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Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?—Gawo 2

Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?—Gawo 2

 Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?​—Gawo 2

Kodi Zolemba za Pamapale Akale Zimasonyeza Chiyani?

Iyi ndi nkhani yachiwiri pa nkhani zomwe zatuluka mu Nsanja ya Olonda motsatizana. Nkhani zimenezi zili ndi mayankho a mafunso amene amazunguza anthu ambiri okhudza chaka chimene Yerusalemu wakale anawonongedwa. Mayankho amenewa ndi ofufuzidwa bwino komanso ndi ochokera pa zimene Baibulo limanena.

M’gawo 1 Munali Mfundo Zotsatirazi:

▪ Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amanena kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa m’chaka cha 587 B.C.E. *

▪ Nkhani za m’Baibulo, zimene zinalembedwa motsatira nthawi imene zinachitika, zimasonyeza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E.

▪ Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amatsatira zimene Agiriki ndi Aroma analemba komanso zolemba za Tolemi.

▪ Zolemba za Agiriki ndi Aroma zili ndi zolakwika zikuluzikulu ndipo zina sizigwirizana ndi zomwe zinalembedwa pamapale akale. *

BAIBULO limanena kuti Ayuda omwe anatengedwa pamene mzinda wa Yerusalemu unawonongedwa anali kudzakhala akapolo ku Babulo kwa “zaka 70” ndipo zimenezi zidzachitika “pokwaniritsa mawu a Yehova amene ananena kudzera mwa Yeremiya.” Kodi Ayuda anamasulidwa liti ku ukapolo? Baibulo limati munali “m’chaka choyamba cha [ulamuliro wa] Koresi mfumu ya Perisiya.” (2 Mbiri 36:21, 22) Mbiri yopezeka m’Baibulo komanso zimene olemba mbiri yakale analemba, zimagwirizana pa mfundo yakuti Ayuda omwe anali akapolo ku Babulo anamasulidwa pamene Koresi anagonjetsa Babulo ndipo Ayudawo anabwerera ku Yerusalemu mu 537 B.C.E. Popeza Baibulo limafotokoza momveka bwino kuti Ayuda anakhala akapolo ku Babulo kwa zaka 70, ndiye kuti iwo anapita ku Babuloko mu 607 B.C.E.

Komabe akatswiri ambiri a maphunziro amanena kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E. Zimenezi zitakhala zoona, ndiye kuti Ayuda anakhala akapolo ku Babulo kwa zaka 50 zokha. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani iwo amanena kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E.? Iwo amawerengetsera chakachi potengera zolemba zakale zimene zimafotokoza mbiri ya Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri komanso za mafumu amene analamulira pambuyo pake.1 Zambiri mwa zolemba zimenezi zinalembedwa ndi anthu amene analipo pamene Yerusalemu ankawonongedwa kapena amene anakhalako nthawi imeneyi itangotha kumene. Koma kodi kuwerengetsera kwawoku, kumene kumasonyeza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E., ndi kolondoladi? Kodi zolemba zimenezi zimasonyeza chiyani kwenikweni?

Kuti tiyankhe mafunso amenewa, tiyeni tikambirane zolemba zakale zitatu zomwe nthawi zambiri akatswiri amaphunziro amadalira, zomwe ndi: (1) Mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo, (2) mapale amene analembapo  nkhani zachuma, komanso (3) mapale amene analembapo zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo.

Mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo.

Kodi panalembedwa zotani? Pamapale amenewa analembapo zochitika zikuluzikulu zokhudza mbiri ya ku Babulo.2

Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani za mapale amenewa? Katswiri wina wodziwa bwino zolemba zakalezi, dzina lake R.  H. Sack ananena kuti mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo satchula zonse zokhudza zinthu zikuluzikulu zimene zinachitika. * Iye analemba kuti olemba mbiri yakale ayenera kufufuzanso “maumboni ena owonjezera . . . kuti adziwe zenizeni zomwe zinachitika.”

Zimene mapale amenewa amasonyeza: Mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo amasonyeza kuti zinthu zina zomwe zinachitika sizinalembedwe.3 (Onani  bokosi lili m’munsili.) Apa funso lingakhale lakuti, popeza mapale a ku Babulo amenewa amasonyeza kuti zinthu zina sizinalembedwe, kodi zimene anthu amanena potengera mapale amenewa, ndi zodalirikadi?

Mapale amene analembapo nkhani zachuma.

Kodi panalembedwa zotani? Zolemba zambiri zamtunduwu zinali malisiti a zinthu zosiyanasiyana zolembedwa m’nthawi imene anthu olemba mbiri amaitchula kuti “Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo.” Mapalewa ankakhala ndi deti lomwe linkasonyeza tsiku, mwezi, ndiponso chaka cha ulamuliro wa mfumu ya pa nthawiyo. Mwachitsanzo, phale lina lili ndi deti losonyeza kuti zimene analemba paphalepo zinachitika m’mwezi wa “Nisani, tsiku la 27, m’chaka cha 11 cha ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara [yemwenso amadziwika kuti Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri], mfumu ya Babulo.”4

Ngati mfumu yamwalira kapena yachotsedwa pampando ndipo mfumu yatsopano yayamba kulamulira, miyezi yotsala ya chaka chimene zimenezi zachitika, inkatengedwa kuti ndi chaka cholowera ufumu cha mfumu yatsopanoyo. *5 M’mawu ena, tinganene kuti mafumu ankasinthana m’chaka chomwecho malinga ndi kawerengedwe ka zaka ka Ababulo. Motero, mapale onena za chaka chimene mfumu inalowa m’malo mwa mfumu ina anayenera kukhala ndi madeti a miyezi ya m’tsogolo mwa mwezi umene mfumu yoyamba ija inasiya kulamulira.

 Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani za mapale amenewa? R. H. Sack anafufuza mapale omwe panalembedwa nkhani zachuma mu nthawi ya Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo. Mu 1972, Sack analemba kuti mapale atsopano amene sanafalitsidwe a kunyumba yosungirako zinthu zakale ku Britain omwe iyeyo anaona, “akusiyana kwambiri” ndi zomwe anthu akhala akunena pa nkhani ya mmene ufumu wa Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri unasinthira kupita kwa mwana wake, Amel-Marduk (yemwenso amadziwika kuti Evil-merodach).6 Kodi akusiyana bwanji? Sack ankadziwa kuti mapale akale amasonyeza kuti Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri ankalamulirabe mpaka mwezi wa 6 wa chaka chake chomaliza (cha 43). Koma mapale atsopano amenewa, omwe analembedwa m’chaka chimene mfumu yotsatira inalowa m’malo mwa Nebukadinezara, analembedwa deti losonyeza kuti ndi a m’mwezi wachinayi kapena wachisanu wa chaka chimene anthu akuganiza kuti ndi chomwecho, chimene Nebukadinezara anasiya kulamulira.7 Apatu zikuoneka kuti mapalewa akunena zosiyana.

Zimene mapale amenewa amasonyeza: Pali zitsanzo zinanso zosonyeza kuti zolemba zakalezi zimasiyana pa nkhani ya nthawi imene mafumu anasinthana ulamuliro. Mwachitsanzo, phale lina limasonyeza kuti Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri ankalamulirabe m’mwezi wa 10 wa chaka chomaliza cha ulamuliro wake. Koma pa nthawi imeneyi n’kuti patatha miyezi 6 kuchokera pomwe anthu amaganiza kuti m’pamene mfumu imene inalowa m’malo mwake inayamba kulamulira.8 Chitsanzo chinanso chofanana ndi zimenezi ndi cha Amel-Marduk ndi mfumu imene inalowa m’malo mwake, dzina lake Neriglissar.9

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani tingati kusiyana kumeneku ndi nkhani yaikulu? Monga tafotokozera, mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo amasonyeza kuti zinthu zina zomwe zinachitika sizinalembedwe. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti mwina tilibe mbiri yonse yonena za zinthu zimene zinachitika kalelo.10 N’kutheka kuti pali mafumu enanso amene analamulira pakati pa mafumu amenewa. Ngati zilidi choncho, ndiye kuti zaka za Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo ziyenera kukhala zambiri kuposa mmene anthu ena amanenera. Choncho mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo komanso mapale amene analembapo nkhani zachuma alibe umboni wokwanira wotithandiza kunena motsimikiza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwadi m’chaka cha 587 B.C.E. *

Mapale amene analembapo zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo.

Kodi panalembedwa zotani? Pamapale amenewa analembapo zokhudza malo amene dzuwa, mwezi, ndiponso nyenyezi zinali. Mapalewa alinso ndi mfundo zina zofunika zonena za mbiri yakale, monga chaka cha ulamuliro wa mfumu ya pa nthawiyo. Mwachitsanzo, phale lomwe lili m’munsili, lomwe analembapo nkhani zomwe zinkachitika tsiku lililonse zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo, analembapo za kadamsana yemwe anachitika m’mwezi woyamba wa chaka choyamba cha ulamuliro wa Mfumu Mukin-zeri.11

Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani za mapale amenewa? Akatswiri ambiri amanena kuti Ababulo anali ndi matchati komanso ndandanda zimene zinkawathandiza kudziwiratu nthawi imene akadamsana angachitike.12

 Koma kodi Ababulo ankathanso kuwerengetsera kuti adziwe nthawi imene akadamsana anachitika m’mbuyomo? Pulofesa wina, dzina lake John Steele, ananena kuti: ‘N’kutheka kuti zinthu zoyambirira zimene zimaoneka ngati anazineneratu zisanachitike, anazidziwa pa nthawi imene ankazilemba. Iwo anadziwa zimenezi pogwiritsa ntchito ndandanda kuwerengetsera chobwerera m’mbuyo.’13 Ndiye palinso pulofesa wina, dzina lake David Brown, yemwe amakhulupirira kuti matchati onena za zinthu zakuthambo ankakhala ndi madeti a zinthu zina zimene zinanenedwa kuti zidzachitika kutangotsala nthawi yochepa chabe kuti zichitike. Iye anavomereza kuti n’kutheka kuti ena mwa madeti amenewa, omwe anthu ankaganiza kuti ananenedweratu zinthuzo zisanachitike, ‘anali oti alembi anawapeza atawerengetsera nthawi zinthuzo zitachitika kale. Alembiwo anachita zimenezi m’zaka za m’ma 300 BC komanso pambuyo pake.’14 Ngati zimenezi zili zoona, ndiye kuti madeti amenewa sangaonedwe kuti ndi odalirika pokhapokha patapezekanso umboni wina umene ungatsimikizire kuti madetiwa ndi olondoladi.

Ngakhale zitakhala zoona kuti kadamsana anachitika pa tsiku linalake, si nthawi zonse pamene zimatanthauza kuti mbiri yakale yomwe wolemba ananena kuti inachitika pa tsiku limenelo ndi yolondolanso. Katswiri wina wamaphunziro, dzina lake R. J. van der Spek, ananena kuti: “Anthu amene ankalemba mapalewa anali akatswiri a zinthu zakuthambo, osati akatswiri a mbiri yakale.” Iye ananenanso kuti mbali za mapalewa zomwe zinali ndi nkhani zokhudza mbiri yakale, “sizinanene za zinthu zikuluzikulu zimene zinachitika ndipo nkhanizi sizinalembedwe molondola ngati mmene zikanakhalira zikanalembedwa ndi katswiri wa mbiri yakale.” Spek anachenjezanso anthu amene angagwiritse ntchito nkhanizi kuti ayenera “kusamala nazo.”15

Zimene mapale amenewa amasonyeza: Taganizirani chitsanzo cha phale lotchedwa VAT 4956. Mzere woyamba paphaleli uli ndi mawu akuti: “Chaka cha 37 cha Nebukadinezara, mfumu ya Babulo.”16 Kenako, limafotokoza nkhani zosiyanasiyana zonena za malo amene mapulaneti ndiponso mwezi zinali, poyerekezera ndi nyenyezi zosiyanasiyana komanso magulu a nyenyezi. Phaleli limafotokozanso za kadamsana winawake. Akatswiri a maphunziro amanena kuti zonsezi zinachitika mu 568/567 B.C.E. Ngati zimenezi zili zoona, ndiye kuti zingapangitse kuti chaka cha 18 cha ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri, chimene anawononga Yerusalemu, chikhale cha 587 B.C.E. Koma kodi pali umboni wokwanira wosonyeza kuti zinthu zakuthambo zimenezi zinaonekadi m’chaka cha 568/567 B.C.E. chokha basi?

Phale lina linanena za kadamsana yemwe anthu anawerengetsera kuti anachitika pa tsiku la 15 la mwezi wachitatu malinga ndi kalendala ya ku Babulo. Mwezi umenewu ankautchula kuti Simanu. N’zoona kuti m’chaka cha 568 B.C.E. kadamsana anachitikadi m’mwezi umenewu pa tsiku limene limagwirizana ndi July 4, malinga ndi kalendala ya masiku ano, imene inakhazikitsidwa ndi Julius Caesar. Komabe zaka 20 izi zisanachitike, kunachitikanso kadamsana wina pa July 15, 588 B.C.E.17

Ngati chaka cha 588 B.C.E. chinali chaka cha 37 cha ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri, ndiye kuti chaka cha 18 cha ulamuliro wake chinali 607 B.C.E., chaka chimene Baibulo limasonyeza kuti n’chimene Yerusalemu anawonongedwa. (Onani  ndandanda ya nthawi imene ili m’munsimu.) Koma kodi phale lotchedwa VAT 4956 limapereka umboni wotsimikizira kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwadi mu 607 B.C.E.?

Kuwonjezera pa kadamsana amene tatchulayu, phale limeneli limatchulanso za akadamsana ena 13 komanso malo 15 pamene panali mapulaneti. Zinthu zimenezi zimasonyeza za malo amene mwezi ndi mapulaneti ena zinali, potengera pamene panali nyenyezi zina komanso magulu a nyenyezi.18 Phaleli limasonyezanso kutalika kwa nthawi imene inkakhalapo kuchokera pamene  dzuwa latuluka kukafika pamene lalowa komanso kuchokera pamene mwezi watuluka kukafika pamene walowa.18a

Chifukwa chakuti kayendedwe ka mwezi n’kotsimikizirika, anthu ofufuza zinthu afufuza mosamala kuti adziwe malo amene panali akadamsana 13 a mwezi omwe ali paphale lotchedwa VAT 4956 lija. Iwo afufuza zimenezi pogwiritsa ntchito pulogalamu ya pa kompyuta imene imatha kusonyeza malo amene zinthu zakuthambo zinali pa nthawi inayake m’mbuyomu.19 Kodi iwo anapeza zotani? Pa akadamsana 13 aja, ena anapezeka kuti sanachitike m’chaka cha 568/567 B.C.E., koma onse anapezeka kuti anachitika zaka 20 m’mbuyomo chomwe ndi chaka cha 588/587 B.C.E.

Phale lili m’munsili, likusonyeza malo amodzi omwe pofufuza paja anapeza kuti akadamsana 13 aja anachitika m’chaka cha 588 B.C.E. osati 568 B.C.E. Mzere wachitatu wa phale limeneli umati mwezi unali pamalo enaake “usiku wa pa [Nisanu] 9.” Koma akatswiri amaphunziro amene anali oyamba kunena kuti zimenezi zinachitika m’chaka cha 568/567 B.C.E., amanena kuti m’chaka chimenechi, mwezi unali pamalo amenewo pa “Nisanu 8, osati 9.” Poikira kumbuyo mfundo yawoyi, iwo amati munthu amene analemba phalelo analakwitsa polemba “9,” m’malo molemba “8.”20 Koma malo amenewa, amene atchulidwa mumzere wachitatu paphale limeneli, amagwirizana ndendende ndi malo amene mwezi unali pa Nisanu 9 mu 588 B.C.E.21

Monga taonera, nkhani zambiri zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo zimene zili paphale lotchedwa VAT 4956 zimagwirizana ndi mfundo yoti chaka cha 588 B.C.E. chinali chaka cha 37 cha ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri. Zimenezi zikugwirizana ndi mfundo yoti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa m’chaka cha 607 B.C.E., monga mmene Baibulo limasonyezera.

N’chifukwa Chiyani Tiyenera Kukhulupirira Baibulo?

Panopa, akatswiri a mbiri yakale ambiri amakhulupirira kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E. Koma Yeremiya ndi Danieli, omwe analemba nawo Baibulo, ananena momveka bwino kuti Ayuda anakhala ku ukapolo kwa zaka 70, osati 50. (Yeremiya 25:1, 2, 11; 29:10; Danieli 9:2) Zimenezi zikusonyezeratu kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E. Mu nkhaniyi, taona kuti pali maumboni ena osakhala a m’Baibulo amene amasonyeza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwadi mu 607 B.C.E.

Nthawi zambiri akatswiri amatsutsa zoti Baibulo ndi lolondola. Komabe kawirikawiri maumboni ambiri amene amapezeka amatsimikizira kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola. * Anthu amene amakhulupirira Baibulo amachita zimenezo pa zifukwa zomveka. Amachita zimenezi chifukwa amadziwa kuti pali umboni wosonyeza kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola pa nkhani ya mbiri yakale, sayansi komanso maulosi. Umboni umenewu umawachititsa kukhulupirira kuti zimene Baibulo limanena zoti ndi Mawu a Mulungu, n’zoonadi. (2 Timoteyo 3:16) Inunso tikukupemphani kuti mufufuze umboni wa zimenezi ndipo sitikukayikira kuti mupeza kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 5 Zilembo zakuti B.C.E. zimatanthauza Zaka Zathu Zino Zisanafike (m’Chingelezi, “Before the Common Era”).

^ ndime 14 Dziwani izi: Akatswiri onse amene tawagwira mawu mu nkhani ino samakhulupirira kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E.

^ ndime 18 Chaka cha ulamuliro wa mafumu a ku Babulo chinkayamba m’mwezi wa Nisani ndipo chinkathanso m’mwezi wa Nisani. Ngati mfumu yamwalira isanamalize chakachi, mfumu yotsatira inkayamba kulamulira kuti imalizitse chakacho m’malo mwa mfumu yomwalirayo. Chaka chimene zimenezi zachitika chinkatchedwa “chaka cholowera ufumu” cha mfumu yatsopanoyo. Motero, chaka choyamba cha ulamuliro wa mfumu yatsopanoyo, chinkayamba m’mwezi wotsatira wa Nisani.

^ ndime 21 Mapale a nkhani zachuma amene alipo amanena za zaka zonse za ulamuliro wa mafumu amene amati analamulira mu Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo. Tikaphatikiza zaka zonse zimene mafumuwa analamulira, n’kuwerengetsera chobwerera m’mbuyo kuyambira pa Nabonidus, mfumu yomaliza mu ufumuwu, zimasonyeza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa m’chaka cha 587 B.C.E. Komabe, kawerengedwe kameneka kangakhale kolondola pokhapokha ngati mfumu iliyonse yatsopano inkayamba kulamulira nthawi yomweyo mfumu ina ikangosiya kulamulira.

^ ndime 36 Kuti mudziwe zambiri, werengani mutu 4 ndi 5 m’buku lakuti Baibulo​—Kodi Ndilo Mawu a Mulungu Kapena a Munthu? lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

[Bokosi/​Tchati patsamba 23]

 (Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

MAPALE A MBIRI YAKALE YA KU BABULO AMASONYEZA KUTI ZINTHU ZINA SIZINALEMBEDWE

Mapale a mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo amangonena za zinthu zimene zinachitika m’zaka 35 zokha pa zaka 88 zimene amati ndi nthawi ya Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo.

ZOMWE ZINACHITIKA M’CHAKA ICHI SIZINALEMBEDWE

ZOMWE ZINACHITIKA M’CHAKA ICHI ZINALEMBEDWA

BM 21901

BM 21946

BM 35382

NTHAWI YA UFUMU WACHIWIRI WA BABULO

APERESI

Nabopolassar

Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri

Amel-Marduk

Nabonidus

Neriglissar

Labashi-Marduk

BM 25127

BM 22047

BM 25124

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

BM 21901 and BM 35382: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum; BM 21946: Copyright British Museum; BM 22047, 25124, 25127: © The Trustees of the British Museum

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 24]

PHALE LOTCHEDWA BM 32238 LOMWE ANALEMBAPO NKHANI ZOMWE ZINKACHITIKA TSIKU LILILONSE ZOKHUDZA ZINTHU ZAKUTHAMBO

Paphaleli panalembedwa mbiri yonena za akadamsana. Koma zomwe analembazo anazilemba kadamsana womaliza atachitika kale ndipo kadamsana ameneyu anachitika patatha zaka 400 kuchokera pamene woyamba anachitika. Popeza munthu amene analemba phale limeneli sanaone akadamsana onsewo, ayenera kuti anagwiritsa ntchito masamu enaake kuti adziwe nthawi imene akadamsana oyamba anachitika. Zimene iye anapezazo sizingakhale zodalirika kwenikweni moti n’kutithandiza kudziwa mbiri yakale, pokhapokha patakhala umboni wina wotsimikizira zimenezi.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© The Trustees of the British Museum

 [Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 26, 27]

KODI PAPHALE LOTCHEDWA VAT 4956 LOYAMBIRIRA PANALEMBEDWA ZOTANI?

N’chifukwa chiyani kudziwa zimenezi kuli kofunika? Mzere wachitatu kuseri kwa phaleli, umanena kuti “usiku wa pa 9” m’mwezi woyamba (Nisanu/​Nisani), mwezi unali pamalo enaake kutsogolo kwa nyenyezi yotchedwa ß Virginis. Koma m’chaka cha 1915 Neugebauer ndi Weidner analemba nkhani yokhudza chaka cha 568 B.C.E. (chaka chomwe chingasonyeze kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E.) kuti ‘mwezi unali pamalo amenewa pa Nisani 8, osati pa Nisani 9.’ Komabe zikuoneka kuti pamalo amene mwezi unali m’chaka cha 588 B.C.E. pakugwirizana ndendende ndi deti la Nisani 9 lomwe limasonyeza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E.

Kodi panali pa 9 kapena pa 8?

 (1) Monga chithunzichi chikusonyezera, chilembo cha chinenero chachiakadi, chomwe chimaimira 9 chikuoneka bwinobwino.

(2) Pomasulira zimene zinalembedwa paphale limeneli, Neugebauer ndi Weidner anasintha “9” n’kulemba “8.”

(3) Mawu am’munsi okha ndi amene amanena kuti paphale loyambirira panali “9.”

(4) Pomasulira m’Chijeremani, iwo anaikanso “8.”

(5) Mu 1988, Sachs ndi Hunger anafalitsa zomwe zinali paphale lija monga zinalili poyambirira, zomwe zinali ndi “9.”

(6) Koma pamene anazimasulira m’Chingelezi, iwo anatsatirabe zosinthidwa zija ndipo ananena kuti pamene pali “9 panangolakwika pankafunika kukhala 8.”

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

bpk/​Vorderasiatisches Museum, SMB/​Olaf M. Teßmer

 [Bokosi patsamba 28]

Mfundo Zina za Nkhani Yakuti “Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?​—Gawo 2”

1. Zolemba za pamapale zinkalembedwa ndi alembi omwe polembapo ankagwiritsa ntchito chinthu chosongoka chomwe ankadindira zizindikiro zosiyanasiyana padongo lofewa.

2. Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, tsamba 8, lolembedwa ndi A. K. Grayson, linafalitsidwa mu 1975 ndipo linasindikizidwanso mu 2000.

3. Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo unayamba m’zaka za m’ma 600 B.C.E., pamene mafumu a mu mzere wa m’banja la Akasidi ankalamulira Babulo. Mfumu yoyamba inali Nabopolassar, yemwe anali bambo ake a Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri. Nthawi ya ulamuliro umenewu inatha pamene Nabonidus, yemwe anali mfumu yomaliza, analandidwa ufumu ndi Mfumu Koresi ya ku Perisiya mu 539 B.C.E.

4. Neo-Babylonian Business and Administrative Documents, tsamba 33, lolembedwa ndi Ellen Whitley Moore ndipo linafalitsidwa mu 1935.

5. Archimedes, Volume 4, New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, “Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers,” tsamba 36, lolembedwa ndi John M. Steele, lofalitsidwa mu 2000.

6. Amel-Marduk 562-560 B.C.​—A Study Based on Cuneiform, Old Testament, Greek, Latin and Rabbinical Sources. With Plates, lolembedwa ndi Ronald H. Sack, lofalitsidwa mu 1972, tsamba 3.

7. Mapale otchedwa BM 80920 ndi BM 58872 analembedwa m’mwezi wachinayi ndi wachisanu wa chaka chimene Evil-merodach analowa ufumu. Sack analemba zomwe zili pamapalewa m’buku lake lotchedwa Amel-Marduk 562-560 B.C.​—A Study Based on Cuneiform, Old Testament, Greek, Latin and Rabbinical Sources. With Plates, tsamba 3, 90, 106.

8. Phale limene lili kunyumba yosungirako zinthu zakale ku Britain (BM 55806) lili ndi deti losonyeza kuti linalembedwa m’chaka cha 43 cha ulamuliro wake.

9. Mapale otchedwa BM 75106 ndi BM 61325 ali ndi deti losonyeza kuti analembedwa m’mwezi wa 7 ndi wa 10 wa chaka chimene anthu akuganiza kuti chinali chomaliza (chachiwiri) cha ulamuliro wa Evil-merodach. Komabe phale lotchedwa BM 75489 limasonyeza kuti linalembedwa m’mwezi wachiwiri wa chaka chimene Neriglissar anasinthana ufumu ndi amene analowa m’malo mwake.​—Catalogue of the Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, Volume VIII, (Phale Nambala 3) lolembedwa ndi Erle Leichty, J. J. Finkelstein, ndi C.B.F. Walker, lofalitsidwa mu 1988, tsamba 25, 35.

Catalogue of the Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, Volume VII, (Phale Nambala 2) lolembedwa ndi Erle Leichty ndi A. K. Grayson, lofalitsidwa mu 1987, tsamba 36.

Neriglissar​—King of Babylon, lolembedwa ndi Ronald H. Sack, lofalitsidwa mu 1994, tsamba 232. Mwezi umene unalembedwa paphaleli ndi wa Ajaru (mwezi wachiwiri).

10. Taganizirani chitsanzo cha Neriglissar. Phale lina lofotokoza za ufumu wake limanena kuti iye anali ‘mwana wa Bêl-shum-ishkun, mfumu ya Babulo.’ Phale lina limanena kuti Bêl-shum-ishkun anali “kalonga wanzeru.” Mawu akuti rubû, amene anawamasulira kuti “kalonga,” ndi dzina limene limatanthauzanso kuti “mfumu, kapena wolamulira.” Amel-Marduk analamulira Neriglissar asanayambe kulamulira. Ndiye popeza zikuonekeratu kuti zolemba zakale zikufotokoza zosiyana pa nkhani ya nthawi imene mafumu amenewa analamulira, kodi sizingatheke kuti Bêl-shum-ishkun, “mfumu ya Babulo,” analamulira pa nthawi inayake pakati pa mafumu awiriwa? Pulofesa wina dzina lake R. P. Dougherty anavomereza kuti “sitingatsutse umboni wosonyeza kuti Neriglissar anali wochokera ku banja lachifumu.”​—Nabonidus and Belshazzar​—A Study of the Closing Events of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, lolembedwa ndi Raymond P. Dougherty, lofalitsidwa mu 1929, tsamba 61.

11. Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts From Babylonia, Volume V, lokonzedwanso ndi Hermann Hunger, lofalitsidwa mu 2001, tsamba 2-3.

12. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 2, No. 4, 1948, “A Classification of the Babylonian Astronomical Tablets of the Seleucid Period,” lolembedwa ndi A. Sachs, tsamba 282-283.

13. Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts From Babylonia, Volume V, tsamba 391.

14. Mesopotamian Planetary Astronomy-Astrology, lolembedwa ndi David Brown, lofalitsidwa mu 2000, tsamba 164, 201-202.

15. Bibliotheca Orientalis, L N° 1/2, Januari-Maart, 1993, “The Astronomical Diaries as a Source for Achaemenid and Seleucid History,” lolembedwa ndi R. J. van der Spek, tsamba 94, 102.

16. Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts From Babylonia, Volume I, lolembedwa ndi Abraham J. Sachs lomalizitsidwa ndi kukonzedwanso ndi Hermann Hunger, lofalitsidwa mu 1988, tsamba 47.

 17. Babylonian Eclipse Observations From 750 BC to 1 BC, lolembedwa ndi Peter J. Huber ndi Salvo De Meis, lofalitsidwa mu 2004, tsamba 186. Phale lotchedwa VAT 4956, limanena kuti kadamsanayu anaoneka pa 15 m’mwezi wachitatu malinga ndi kalendala ya Ababulo ndipo zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti mwezi wa Simanu unali utayamba kale masiku 15 m’mbuyo mwake. Ngati kadamsanayu anachitika pa July 15, 588 B.C.E., malinga ndi kalendala ya masiku ano, imene inayambitsidwa ndi Julius Caesar, ndiye kuti tsiku loyamba la mwezi wa Simanu likanakhala June 30/​July 1, 588 B.C.E. Ndiye kuti mwezi woyamba pakalendala ya ku Babulo (Nisanu) unali utadutsa kale miyezi iwiri m’mbuyomo, kusonyeza kuti chakacho chinayamba pa May 2/3. Ngakhale kuti chaka chimene kadamsana ameneyu anaoneka chinayenera kuyamba pa April 3/4, phale lotchedwa VAT 4956, mzere wa 6 limanena kuti mwezi wina wapadera unawonjezeredwa pambuyo pa mwezi wa 12 (womaliza, womwe ndi Addaru) wa chaka cha m’mbuyo mwa chakachi. (Paphaleli panalembedwa kuti: “Tsiku la 8 la mwezi wa XII2.”) Motero, zimenezi zinachititsa kuti chaka chotsatira chiyambe pa May 2/3. Choncho, deti limene kadamsanayu anaoneka mu 588 B.C.E. limafanana ndendende ndi zimene zinalembedwa paphaleli.

18. Malinga ndi buku lakuti Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Königl. Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig (Reports Regarding the Discussions of the Royal Saxonian Society of Sciences at Leipzig); Volume 67; May 1, 1915; m’nkhani yakuti “Ein astronomischer Beobachtungstext aus dem 37. Jahre Nebukadnezars II” (An Astronomical Observer’s Text of the 37th Year Nebuchadnezzar II) lolembedwa ndi Paul V. Neugebauer ndi Ernst F. Weidner, tsamba 67-76, panali akadamsana 13 a mwezi amene anachitika ndipo amawafotokoza potengera pamene nyenyezi inayake inali kapena pamene panali gulu linalake la nyenyezi. Iwo amafotokozanso za malo 15 pamene panali mapulaneti. (Tsamba 72-76) Ngakhale kuti chizindikiro cha mwezi chimaoneka bwinobwino paphalepo, zizindikiro zina zoimira mayina a mapulaneti komanso malo awo, sizimaoneka bwinobwino. (Mesopotamian Planetary Astronomy​—Astrology, lolembedwa ndi David Brown, lofalitsidwa mu 2000, tsamba 53-57) Izi zimachititsa kuti anthu azitanthauzira komanso kunena zinthu zosiyanasiyana zokhudza malo amene mapulanetiwa anali. Chifukwa chakuti kayendedwe ka mwezi n’kotsimikizirika, n’zosavutanso kuzindikira tsiku lenileni limene zinthu zina zakuthambo zotchulidwa paphale lotchedwa VAT 4956, zimene zimayendera limodzi ndi mweziwo, zinaoneka komanso malo amene zinali.

18a. Kusiyana kwa nthawi kumeneku, amawerengetsera kuchokera pa nthawi imene, mwachitsanzo, dzuwa lalowa kukafika pa nthawi imene mwezi walowa pa tsiku loyamba la mwezi komanso pa masiku ena awiri a mkati mwa mweziwo. Akatswiri a maphunziro anagwirizanitsa nthawi zimenezi ndi masiku a pakalendala. (“The Earliest Datable Observation of the Aurora Borealis,” lolembedwa ndi F. R. Stephenson ndi David M. Willis, m’buku lakuti Under One Sky​—Astronomy and Mathematics in the Ancient Near East, lokonzedwanso ndi John M. Steele ndi Annette Imhausen, lofalitsidwa mu 2002, tsamba 420-428) Akatswiri akale ankafunika kukhala ndi wotchi kuti athe kuwerengetsera nthawi imeneyi, komabe zimene ankapezazo zinkakhala zosadalirika. (Archimedes, Volume 4, New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, “Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers,” lolembedwa ndi John M. Steele, lofalitsidwa mu 2000, tsamba 65-66) Koma mosiyana ndi zimenezi, iwo ankatha kuwerengetsera bwinobwino malo amene panali mwezi poyerekezera ndi pamene panali zinthu zina zakuthambo.

19. Zinthu zimenezi zinafufuzidwa pogwiritsa ntchito pulogalamu inayake yapakompyuta (TheSky6™). Komanso kuti apeze mfundo zina, anagwiritsa ntchito pulogalamu inanso yapakompyuta yotchedwa Cartes du Ciel/​Sky Charts (CDC) ndiponso pulogalamu yopezera madeti yomwe anapatsidwa ndi a U.S. Naval Observatory. Popeza zizindikiro za zolemba zakale zoimira malo amene mapulaneti ambiri anali zinali zoti aliyense akhoza kutanthauzira mmene akuganizira, malo amenewa sanagwiritsidwe ntchito pa kafukufukuyu, wofuna kudziwa chaka chimene zinthu zakuthambo zinali pamalo enaake.

20. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Königl. Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig (Reports Regarding the Discussions of the Royal Saxonian Society of Sciences at Leipzig); Volume 67; May 1, 1915; “Ein astronomischer Beobachtungstext aus dem 37. Jahre Nebukadnezars II, (-567/66)(An Astronomical Observer’s Text of the 37th Year Nebuchadnezzar II), lolembedwa ndi Paul V. Neugebauer ndi Ernst F. Weidner, tsamba 41.

21. Mzere wachitatu paphale lotchedwa VAT 4956 umati: “Mwezi unali pamalo enaake kutsogolo kwa nyenyezi yotchedwa ß Virginis (2 degrees).” Koma pakafukufuku uja anapeza kuti pa Nisanu 9, mweziwo unali pamalo osiyana ndi amenewa chifukwa unali 2°04ʹ kutsogolo ndiponso 0° m’munsi mwa nyenyezi yotchedwa ß Virginis. Malo amenewa akugwirizana ndendende ndi malo amene mwezi unali pa tsikuli m’chaka cha 588 B.C.E.

[Tchati patsamba 25]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

KODI PHALE LOTCHEDWA VAT 4956 LIMASONYEZA KUTI YERUSALEMU ANAWONONGEDWA MU 587 B.C.E. KAPENA MU 607 B.C.E.?

▪ Phale limeneli limanena za zinthu zakuthambo zimene zinachitika m’chaka cha 37 cha ulamuliro wa Mfumu Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri.

▪ Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri anawononga Yerusalemu m’chaka cha 18 cha ulamuliro wake.​—Yeremiya 32:1.

Ngati chaka cha 37 cha ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri chinali 568 B.C.E., ndiye kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa 587 mu 587 B.C.E.

610 B.C.E.

600

590

580

570

560

Ngati chaka cha 37 cha ulamuliro a Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri chinali 88 B.C.E., ndiye kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E., chomwenso ndi chaka chimene mbiri yopezeka m’Baibulo imasonyeza.

▪ Phale lotchedwa VAT 4956 limasonyezeratu kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E.

[Chithunzi patsamba 22]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum