa Yehova?

6 Chilamulo chinakweza ulamuliro wa Yehova. Motero sitingayerekeze Chilamulo cha Mose ndi mpambo wina uliwonse wa malamulo. Lamulo lalikulu kwambiri mu Chilamulochi linali ili: “Imvani,  Israyeli; Yehova Mulungu wathu, Yehova ndiye mmodzi; ndipo muzikonda Yehova Mulungu wanu ndi mtima wanu wonse, ndi moyo wanu wonse, ndi mphamvu yanu yonse.” Kodi anthu a Mulungu akanasonyeza motani kuti amamukonda? Anafunika kumutumikira ndi kugonjera ulamuliro wake.—Deuteronomo 6:4, 5; 11:13.

7 Mwisrayeli aliyense anali kusonyeza kuti amavomereza ulamuliro wa Yehova mwa kugonjera anthu amene anali ndi udindo womuyang’anira. Makolo, akalonga, oweruza, ansembe, ndipo kenako, mfumu, onseŵa anali kuimira ulamuliro wa Mulungu. Yehova anali kuona aliyense wopandukira anthu omwe anali ndi udindo monga wopandukira iye mwiniyo. Komanso, anthu audindo anali kukwiyitsa Yehova ngati achita ndi anthu ake mopanda chilungamo kapena modzikuza. (Eksodo 20:12; 22:28; Deuteronomo 1:16, 17; 17:8-20; 19:16, 17) Motero olamulira ndiponso olamulidwa, onse anafunika kulemekeza ulamuliro wa Mulungu.

8. Kodi Chilamulo chinachirikiza motani miyezo ya Yehova ya chiyero?

8 Chilamulo chinachirikiza miyezo ya Yehova ya chiyero. Mawu akuti “woyera” ndi “chiyero” amapezeka nthaŵi zoposa 280 mu Chilamulo cha Mose. Chilamulo chinali kuthandiza anthu a Mulungu kudziŵa chimene chinali chaukhondo ndi chimene chinali chauve, chimene chinali choyera ndi chimene chinali chodetsedwa. Munatchulidwa zinthu ngati 70 zimene mwamwambo zikanachititsa Mwisrayeli kukhala wodetsedwa. Malamulo ameneŵa ananena za ukhondo wakuthupi, zakudya, ngakhalenso kutaya zonyansa. Malamulo amenewo anali opindulitsa kwambiri pankhani ya umoyo. * Koma anali ndi cholinga china chachikulu kuposa pamenepa. Chinali kuchititsa anthu kukhalabe oyanjidwa ndi Yehova, ndi kusakhudzidwa ndi makhalidwe auchimo a mitundu yopanda makhalidwe abwino yomwe inawazungulira. Taonani chitsanzo ichi.

9, 10. Kodi pangano la Chilamulo linali ndi malamulo otani okhudza kugonana ndi kubereka ana, nanga malamulo amenewo anali ndi mapindu otani?

9 Malamulo a pangano la Chilamulo anali kunena kuti kugonana  ndi kubereka mwana, ngakhale anthuwo ali okwatirana, kunali kuchititsa anthuwo kukhala odetsedwa kwa kanthaŵi. (Levitiko 12:2-4; 15:16-18) Malamulo amenewo sanapeputse mphatso zoyera zimenezi zochokera kwa Mulungu. (Genesis 1:28; 2:18-25) Koma anachirikiza chiyero cha Yehova nachititsa olambira ake kukhala osaipitsidwa. N’zodziŵika bwino kuti mitundu yozungulira Israyeli inali kukonda kusakaniza kulambira ndi kugonana ndiponso ndi miyambo ya kubereka. Chipembedzo cha Akanani chinali kuphatikizapo uhule wa amuna ndi akazi. Zimenezi zinabweretsa makhalidwe onyansa kwambiri omwenso anafalikira. Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, Chilamulo chinachititsa kulambira Yehova kukhala kosakhudzana n’komwe ndi nkhani za kugonana. * Panalinso mapindu ena.

10 Malamulowo anali kuwaphunzitsa choonadi chofunika kwambiri. * Ndi iko komwe, kodi anthu amapatsirana motani tchimo la Adamu kuchoka mbadwo wina kufika wotsatira? Kodi si mwa kugonana ndi kubereka ana? (Aroma 5:12) Eya, Chilamulo cha Mulungu chinali kukumbutsa anthu ake kuti ali ndi uchimo. Ndipotu, tonsefe timabadwa ochimwa. (Salmo 51:5) Tifunika kutikhululukira ndi kutiwombola ku machimowo kuti tiyandikane ndi Mulungu wathu woyera.

11, 12. (a) Kodi Chilamulo chinali kulimbikitsa mfundo yofunika kwambiri iti ya chilungamo? (b) Kodi Chilamulo chinali ndi mfundo zotani zoteteza kupotoza chilungamo?

11 Chilamulo chinachirikiza chilungamo chenicheni cha Yehova. Chilamulo cha Mose chinali kulimbikitsa mfundo yakuti pazikhala kufanana pankhani za chilungamo. Motero Chilamulocho chinali kunena kuti: “Moyo kulipa moyo, diso kulipa diso, dzino kulipa dzino, dzanja kulipa dzanja, phazi kulipa phazi.” (Deuteronomo 19:21) Choncho ngati munthu waswa malamulo, chilango chake chinayenera kulingana ndi mlanduwo. Mbali imeneyi ya chilungamo cha Mulungu inakhudza mfundo zonse za m’Chilamulocho  ndipo mpaka lerolino mbaliyi ndi yofunika kwambiri pomvetsetsa nsembe ya dipo ya Kristu Yesu, monga mmene tionere m’Mutu 14.—1 Timoteo 2:5, 6.

12 Chilamulo chinalinso ndi mfundo zoteteza kupotoza chilungamo. Mwachitsanzo, panali kufunika mboni zosachepera ziŵiri kuti munthu wonenezedwa mlandu aimbidwedi mlanduwo. Wopereka umboni wabodza m’bwalo la milandu anali kulandira chilango chokhwima. (Deuteronomo 19:15, 18, 19) Katangale ndi ziphuphu zinali zosaloleka m’pang’onong’ono pomwe. (Eksodo 23:8; Deuteronomo 27:25) Ngakhale pochita malonda, anthu a Mulungu anafunika kuchirikiza muyezo wa chilungamo wapamwamba wa Yehova. (Levitiko 19:35, 36; Deuteronomo 23:19, 20) Mpambo wa malamulo apamwamba ndi osakondera umenewo unali wopindulitsadi kwambiri kwa Israyeli!

Malamulo Ounikira Chifundo ndi Kusakondera M’nkhani Zachiweruzo

13, 14. Kodi ndi motani mmene Chilamulo chinalimbikitsira kuti mbala ndi oberedwa omwe azichitiridwa zinthu mosakondera ndi molungama?

13 Kodi Chilamulo cha Mose chinali mpambo wa malamulo osasinthika ndi opanda chifundo? Kutalitali! Mfumu Davide anauziridwa kulemba kuti: “Malamulo a Yehova ali angwiro.” (Salmo 19:7) Iye anali kudziŵa bwino kuti Chilamulocho chimalimbikitsa munthu kukhala wachifundo ndi wosakondera. Kodi chinachita zimenezi motani?

14 Malamulo a m’mayiko ena lerolino amaoneka kuti amakondera ndiponso amakomera kwambiri anthu olakwa kusiyana ndi amene avutitsidwawo. Mwachitsanzo, akuba angakhale m’ndende kwa nthaŵi yakutiyakuti. Ali kundendeko, anthu amene anawaberawo ngakhale kuti katundu wawo sanapezekebe, amayenera kupereka ndalama zamsonkho zimene boma limasungira akubawo kundende ndi kuwadyetsa. Ku Israyeli wakale, kunalibe ndende monga tikuzidziŵira lerolino. Panali malire osafunika kulumphidwa popereka chilango. (Deuteronomo 25:1-3) Mbala inali kubweza kwa mwini wake katundu amene inaba. Ndiponso, mbalayo inkapereka katundu wina kuwonjezera pa amene inabayo. Kodi amakhala wochuluka motani? Izi zinali kusiyanasiyana. Mwachionekere, oweruza anapatsidwa ufulu wolingalira mfundo  zosiyanasiyana, monga ngati kulapa kwa wolakwayo. Zimenezi zikufotokoza chifukwa chake zimene mbala inafunika kubwezera malinga ndi Levitiko 6:1-7 zili zochepa kwambiri kusiyana ndi zimene zinatchulidwa pa Eksodo 22:7.

15. Kodi Chilamulo chinaonetsetsa motani kuti pali chifundo ndiponso chilungamo pankhani ya munthu wopha mnzake mwangozi?

15 Chilamulo chinavomereza mwachifundo kuti si machimo onse amene amachitidwa mwadala. Mwachitsanzo, pamene munthu wapha wina mwangozi, sanafunike kulipira moyo kulipa moyo ngati anathaŵira ku umodzi wa midzi yopulumukirako imene inali mu Israyeli. Oweruza a m’mudzi umenewo akaweruza nkhani yake, iye anali kufunika kukhalabe m’mudziwo mpaka mkulu wa ansembe atamwalira. Zikatero amakhala womasuka kukakhala kulikonse kumene iye anafuna. Motero munthuyo anali kupindula nacho chifundo cha Mulungu. Panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, lamuloli linatsindika kuti moyo wa munthu ndi wamtengo wapatali.—Numeri 15:30, 31; 35:12-25.

16. Kodi Chilamulo chinatetezera motani ufulu wa anthu?

16 Chilamulo chinali kutetezera ufulu wa munthu. Taonani mmene chinatetezera anthu amene anali ndi ngongole. Chilamulo chinkaletsa kuloŵa m’nyumba ya amene watenga ngongole kuti munthu akatengemo katundu monga chikole cha ngongoleyo. M’malo mwake, wokongoletsayo amafunika kuima panja ndi kuyembekeza wokongolayo kubweretsa chikolecho. Motero anthu sanali kusokoneza zinthu m’nyumba za anzawo. Ngati wokongoletsayo anatenga chovala cha pamwamba cha wokongolayo monga chikole, iye anafunika kubwezera poloŵa dzuŵa, chifukwa wokongolayo ankachifuna kuti afunde usiku.—Deuteronomo 24:10-14.

17, 18. Pankhani za nkhondo, kodi Aisrayeli anali kusiyana motani ndi mitundu ina, nanga n’chifukwa chiyani?

17 Ngakhalenso nkhondo zinali ndi malamulo ake m’Chilamulo. Anthu a Mulungu anafunika kumenya nkhondo, osati kungoti akhutiritse chikhumbo chofuna kukhala amphamvu kapena kungoti agonjetse ena, koma kuti akhale oimira Mulungu pa “Nkhondo za Yehova.” (Numeri 21:14) Nthaŵi zambiri, Aisrayeli anali kuyamba atumiza mawu oti eni mudziwo angovomera kugonja. Mudziwo ukakana zimenezo m’pamene Israyeli anali kuumangira misasa, koma mogwirizana ndi malamulo a Mulungu. Mosiyana ndi asilikali ochuluka m’mbiri yonse ya anthu, amuna a  gulu la nkhondo la Israyeli sanali kuloledwa kugwiririra akazi kapena kupha anthu mwachisawawa. Analinso kusamalira chilengedwe; sanali kugwetsa mitengo ya zipatso ya adani awo. * Magulu ena a nkhondo sanali kuletsedwa zinthu ngati zimenezi.—Deuteronomo 20:10-15, 19, 20; 21:10-13.

18 Kodi zimakunyansani kumva kuti m’mayiko ena ana aang’ono amawaphunzitsa usilikali? Ku Israyeli wakale, panalibe munthu wosakwanitsa zaka 20 yemwe amatengedwa kupita kunkhondo. (Numeri 1:2, 3) Ngakhale mwamuna wamkulu anali kumusiya ngati anali wamantha kwambiri. Mwamuna wongokwatira kumene sanali kupita kunkhondo kwa chaka chathunthu kuti aone mwana yemwe adzaloŵa m’malo mwake akubadwa, iye asanayambe ntchito yoika moyo pachiswe imeneyo. Chilamulo chinalongosola kuti mwa njira imeneyi mwamuna wachinyamatayo adzatha ‘kukondweretsa’ mkazi wake watsopanoyo.—Deuteronomo 20:5, 6, 8; 24:5.

19. Kodi Chilamulo chinati chiyani poteteza akazi, ana, mabanja, akazi amasiye, ndi ana amasiye?

19 Chilamulo chinalinso kuteteza akazi, ana, ndi mabanja, chinali kuwasamalira. Chinali kulamula makolo kuti nthaŵi zonse azisamalira ana awo ndi kuwaphunzitsa zinthu zauzimu. (Deuteronomo 6:6, 7) Chinali kuletsa kugonana ndi wachibale kwa mtundu uliwonse; wochita zimenezi chilango chake chinali kuphedwa. (Levitiko, chaputala 18) Chinalinso kuletsa chigololo, chomwe nthaŵi zambiri chimapasula mabanja ndi kuwononga chitetezo ndi ulemu wa mabanjawo. Chilamulo chinali kusamalira akazi amasiye ndi ana amasiye, ndipo mwa mawu amphamvu kwambiri, chinaletsa kuwachitira nkhanza.—Eksodo 20:14; 22:22-24.

20, 21. (a) N’chifukwa chiyani Chilamulo cha Mose chinali kuloleza Aisrayeli kutenga mitala? (b) Pankhani ya kusudzulana, n’chifukwa chiyani Chilamulo chinasiyana ndi muyeso umene Yesu anadzabwezeretsa pambuyo pake?

20 Komabe, pankhani imeneyi ena angadabwe kuti, ‘N’chifukwa chiyani Chilamulo chinkaloleza mitala?’ (Deuteronomo 21:15-17)  Tifunika kulingalira malamulo oterowo mogwirizana ndi nthaŵi imene anaperekedwa. Amene amatsutsa Chilamulo cha Mose chifukwa cha mmene timaonera zinthu masiku ano ndiponso chifukwa cha chikhalidwe cha masiku ano, ndithudi sachimvetsetsa. (Miyambo 18:13) Muyeso wa Yehova, womwe anaukhazikitsa kalekalelo mu Edene, unali woti ukwati ndi mgwirizano wamoyo wonse pakati pa mwamuna mmodzi ndi mkazi mmodzi. (Genesis 2:18, 20-24) Komano, pa nthaŵi imene Yehova anapereka Chilamulo kwa Israyeli, khalidwe lotenga mitala linali litazika mizu kwa zaka mazana ambiri. Yehova anali kudziŵa bwino kuti nthaŵi ndi nthaŵi ‘anthu ake opulupudza’ adzalephera kumvera ngakhale malamulo ofunika kwambiri, monga ngati aja oletsa kulambira mafano. (Eksodo 32:9) Motero, mwanzeru, sanasankhe nthaŵi imeneyo kukhala nthaŵi yoti akonze chilichonse chokhudza zochita zawo za m’banja. Komatu musaiwale kuti Yehova sindiye anayambitsa mitala. Komabe, iye anagwiritsa ntchito Chilamulo cha Mose kulamulira zochitika za pa mitala pakati pa anthu ake ndi kuteteza kuti mitala isagwiritsidwe ntchito molakwa.

21 Mofananamo, Chilamulo cha Mose chinali kulola mwamuna kusudzula mkazi wake pa zifukwa zikuluzikulu zochulukirapo ndithu. (Deuteronomo 24:1-4) Yesu anati Mulungu anapereka chilolezo chimenechi kwa Ayuda “chifukwa cha kuuma mtima” kwawo. Komabe, iye analoleza zimenezo kwa nthaŵi yochepa chabe. Kwa otsatira ake, Yesu anabwezeretsa muyeso wa Yehova woyambirira wa ukwati.—Mateyu 19:8.

Chilamulo Chinalimbikitsa Chikondi

22. Kodi Chilamulo cha Mose chinalimbikitsa chikondi m’njira zotani, ndipo kwa yani?

22 Kodi masiku ano mungalingalire kukhala ndi malamulo a zachilungamo olimbikitsa chikondi? Chilamulo cha Mose chinalimbikitsa kwambiri chikondi kuposa china chilichonse. Inde, m’buku la Deuteronomo lokha, mawu otembenuzidwa kuti “chikondi” amapezeka olembedwa mosiyanasiyana kwa nthaŵi zoposa 20. “Uzikonda mnansi wako monga udzikonda wekha” ndilo linali lamulo lachiŵiri ku lamulo lalikulu kwambiri m’Chilamulo chonse. (Levitiko 19:18; Mateyu 22:37-40) Anthu a Mulungu anafunika kuonetsa chikondi choterocho osati pakati pa iwo okha, komanso kwa alendo amene anali kukhala nawo, pokumbukira kuti nawonso  Aisrayeli panthaŵi ina anali alendo m’dziko lina. Anafunika kukonda osauka ndi ovutika, kuwathandiza mwakuthupi ndi kupeŵa kuwapondereza chifukwa chakuti anali ofooka. Anauzidwa kukomera mtima ndi kuganizira ngakhale nyama zimene anali kuzigwiritsa ntchito.—Eksodo 23:6; Levitiko 19:14, 33, 34; Deuteronomo 22:4, 10; 24:17, 18.

23. Kodi wolemba Salmo 119 analimbikitsidwa kuchitanji, nanga ife tingatsimikize mtima kuchita chiyani?

23 Ndi mtundu winanso uti umene wapatsidwa mpambo wa malamulo woterowo? N’zosadabwitsa kuti wamasalmo analemba kuti: “Ha! Ndikondadi chilamulo chanu.” Komatu chikondi chake sichinali malingaliro chabe. Chinam’chititsa kuchitapo kanthu, chifukwa anali kuyesetsa kumvera chilamulocho ndi kuchita zimene chimanena. Ndipo anapitiriza kuti: “Ndilingiriramo ine [m’chilamulo chanu] tsiku lonse.” (Salmo 119:11, 97) Inde, iye nthaŵi ndi nthaŵi anali kukhala pansi kuphunzira malamulo a Yehova. Sitingakayikire kuti pamene anali kuwaphunzira choncho, chikondi chake pa malamulowo chimawonjezekanso kwambiri. Panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, chikondi chake pa Woika Malamulo, Yehova Mulungu, chinali kukulanso. Pamene mukupitiriza kuphunzira malamulo a Mulungu, inunso nthaŵi zonse kulitsani ubwenzi wanu ndi Yehova, Woika Malamulo Wamkulu ndi Mulungu wa chilungamo.

^ ndime 8 Mwachitsanzo, malamulo onena kuti munthu azifotsera zonyansa zake, wodwala azimubindikiritsa, ndi akuti aliyense wogwira mtembo ayenera kusamba thupi lake, panthaŵi imeneyo sanali kudziŵika ndi mitundu ina mpaka patapita zaka mazana ambiri.—Levitiko 13:4-8; Numeri 19:11-13, 17-19; Deuteronomo 23:13, 14.

^ ndime 9 Pamene akachisi a Akanani anali ndi zipinda zapadera zoti azichitiramo zachiwerewere, Chilamulo cha Mose chinali kunena kuti anthu odetsedwa asaloŵe n’kuloŵa komwe mu kachisi. Motero, popeza kuti kugonana kunali kuchititsa anthu kukhala odetsedwa kwa kanthaŵi, palibe amene mwalamulo akanachititsa kugonana kukhala mbali ya kulambira pa nyumba ya Yehova.

^ ndime 10 Cholinga chachikulu cha Chilamulo chinali kuphunzitsa. Buku lotchedwa kuti Encyclopaedia Judaica limanena kuti mawu achihebri otanthauza “lamulo,” omwe ndi toh·rah′, amatanthauza kuti “malangizo.”

^ ndime 17 Chilamulo chinafunsa momveka bwino kuti: “Mtengo wa m’munda ndiwo munthu kodi kuti uumangire tsasa?” (Deuteronomo 20:19) Philo, katswiri wamaphunziro achiyuda wa m’zaka 100 zoyambirira za nyengo yathu ino, anatchula lamulo limeneli nalongosola kuti Mulungu amaona kuti “n’kosayenera kuti munthu amene wakwiyira anthu athetsere mkwiyo wakewo pa zinthu zimene sizinachite choipa chilichonse.”