Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Mmene Nsalu Zakale Zinkapangidwira Komanso Mitundu Yake

Mmene Nsalu Zakale Zinkapangidwira Komanso Mitundu Yake

 Mmene Nsalu Zakale Zinkapangidwira Komanso Mitundu Yake

M’BAIBULO muli nkhani zambiri zomwe zimafotokoza mitundu ya nsalu ndi zovala zimene anthu akale ankavala.

Ndi zoona kuti Baibulo si buku lofotokoza mmene anthu ayenera kuvalira kapena kudzikongoletsera. Komabe Baibulo likamalongosola zinthu zosiyanasiyana zokhudza zovala za anthu amene akutchulidwa mu nkhani, zimathandiza owerenga kuti aziona ngati nkhanizo zikuchitika iwo ali pompo.

Mwachitsanzo, m’Baibulo timawerenga za zovala zimene Adamu ndi Hava anasoka pofuna kubisa maliseche. Iwo anasoka masamba a mkuyu n’kumanga m’chiuno. Koma kenako Mulungu anawapangira “zovala zazitali zachikopa” ndipo zovala zimenezi zinali zolimba.​—Genesis 3:7, 21.

Mu chaputala 28 ndi 39 cha buku la Ekisodo, Baibulo limafotokoza momveka bwino zovala zosiyanasiyana zimene mkulu wa ansembe wa ku Isiraeli ankavala. Zovalazi zinkaphatikizapo chovala chamkati, mkanjo woyera, lamba woluka wovala pamimba, efodi yopeta komanso chovala pachifuwa, malaya abuluu odula manja ndiponso nduwira yokhala ndi kachitsulo konyezimira kagolide. Tikangowerenga za zinthu zosiyanasiyana zamtengo wapatali zimene ankagwiritsa ntchito popanga zovalazi, timatha kudziwa kuti zinali zokongola kwambiri.​—Ekisodo 39:1-5, 22-29.

Zovala za mneneri Eliya zinali zosiyana kwambiri ndi za anthu ena moti munthu kungofotokoza kaonekedwe ka zovalazo anthu ankadziwiratu kuti akunena za Eliya. Iye ankadziwika kuti anali ‘munthu wovala chovala chaubweya ndi lamba wachikopa m’chiuno mwake.’ Patapita zaka zambiri Eliya atafa, anthu ena ankaganiza kuti Yohane M’batizi anali Eliya, mwina chifukwa chakuti Yohaneyo ankavala zovala zofanana ndi zimene Eliya ankavala.​—2 Mafumu 1:8; Mateyu 3:4; Yohane 1:21.

Nsalu ndi Mitundu Yake Baibulo lili ndi mavesi ambiri omwe amanena za zinthu zimene zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito  popanga komanso podaya nsalu. Palinso mavesi amene amanena za ntchito yopota, kuluka, komanso kusoka. * Nsalu zomwe zimatchulidwa kawirikawiri ndi nsalu zopangidwa ndi ubweya wa nkhosa komanso zopangidwa ndi zomera zotchedwa fulakesi. Baibulo limafotokoza kuti Abele anali “woweta nkhosa.” (Genesis 4:2) Koma silinena ngati Abele ankaweta nkhosazo n’cholinga choti azipeza ubweya wopangira zovala. N’kutheka kuti malaya amtengo wapatali amene Farao anaveka Yosefe zaka za m’ma 1700 B.C.E. anali opangidwa ndi nsalu zabwino kwambiri ndipo pa nthawiyi m’pamene Baibulo limatchula koyamba za nsaluzi. (Genesis 41:42) Ngakhale kuti Baibulo silimatchula zoti Ayuda ankavala zovala zopangidwa ndi thonje, anthu a m’mayiko a ku Middle East, kumene Ayuda akale ankakhala, akhala akugwiritsa ntchito thonje kuyambira kalekale.

Fulakesi komanso ubweya wa nkhosa zinkakhala ndi ulusi wabwino womwe ankaupota pamodzi. Ulusiwu ankatha kuupota kuti ukhale wonenepa mosiyanasiyana. Kenako ankagwiritsa ntchito ulusiwu powomba nsalu. Ulusiwo komanso nsaluzo ankazidaya ndipo zinkakhala zamitundu  yosiyanasiyana. Kenako ankadula nsaluzo mogwirizana ndi munthu amene azikavala. Nthawi zambiri nsaluzi ankazipeta ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ulusi ndipo zimenezi zinkachititsa kuti zizioneka zokongola kwambiri komanso zapamwamba.​—Oweruza 5:30.

Kawirikawiri Baibulo limatchula kuti utoto wodayira nsalu unkakhala wabuluu, wofiirira komanso wofiira. Aisiraeli analamulidwa kuti azisokerera ‘chingwe cha buluu pamwamba pa mphonje za zovala’ zawo n’cholinga chakuti nthawi zonse azikumbukira ubwenzi wapadera womwe anali nawo ndi Mulungu wawo, Yehova. (Numeri 15:38-40) Mawu achiheberi amene anawamasulira kuti mtundu wabuluu (tekheʹleth) komanso amene anawamasulira kuti mtundu wofiirira (‘ar·ga·manʹ), nthawi zambiri amanena za mitundu ya zovala za mkulu wa ansembe komanso mitundu ya nsalu za m’kachisi ndi za chihema.

Nsalu za Chihema Komanso za M’kachisi Chihema chimene Aisiraeli ankagwiritsa ntchito pa nthawi imene anali m’chipululu komanso kachisi yemwe anamanga ku Yerusalemu zinali malo ofunika kwambiri pa kulambira kwawo. N’chifukwa chake m’Baibulo muli malangizo atsatanetsatane ofotokoza mmene anayenera kumangira ndi kukongoletsera chihema komanso kachisi amene Solomo anamanga. Kuwonjezera pa malangizo okhudza nsalu ndi mitundu yake, iwo anapatsidwanso malangizo okhudza mmene angawombere, kudaya, kusoka komanso kupeta nsalu zotchinga za m’chihema.

Mzimu wa Mulungu unathandiza Bezaleli ndi Oholiabu, omwe anali amisiri, limodzi ndi amuna ndi akazi ena kuti agwire ntchito yaikulu yokonza chihema choti anthu azilambiriramo Yehova. (Ekisodo 35:30-35) Mu chaputala 26 cha buku la Ekisodo, anafotokoza bwino mmene anapangira chihemachi komanso zinthu zosiyanasiyana zimene anagwiritsa ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, nsalu yaikulu kwambiri ya chihema inali yowombedwa ndi “ulusi wopota wabwino kwambiri, ulusi wabuluu, ubweya wa nkhosa wonyika mu utoto wofiirira ndi ulusi wofiira kwambiri.” N’kutheka kuti zinthu zambiri zimene anagwiritsa ntchito popanga chihemachi, anabwera nazo kuchoka ku Iguputo. Ntchito yaikulu inali yopanga nsalu yokhuthala komanso yowala imene anaipeta ndi zithunzi za akerubi. Nsaluyi inaikidwa ngati malire a pakati pa “Malo Oyera ndi Malo Oyera Koposa” a m’chihemacho. (Ekisodo 26:1, 31-33) Malangizo opangira nsaluyi anabwerezedwanso kwa anthu amene ankapanga nsalu yotchinga ya m’kachisi wa ku Yerusalemu amene anamangidwa motsogoleredwa ndi Mfumu Solomo.​—2 Mbiri 2:1, 7.

 Zimene Baibulo limafotokoza zimatithandiza kudziwa kuti Aheberi akale anali ndi luso ndipo ankayesetsa kugwiritsa ntchito mwanzeru zinthu zosiyanasiyana zimene anali nazo pa nthawiyo. Nkhani za m’Baibulo zimasonyeza kuti iwo sanali anthu ovutika ndipo sankavala zinthu zosalongosoka. Zimasonyezanso kuti anali ndi zovala zosiyanasiyana zokongola, zomwe ankavala pa zikondwerero ndi zochitika zosiyanasiyana. Iwo ankavala mogwirizana ndi mmene nyengo ilili komanso kapezedwe kawo.

Baibulo limanena kuti Aisiraeli anapatsidwa dziko labwino, “loyenda mkaka ndi uchi,” kuti likhale lawo. (Ekisodo 3:8; Deuteronomo 26:9, 15) Pa nthawi imene iwo ankalambira Yehova, iye ankawadalitsa. Iwo ankakhala moyo wabwino komanso wosangalala. Mwachitsanzo, Baibulo limatiuza kuti: “Ayuda ndi Aisiraeli anapitiriza kukhala mwabata. Aliyense anali pansi pa mtengo wake wa mpesa ndi mtengo wake wa mkuyu, kuchokera ku Dani mpaka ku Beere-seba, masiku onse a [Mfumu] Solomo.”​—1 Mafumu 4:25.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 7 Kuti mumve zambiri za mmene ankapangira nsaluzi, onani mabokosi amene ali m’nkhaniyi.

[Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 26, 27]

Nsalu Zopangidwa Ndi Ubweya wa Nkhosa Komanso Nsalu Zina

Kale anthu ankaweta nkhosa n’cholinga chakuti azipeza mkaka komanso ubweya wa nkhosazo. Ngakhale munthu atakhala ndi nkhosa zochepa, ankatha kupeza ubweya wokwanira kupangira zovala za banja lake lonse. Munthu akakhala ndi nkhosa zambiri ankatha kugulitsa ubweya wina kwa anthu opanga nsalu a m’deralo. Midzi komanso matauni ena ankakhala ndi gulu lawolawo la anthu opanga nsalu. Kuyambira kale kwambiri, pankakhala nthawi ina pachaka imene anthu ankagwira ntchito yometa nkhosa.​—Genesis 31:19; 38:13; 1 Samueli 25:4, 11.

Nsalu zambiri zinkapangidwa ndi ulusi wochokera ku zomera zotchedwa fulakesi. (Ekisodo 9:31) Zomera zimenezi ankazidula zitangotsala pang’ono kukhwima. Akatero, mapesi ake ankawayanika padzuwa ndipo kenako ankawaviika m’madzi kuti afewe. Akafewa, ankawaumitsanso n’kuwamenyamenya ndipo ankasiyanitsa tizingwe take kuti tikhale patokhapatokha kenako ankatiphatikiza n’kutipota kuti tikhale ulusi wowombera nsalu. Zovala zopangidwa ndi nsalu zoterezi n’zimene anthu akubanja lachifumu komanso akuluakulu ena a boma ankakonda kuvala.

[Chithunzi]

Fulakesi Wouma Asanamuviike

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Kupota Ulusi

Kuti ulusi wopangidwa ndi zinthu ngati fulakesi, ubweya wa nkhosa, wa mbuzi kapena zinthu zina ukhale wolimba komanso wautali, ankafunika kupotera pamodzi tizingwe tingapo. Ponena za “mkazi wabwino,” Baibulo limanena kuti: “Amatambasulira manja ake ndodo yokulungako ulusi, ndipo manja ake amagwira ndodo yopotera chingwe.” (Miyambo 31:10, 19) Pamenepa ankafotokoza mmene ankapotera ulusi pogwiritsira ntchito ndodo yokulungako ulusi komanso ndodo yopotera chingwe.

Mzimayi akamapota ulusi, ankagwira ndodo yokulungako ulusi m’dzanja lina ndipo ndi dzanja lina ankasolola ulusiwo n’kumaupota. Akatero ankaukoletsa kundodo yopotera chingwe. Kumapeto kwa ndodo yopotera chingweyo ankaikako kanthu kolemera kozungulira komwe kankachititsa kuti ndodoyo, yomwe ankaiimika m’malere, izizungulira. Zimenezi zinkachititsa kuti ulusiwo uzipoteka n’kukhala wonenepa mosiyanasiyana. Ulusi wopotedwawo unkakulungika kundodoyo ndipo pamapeto pake unkakhala ulusi umodzi wautali. Kenako ankaudaya kapena kuugwiritsa ntchito powomba nsalu.

[Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 28, 29]

Kudaya

Akamaliza kupota komanso kuchapa ulusi kapena nsalu zimene awomba, ankazidaya poziviika mu utoto wamtundu umene akufuna. Akaziviika kangapo mu utoto, mtundu wake unkakhala wowala. Popeza utoto unkavuta kupeza, akamaliza kudaya nsalu kapena ulusi ankazifinya kuti utoto winawo adzaugwiritsenso ntchito nthawi ina. Nsalu komanso ulusi umene adayawo, ankaziyanika kuti ziume.

Kale kunalibe mankhwala osinthira mtundu wa nsalu amene alipo masiku ano. Komabe, n’zochititsa chidwi kuti anthu m’nthawi imeneyo ankatha kupanga utoto wamitundu yosiyanasiyana womwe siunkasuluka. Iwo ankapanga utoto umenewu kuchokera ku zinyama komanso zomera. Mwachitsanzo, akafuna kupanga utoto wachikasu, ankagwiritsa ntchito masamba a mtengo wa amondi ndiponso makoko osinja a makangaza. Akafuna kupanga utoto wakuda, ankagwiritsa ntchito makungwa a mtengo wa makangaza. Utoto wofiira unkapangidwa kuchokera ku chomera chinachake kapena ku tizilombo tinatake touluka. Utoto wabuluu unkapangidwa kuchokera ku maluwa enaake. Akafuna kupanga utoto wamitundu yosakanikirana yooneka yofiirira, yabuluu kapena yofiira kwambiri, ankafinya nkhono za m’nyanja zamitundu yosiyanasiyana n’kusakaniza madzi ake.

Kodi pankafunika nkhono zingati kuti apeze utoto wokwanira kudayira chovala chimodzi? Nkhono imodzi inkatulutsa madzi ochepa kwambiri moti kafukufuku wina anasonyeza kuti pankafunika nkhono 10,000 zamtundu winawake kuti apeze utoto wokwanira kudayira mkanjo umodzi wofiirira, wowala bwino. M’pake kuti mtundu umenewu unali woyenera zovala zachifumu. Pa nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Mfumu Nabonidus ya ku Babulo, nsalu yofiirira inali yodula kuwirikiza ka 40 poyerekeza ndi nsalu zamitundu ina. Popeza kuti utoto wambiri wofiirirawu unkachokera ku Turo, mtundu umenewu unkatchedwa mtundu wofiirira wa ku Turo.

[Zithunzi]

Chiganamba cha Nkhono Yam’madzi

Malo Odayira Nsalu Zofiirira a M’zaka za m’ma 100 kapena 200 B.C.E., Omwe Anapezeka ku Tel Dor ku Israel

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

The Tel Dor Project

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Kuwomba Nsalu

Powomba nsalu, ankagwiritsa ntchito ulusi womwe wapotedwa ndipo nsaluzo zinkakhala zazikulu mosiyanasiyana mogwirizana ndi zovala kapena zinthu zina zimene akufuna kupanga. Powomba nsaluzo, ankagwiritsa ntchito thabwa. Pathabwalo, ulusi wina ankauyala chopita m’munsi ndipo wina ankauyala chopingasa. Ulusi wopingasawu ankaulukanitsa ndi ulusi umene wayalidwa chopita m’munsi uja.

Thabwali ankatha kuligoneka pansi kapena kuliimika akamawomba nsalu. Akaliimika, nthawi zina ankamangirira zinthu zolemera kumapeto kwa ulusi umene wayalidwa chopita m’munsi. Anthu ofukula zinthu zakale anapeza m’malo osiyanasiyana ku Israel zinthu zolemera zomwe anthu akale ankagwiritsa ntchito powombera nsalu.

Nthawi zambiri ntchito yowomba nsalu inali imodzi mwa ntchito zapakhomo. Komabe m’madera ena, mudzi wonse unkathandizana pogwira ntchitoyi. Mwachitsanzo, lemba la 1 Mbiri 4:21, limanena za “nyumba ya anthu ogwira ntchito yopanga nsalu zabwino kwambiri.” N’kutheka kuti pamenepa ankanena za anthu amene ankagwirira limodzi ntchito yowomba nsalu.

[Chithunzi pamasamba 26, 27]

“Ulusi Wabuluu ndi Ubweya wa Nkhosa Wonyika mu Utoto Wofiirira.”​—EKISODO 26:1