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Coverdale Anamasulira Baibulo Loyamba Kusindikizidwa M’Chingelezi

Coverdale Anamasulira Baibulo Loyamba Kusindikizidwa M’Chingelezi

 Coverdale Anamasulira Baibulo Loyamba Kusindikizidwa M’Chingelezi

BAIBULO lachingelezi loyambirira kusindikizidwa linalibe dzina la munthu amene analimasulira. Koma Miles Coverdale ndi amene anamasulira Baibuloli ndipo linatuluka m’chaka cha 1535. Pa nthawiyi n’kuti mnzake wina, dzina lake William Tyndale, ali m’ndende chifukwa chomasulira Baibulo. Tyndale anaphedwa chaka chotsatira.

Pomasulira mbali zina za Baibulo lake, Coverdale anatengera zimene Tyndale anamasulira. Kodi zinatheka bwanji kuti Coverdale akwanitse kusindikiza Baibulo lake osaphedwa, pomwe anthu ena omasulira Mabaibulo pa nthawiyo ankaphedwa chifukwa cha ntchito yomweyi? Kodi ntchito imene Coverdale anagwira inathandiza bwanji anthu?

Chiyambi cha Ntchito Yake Yomasulira

Miles Coverdale anabadwira mumzinda wa Yorkshire ku England ndipo mwina anabadwa m’chaka cha 1488. Anaphunzira kuyunivesite ya Cambridge ndipo m’chaka cha 1514 anaikidwa kukhala wansembe wa tchalitchi cha Katolika. Chidwi chake chofuna kusintha zinthu mu mpingo wa Katolika chinalimbikitsidwa ndi Robert Barnes yemwe anali mphunzitsi wake. Barnes ankafuna kusintha zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika ndipo m’chaka cha 1528 anathawa ku England. Patatha zaka 12, Barnes anaphedwa ndi atsogoleri a tchalitchi cha Katolika mochita kuwotchedwa pamtengo.

M’chaka cha 1528, Coverdale anayamba kuphunzitsa m’tchalitchi mfundo zotsutsa zinthu zosachokera m’Baibulo zimene tchalitchichi chinkachita. Zinthu zimenezi ndi monga kulambira zifaniziro, kulapa machimo komanso mwambo wa Misa. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti moyo wake ukhale pangozi, choncho anathawa ku England n’kupita dziko lina kumene anakakhala zaka 7.

Ali ku Hamburg m’dziko la Germany, Coverdale ankakhala limodzi ndi William Tyndale. Iwo ankagwira ntchito limodzi chifukwa onse anali ndi cholinga choti anthu akhale ndi Baibulo la chinenero chawo. Pa nthawi imeneyi Coverdale anaphunzira zambiri kwa Tyndale zokhudza kamasuliridwe kabwino ka Baibulo.

Zinthu Zinayamba Kusintha

Pa nthawiyi zinthu zinayamba kusintha ku England. M’chaka cha 1534, Mfumu Henry VIII inaonetsa poyera kuti sinkagwirizana ndi zoti dziko liziyendera mfundo za papa wa ku Rome. Mfumuyi inagwirizana ndi maganizo oti Baibulo limasuliridwe m’Chingelezi. Patapita nthawi Coverdale anayamba ntchito yomasulira Baibulo m’Chingelezi. Coverdale ankadziwa bwino Chingelezi koma analibe luso lophunzira zinenero zina ngati mmene Tyndale analili, yemwe ankadziwa bwino Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki. Coverdale anakonzanso zimene Tyndale anamasulira m’Chilatini ndi m’Chijeremani.

Baibulo la Coverdale linasindikizidwa ku England m’chaka cha 1535, kutatsala chaka chimodzi kuti Tyndale aphedwe. Koyambirira kwa Baibuloli analembako mawu ochemerera Mfumu Henry. Coverdale anatsimikizira Mfumu Henry kuti Baibuloli lilibe mawu am’munsi amene anali m’Baibulo limene Tyndale ankamasulira. Mawu amenewo ankaonedwa kuti ndi okayikitsa chifukwa, mwa zina, ankalimbikitsa ziphunzitso zosachokera m’Malemba zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkaphunzitsa. Choncho Henry anapereka chilolezo choti Baibuloli lifalitsidwe. Tsopano m’dzikoli zinthu zinayamba kusintha.

Baibulo la Coverdale linatulukanso kawiri mu 1537 ndipo Mabaibulo amenewanso anasindikizidwa ku England. M’chaka chomwechi Mfumu Henry inavomereza kusindikizidwa kwa Baibulo lotchedwa  Baibulo la Mateyu. M’Baibuloli anaphatikiza zimene Tyndale ndi Coverdale anamasulira ndipo linasindikizidwa ku Antwerp.

Thomas Cromwell amene anali mlangizi wamkulu wa mfumu, mothandizidwa ndi Cranmer, mkulu wa mabishopu ku Canterbury, anaona kuti kunali kofunika kuti Baibulo la Mateyu likonzedwenso. Choncho Thomas Cromwell anapempha Coverdale kuti akonzenso Baibuloli. M’chaka cha 1539, Mfumu Henry inavomereza kuti Baibulo lokonzedwansolo lili bwino ndipo inalamula kuti liikidwe m’matchalitchi kuti anthu onse aziliwerenga. Baibulo limeneli linali lalikulu ndipo ankalitchula kuti Great Bible. Anthu ambiri m’dzikolo anasangalala ndi Baibulo limeneli.

Zimene Coverdale Anayambitsa

Mfumu Henry VIII itamwalira ndipo Mfumu Edward VI italowa m’malo mwake, Coverdale anasankhidwa kukhala bishopu wa m’tauni ya Exeter m’chaka cha 1551. Komabe mu 1553, Mfumukazi Mary yemwe anali Mkatolika atalowa m’malo mwa Edward, Coverdale anathawira ku Denmark. Kenako anasamukira ku Switzerland komwe anapitiriza ntchito yake yomasulira. Iye anafalitsanso Mabaibulo ena atatu a mbali imene anthu ambiri amati Chipangano Chatsopano. Mabaibulowa anali achingelezi koma analinso ndi mawu ena achilatini kuti azithandiza akuluakulu achipembedzo pofufuza zinthu.

Chodabwitsa n’chakuti Coverdale sanagwiritse ntchito dzina la Mulungu lakuti “Yehova” m’Baibulo lake lija. Koma Tyndale anagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu maulendo oposa 20 pomasulira Malemba Achiheberi. M’buku lake lina, J. F. Mozley analemba kuti: “M’chaka cha 1535, Coverdale anakaniratu kugwiritsa ntchito dzina lakuti [Yehova].” (Coverdale and His Bibles) Komabe iye anagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu lakuti Yehova katatu m’Baibulo la Great Bible.

Komabe Baibulo la Coverdale ndi limene linali Baibulo lachingelezi loyambirira kukhala ndi zilembo zinayi zachiheberi zimene zimaimira dzina la Mulungu. Iye analemba zilembo zoimira dzina la Mulunguzi patsamba limene pali mutu wa Baibuloli. Chochititsa chidwi n’chakuti Baibulo limeneli linali loyamba kuika kumapeto mabuku onse owonjezera a m’Baibulo, m’malo mowasakaniza ndi mabuku achiheberi.

Mawu ambiri amene Coverdale anawagwiritsa ntchito pomasulira Baibulo lake akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu ambiri amene anamasulira Mabaibulo pambuyo pake. Chitsanzo cha zimenezi ndi mawu opezeka palemba la Salimo 23:4, akuti ‘chigwa cha mthunzi wa imfa.’ (Buku Lopatulika Ndilo Mau a Mulungu) Pulofesa wina dzina lake S. L. Greenslade ananena kuti mawu akuti “kukoma mtima kosatha” amene ali m’vesi 6 “amasiyanitsa chikondi chimene Mulungu ali nacho pa anthu ake ndi chikondi wamba kapena chifundo.” N’zochititsa chidwi kuti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika limagwiritsanso ntchito mawu omwewa.

Buku lina linafotokoza kuti Baibulo la Coverdale la Great Bible ndi zotsatira za ntchito yonse imene anthu anakhala akugwira n’cholinga chakuti pakhale Baibulo lachingelezi. Ntchitoyi inayamba pamene Tyndale anayamba kumasulira Chipangano Chatsopano. Choncho Baibulo la Coverdale linali lofunika kwambiri chifukwa ndi limene linathandiza anthu olankhula Chingelezi a nthawi imeneyo kuti akhale ndi Baibulo la chinenero chawo.

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Kumanzere, zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu zimene zili patsamba lomwe pali mutu wa Baibulo lomwe linatuluka mu 1537

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Photo source: From The Holy Scriptures of the Olde and Newe Testamente With the Apocripha by Myles Coverdale

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 10]

From the book Our English Bible: Its Translations and Translators