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Anthu Olankhula Chiswahili Adziwa Dzina la Mulungu

Anthu Olankhula Chiswahili Adziwa Dzina la Mulungu

Anthu ambiri akamva mawu akuti Chiswahili amakumbukira za Africa komanso nyama zakutchire za ku Africa kuno zimene zimapezeka m’nkhalango yosungirako nyama yomwe imadziwika ndi dzina lakuti Serengeti. Komatu pali zinthu zambiri zimene tinganene zokhudza Chiswahili ndiponso anthu olankhula chinenerochi.

CHISWAHILI chimalankhulidwa ndi anthu opitirira 100 miliyoni m’mayiko 12 amene ali pakati ndiponso kum’mawa kwa Africa kuno. * Chinenerochi chimalankhulidwa ndi anthu ambiri m’mayiko ngati Kenya, Tanzania ndiponso Uganda. Komanso anthu a m’mayikowa akafuna kulankhulana ndi anthu a m’mayiko ozungulira komanso kuchita nawo malonda, amagwiritsa ntchito chinenero chimenechi.

Chiswahili chathandiza kwambiri pogwirizanitsa anthu amene amapezeka m’mayiko a kum’mawa kwa Africa. Mwachitsanzo, ku Tanzania kokha, kuli zinenero zokwana 114. Tangoganizani, anthu akumeneku akangoyenda makilomita 40 kapena 80 kuchokera kumene amakhala, amapeza anthu olankhula chinenero china chosiyana ndi chawo. Pali zinenero zina zimene zimalankhulidwa ndi anthu ochepa kwambiri amene amangopezekanso m’midzi yowerengeka chabe. Patakhala kuti palibe chinenero chimene anthu ambiri amachidziwa zingakhale zovuta kulankhulana ndi anthu oterewa. Choncho tingaone kuti kukhala ndi chinenero chimene chimalankhulidwa ndi anthu ambiri n’kofunika kwambiri m’dzikoli.

Mbiri ya Chiswahili

Anthu amakhulupirira kuti Chiswahili chinayamba kulankhulidwa m’zaka za m’ma 900 koma chinayamba kulembedwa m’ma 1500.  Munthu akayamba kuphunzira chinenerochi, amazindikira kuti mawu ena ochepa anachokera ku Chiarabu koma ambiri anachokera ku zinenero za ku Africa kuno. Choncho n’zosadabwitsa kuti kwa zaka zambiri, Chiswahili chinkalembedwa pogwiritsa ntchito zilembo zachiarabu.

Koma masiku ano Chiswahili chimalembedwa pogwiritsa ntchito zilembo zachiroma. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani anasintha? Kuti tipeze yankho la funso limeneli, tiyeni tione zimene zinachitika pakatikati pa zaka za m’ma 1800. Pa nthawiyi amishonale ochokera ku Ulaya anafika kum’mawa kwa Africa n’cholinga choti akaphunzitse anthu uthenga wa m’Baibulo.

Mawu a Mulungu Anayamba Kufika M’mayiko a Kum’mawa kwa Africa

Mu 1499, Vasco da Gama anayenda ulendo wake wina wopita kum’mwera kwa Africa. Pa ulendowu, iye ndi amishonale anzake a ku Portugal anayambitsa Chikatolika kum’mawa kwa Africa pomanga tchalitchi chamishoni ku Zanzibar. Komabe patatha zaka 200 amishonalewa, omwe anabweretsa “Chikhristu,” anayamba kutsutsidwa ndi anthu akumeneko ndipo anawathamangitsa.

Zitatere panatha zaka 150 kuti Mawu a Mulungu afikenso kum’mawa kwa Africa. Pa nthawi imeneyi munthu amene anafikitsa Mawu a Mulungu anali mmishonale wochokera ku Germany, dzina lake Johann Ludwig Krapf. Iye anafika ku Mombasa m’dziko la Kenya m’chaka cha 1844, ndipo pa nthawiyi anthu ambiri amene ankakhala m’mbali mwa nyanja anali Asilamu. Koma anthu amene ankakhala m’madera ena anali a zipembedzo za makolo. Krapf anaona kuti zingakhale bwino anthu amenewa atakhala ndi Baibulo m’chinenero chawo.

Krapf atangofika, anayamba kuphunzira Chiswahili. Pasanapite nthawi, mu June 1844, iye anayamba ntchito yomasulira Baibulo. Koma n’zachisoni kuti patangotha mwezi umodzi wokha, mkazi wake amene anakhala naye zaka ziwiri, anamwalira. Patangopita masiku owerengeka chabe, mwana wakenso wakhanda anamwalira. Ngakhale kuti iye anali wachisoni kwambiri ndi zimenezi, anapitirizabe ntchito yake yomasulira Baibulo. Mu 1847 anamaliza kumasulira machaputala atatu oyambirira a Genesis ndipo machaputala amenewa anali oyamba kusindikizidwa ndi kufalitsidwa m’Chiswahili.

Krapf anali munthu woyamba kugwiritsa ntchito zilembo zachiroma m’malo mwa zilembo zachiarabu zomwe zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito pa nthawiyo polemba Chiswahili. Iye ananena kuti zina mwa zifukwa zimene anachitira zimenezi ndi zoti “zilembo zachiarabu zingakhale zovuta kwa anthu a ku Ulaya” omwe adzafune kuphunzira chinenerochi. Iye ankaonanso kuti “zilembo zachiroma zidzathandiza kuti anthu a kum’mawa kwa Africa asadzavutike kuphunzira zinenero za ku Ulaya.”  Koma zilembo zachiarabu zinapitiriza kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zaka zambiri ndipo mbali zina za Baibulo zinasindikizidwa m’Chiswahili cholembedwa pogwiritsa ntchito zilembo zachiarabu. Komabe kugwiritsa ntchito zilembo zachiroma kunathandiza kuti anthu ambiri aphunzire mosavuta Chiswahili. N’zosakayikitsa kuti amishonale ambiri komanso anthu ena amene amaphunzira chinenerochi amasangalala chifukwa cha kusinthaku.

Kuwonjezera pa kuyambitsa kumasulira Mawu a Mulungu m’Chiswahili, Krapf anachitanso zinthu zina zimene zinathandiza anthu omasulira amene anabwera pambuyo pake. Iye analemba buku la galamala lachiswahili komanso dikishonale ya chinenerochi.

Dzina la Mulungu Limapezeka M’Mabaibulo Achiswahili

M’machaputala atatu oyambirira a Genesis amene Krapf anamasulira aja, dzina la Mulungu anangolimasulira kuti “Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse.” Komabe chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1800, anthu ena anafika kum’mawa kwa Africa kudzapitiriza ntchito yomasulira Baibulo m’Chiswahili. Ena mwa anthu amenewa anali Johann Rebmann, William Taylor, Harry Binns, Edward Steere, Francis Hodgson ndi Arthur Madan.

Chochititsa chidwi n’chakuti zimene iwo anamasulira zinali ndi dzina la Mulungu, osati m’malo ochepa okha, koma m’Malemba Achiheberi onse. Omasulira amene anali ku Zanzibar anamasulira dzina la Mulungu kuti “Yahuwa” ndipo amene anali ku Mombasa analimasulira kuti “Jehova.”

Pofika mu 1895 Baibulo lonse linali litamasuliridwa m’Chiswahili. M’zaka zotsatira panamasuliridwanso Mabaibulo ena ngakhale kuti ena mwa Mabaibulo amenewa sanafalitsidwe kwambiri. Koyambirira kwa zaka za m’ma 1900 anthu anayesetsa kuti Chiswahili chikhale chinenero chachikulu m’mayiko a kum’mawa kwa Africa. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti mu 1952 atulutse Baibulo lotchedwa Swahili Union Version ndipo Baibulo limeneli linafalitsidwa kwambiri. Izi zinachititsanso kuti dzina lakuti “Yehova” likhale lodziwika kwambiri m’Chiswahili.

N’zomvetsa chisoni kuti pamene Mabaibulo akalewa anasiya kusindikizidwa, dzina la Mulungu linayamba kuiwalika. Anthu amene anamasulira Mabaibulo pambuyo pake, anachotsa dzina la Mulunguli m’Mabaibulo awo ndipo ena anangolisiya m’malo ochepa okha. Mwachitsanzo, m’Baibulo lotchedwa Union Version, dzina la Mulungu limangopezekamo ka 15 kokha ndipo pamene Baibuloli analikonzanso mu 2006, dzinali linangopezekamo ka 11 kokha basi. *

Ngakhale kuti omasulira Baibulo limeneli anasiya dzinali m’malo 11 okha, Baibuloli lili ndi mbali ina yochititsa chidwi. Patsamba loyamba la Baibuloli pali mawu omveka bwino akuti dzina la Mulungu ndi Yehova. Zimenezi zathandiza kwambiri anthu ofuna kudziwa choonadi kuphunzira kuchokera m’Baibulo lawo, dzina la Atate wathu wakumwamba.

Koma nkhani yomasulira Baibulo sinathere pompa. Mu 1996, Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano Lomasulira Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu linasindikizidwa  m’Chiswahili. Limeneli linali Baibulo loyamba lachiswahili lomwe linabwezeretsa dzina la Yehova m’malo 237 kuchokera ku Mateyu mpaka Chivumbulutso. Kenako mu 2003 Baibulo lonse lathunthu lotchedwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika linasindikizidwa m’Chiswahili. Pofika pano, Mabaibulo okwana 900,000 a m’Chiswahili oterewa asindikizidwa.

M’Baibuloli dzina la Mulungu silinabisidwe mwa kungogwiritsa ntchito mayina audindo kapenanso mwa kungolilemba patsamba loyamba basi. Choncho anthu ofuna kudziwa choonadi akamawerenga Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano m’Chiswahili amapeza dzina la Mulungu nthawi zoposa 7,000 ndipo zimenezi zimawathandiza kumudziwa bwino Yehova.

Omasulira Baibulo limeneli anayesetsa kugwiritsa ntchito Chiswahili chosavuta chimene anthu a kum’mawa kwa Africa amalankhula. Komanso malemba ena amene sanamasuliridwe bwino m’Mabaibulo ena, anawakonza. Zimenezi zimachititsa kuti munthu akamawerenga Baibuloli azikhulupirira kuti akuwerengadi “mawu olondola a choonadi” monga mmene Mlengi wathu, Yehova Mulungu, anawauzirira.​—Mlaliki 12:10.

Anthu ambiri anayamikira Baibulo limeneli. Mwachitsanzo, mnyamata wina wazaka 21 dzina lake Vicent, yemwe ndi wa Mboni za Yehova ndipo amachita utumiki nthawi zonse, anati: “Ndinasangalala kwambiri ndi Baibuloli chifukwa anagwiritsa ntchito Chiswahili chosavuta kumva komanso linabwezeretsa dzina la Yehova m’malo onse amene linachotsedwa.” Frieda, yemwe ndi mayi wa ana atatu, ananena kuti Baibulo limeneli lamuthandiza kuti asamavutike kufotokoza choonadi kwa anthu.

Tsopano patha zaka zoposa 150 kuchokera pamene ntchito yomasulira Mawu a Mulungu m’Chiswahili inayamba, ngakhale kuti ntchitoyi inayamba ngati masewera. Yesu ananena kuti ‘anadziwitsa anthu dzina la Atate wake.’ (Yohane 17:6) Masiku ano a Mboni za Yehova olankhula Chiswahili oposa 76,000 a kum’mawa ndi chigawo chapakati cha Africa akugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano ndipo akugwira nawo ntchito yothandiza anthu kudziwa dzina la Yehova.

^ ndime 3 Chiswahili chimene chimalankhulidwa m’mayikowa chimasiyanasiyana.