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Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?—Gawo 1

Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?—Gawo 1

 Kodi Yerusalemu Wakale Anawonongedwa Liti?​—Gawo 1

N’chifukwa Chiyani Kudziwa Zimenezi Kuli Kofunika?; Kodi Umboni Umasonyeza Chiyani?

Iyi ndi imodzi mwa nkhani ziwiri zimene zituluke mu Nsanja ya Olonda motsatizana. Nkhani zimenezi zili ndi mayankho a mafunso amene amazunguza anthu ambiri okhudza chaka chimene Yerusalemu wakale anawonongedwa. Mayankho amenewa ndi ofufuzidwa bwino komanso ndi ochokera pa zimene Baibulo limanena.

“Anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti mzinda wa Yerusalemu unawonongedwa m’chaka cha 586 kapena 587 B.C.E. chifukwa cha zimene akatswiri a mbiri yakale komanso ofukula zinthu zakale amanena. * Nanga n’chifukwa chiyani a Mboni za Yehova mumanena kuti mzindawu unawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E.? Kodi zimenezi mumazitenga kuti?”

MUNTHU wina amene amawerenga mabuku athu ndi amene anafunsa zimenezi. Komano kodi n’chifukwa chiyani tiyenera kudziwa chaka cholondola chimene Mfumu Nebukadinezara Yachiwiri ya Babulo inawononga mzinda wa Yerusalemu? Chifukwa choyamba n’chakuti, kuwonongedwa kwa Yerusalemu kunasintha kwambiri zinthu m’mbiri ya anthu a Mulungu. Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale ananena kuti zimenezi zinabweretsa “tsoka lalikulu.” Kuwonongedwa kwa mzindawu kunachititsanso kuti kachisi wa Mulungu awonongedwe. Kwa zaka zoposa 400, kachisi ameneyu anali likulu lolambirirako Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse. Wolemba masalimo wina anadandaula kuti: “Inu Mulungu, anthu a mitundu ina . . . aipitsa kachisi wanu woyera. Awononga Yerusalemu ndi kumusandutsa bwinja.”​—Salimo 79:1. *

Chachiwiri, kudziwa chaka chenicheni chimene mzindawu unawonongedwa ndiponso kudziwa mmene kubwezeretsedwa kwa kulambira koona ku Yerusalemu kunakwaniritsira ndendende ulosi wa m’Baibulo, kungalimbitse chikhulupiriro chanu chakuti Mawu a Mulungu ndi odalirika. Ndiye n’chifukwa chiyani a Mboni za Yehova amanena za chaka chomwe chimasiyana ndi zaka 20 ndi chaka chimene anthu ambiri amanena? Mwachidule, tingayankhe kuti amanena zimenezi chifukwa cha umboni umene uli m’Baibulo momwemo.

Kodi “Zaka 70” Zinali za Ndani?

Kudakali zaka zambiri kuti Yerusalemu awonongedwe, Yeremiya, yemwe anali mneneri wachiyuda, ananena ulosi umene umatithandiza kudziwa bwino nthawi ya kuwonongedwa kwa Yerusalemu yotchulidwa m’Baibulo. Iye anachenjeza “anthu onse okhala mu Yerusalemu” kuti: “Dziko lonseli lidzakhala bwinja, chinthu chodabwitsa, ndipo mitundu imeneyi idzatumikira mfumu ya ku Babulo zaka 70.” (Yeremiya 25:1, 2, 11) Kenako mneneriyu anawonjezera kuti: “Yehova wanena kuti, ‘Zaka 70 zikadzakwanira muli ku Babulo ndidzakucheukirani anthu inu, ndipo ndidzakwaniritsa lonjezo langa lokubwezeretsani kumalo ano.’” (Yeremiya 29:10) Kodi “zaka 70” zimenezi ndi zofunika motani? Ndipo kodi nthawi imeneyi ingatithandize  bwanji kudziwa chaka chimene Yerusalemu anawonongedwa?

Mabaibulo ambiri m’malo monena kuti zaka 70 ali “ku Babulo,” amanena kuti zaka 70 “pa Babulo.” (Buku Lopatulika Ndilo Mau a Mulungu) Chifukwa cha zimenezi, olemba mbiri yakale ena amanena kuti zaka 70 zimenezi zinkanena za Ufumu wa Babulo. Mabuku ena a mbiri yakale amanena kuti Ababulo analamulira dziko la Yuda ndiponso mzinda wa Yerusalemu kwa zaka 70, kuyambira cha m’ma 609 B.C.E. mpaka m’chaka cha 539 B.C.E. pamene likulu la Babulo linagonjetsedwa.

Koma Baibulo limasonyeza kuti zaka 70 zimenezo inali nthawi imene Mulungu anapereka chilango kwa anthu a ku Yuda ndi Yerusalemu, omwe anali naye m’pangano loti adzamvera mawu ake. (Ekisodo 19:3-6) Iwo atakana kusiya makhalidwe awo oipa, Mulungu anati: “Ndikuitana . . . Nebukadirezara mfumu ya Babulo . . . kuti aukire dziko lino ndi anthu okhala mmenemo, komanso kuti aukire mitundu yonse yokuzungulirani.” (Yeremiya 25:4, 5, 8, 9) Ngakhale kuti mitundu yowazungulira nayonso inali kudzaukiridwa ndi Ababulo, Yeremiya ananena kuti kuwonongedwa kwa Yerusalemu ndiponso zaka 70 zimene anthu amenewa adzakhale ku ukapolo zinali “chilango chimene mwana wamkazi wa anthu anga walandira” chifukwa Yerusalemu “wachita tchimo lalikulu.”​—Maliro 1:8; 3:42; 4:6.

Choncho, malinga ndi zimene Baibulo limanena, zaka 70 zinali nthawi imene Mulungu anapereka chilango chokhwima kwa anthu a ku Yuda ndipo anagwiritsa ntchito Ababulo popereka chilango chimenechi. Komabe Mulungu anawauza Ayuda kuti: ‘Zaka 70 zikadzakwanira . . . ndidzakubwezeretsani kumalo ano.’ Iye ankatanthauza kuti adzawabwezeretsa kudziko la Yuda ndi ku Yerusalemu.​—Yeremiya 29:10.

Kodi “Zaka 70” Zimenezi Zinayamba Liti?

Munthu wina wolemba mbiri yakale mochita kuuziridwa ndi Mulungu dzina lake Ezara, amene anakhalako zaka 70 zimene Yeremiya anatchula mu ulosi wake zitakwaniritsidwa, analemba zokhudza Mfumu Nebukadinezara. Iye anati: “Anagwira anthu amene sanaphedwe ndi lupanga ndipo anawatenga kupita nawo ku Babulo. Anthuwo anakakhala antchito ake ndi a ana ake kufikira pamene ufumu wa Perisiya unayamba kulamulira. Zimenezi zinachitika pokwaniritsa mawu a Yehova amene ananena kudzera mwa Yeremiya, mpaka pamene dzikolo linalipira masabata ake. Masiku onse amene dzikolo linali bwinja linali kusunga sabata mpaka linakwaniritsa zaka 70.”​—2 Mbiri 36:20, 21.

Choncho, zaka 70 zinali zoti dziko la Yuda komanso Yerusalemu lidzakhala ‘likusunga sabata.’ Zimenezi zinatanthauza kuti pa nthawi imeneyi anthu sadzalima chilichonse m’dzikolo, sadzafesamo mbewu kapena kudulira mitengo ya mpesa. (Levitiko 25:1-5) Chifukwa cha kusamvera kwa anthu a Mulungu, amene machimo awo ayenera kuti anaphatikizapo kusasunga Masabata onse a zaka, chilango chake chinali chakuti dziko lawo lidzakhala bwinja komanso silidzalimidwa kwa zaka 70.​—Levitiko 26:27, 32-35, 42, 43.

Koma kodi ndi liti pamene dziko la Yuda linakhala bwinja komanso losalimidwa? Ababulo, motsogoleredwa ndi Nebukadinezara, anaukira Yerusalemu kawiri koma osati zaka zotsatizana. Ndiyeno kodi zaka 70 zimenezi zinayamba liti? N’zachidziwikire kuti sizinayambe pa nthawi imene Nebukadinezara anaukira Yerusalemu koyamba. Tikutero chifukwa chakuti, ngakhale kuti pa nthawi imeneyi Nebukadinezara anatenga anthu ambiri a ku Yerusalemu n’kupita nawo ku ukapolo ku Babulo, iye anasiya anthu ena m’dzikolo. Iye anasiyanso mzindawo ulipobe, osauwononga. Kwa zaka zambiri kuchokera pa nthawi imene gulu loyambali linatengedwa kupita ku ukapolo, anthu amene anatsala ku Yudawo, omwe anali “anthu onyozeka,” anapitirizabe kulima ndiponso kugwiritsa ntchito dzikolo m’njira zambiri. (2 Mafumu 24:8-17) Koma kenako zinthu zinasintha kwambiri.

Ayuda atayamba kuchita zinthu zoukira, Ababulo anabweranso ku Yerusalemu. (2 Mafumu 24:20; 25:8-10) Pa nthawi imeneyi, iwo anawononga mzinda wa Yerusalemu komanso kachisi wake wopatulika ndipo anatenga anthu a mumzindawu kupita nawo ku ukapolo ku Babulo. Miyezi iwiri isanathe, “anthu onse, [amene anatsala mumzindawu] kuyambira wamng’ono mpaka wamkulu ndi akuluakulu a magulu ankhondo, ananyamuka n’kupita ku Iguputo, chifukwa anayamba kuopa Akasidi [Ababulo].” (2 Mafumu 25:25, 26) Pa nthawi imeneyi ndi pamene tinganene kuti dzikolo linayamba kusunga Sabata chifukwa linali bwinja ndipo silinkalimidwanso. Zimenezi zinachitika m’mwezi wa 7 wachiyuda, wotchedwa Tishiri (September/​October). Mulungu anatuma Yeremiya kuti akauze Ayuda amene anali ku ukapolo ku Iguputo kuti: “Inu mwaona masoka onse amene ndagwetsera Yerusalemu ndi mizinda yonse ya Yuda. Lero mizinda imeneyi yakhala mabwinja ndipo palibe amene akukhalamo.” (Yeremiya 44:1, 2) Choncho tingati zaka 70 zija zinayambira pamenepa. Koma kodi chimenechi  chinali chaka chanji? Kuti tiyankhe funso limeneli, tiyenera kudziwa kaye pamene zaka zimenezi zinathera.

Kodi “Zaka 70” Zimenezi Zinatha Liti?

Mneneri Danieli, amene anakhala ndi moyo mpaka “pamene ufumu wa Perisiya unayamba kulamulira,” ankaitsatira bwino nkhaniyi ali ku Babulo ndipo anawerengetsera kuti adziwe pamene zaka 70 zidzathere. Iye analemba kuti: “Ineyo Danieli ndinazindikira chiwerengero cha zaka za kuwonongedwa kwa Yerusalemu kuti zidzakhala zaka 70. Ndinazindikira zimenezi mwa kuwerenga mawu amene Yehova anauza mneneri Yeremiya olembedwa m’mabuku.”​—Danieli 9:1, 2.

Ezara ataganizira mozama za maulosi a Yeremiya, anasonyeza kuti pali kugwirizana pakati pa kutha kwa “zaka 70” ndi nthawi imene “Yehova analimbikitsa mtima wa Koresi mfumu ya Perisiya . . . [kutumiza] mawu amene analengezedwa mu ufumu wake wonse.” (2 Mbiri 36:21, 22) Kodi Ayuda anamasulidwa liti ku ukapolo? Lamulo loti amasulidwe linaperekedwa “m’chaka choyamba cha Koresi mfumu ya Perisiya.” (Onani bokosi lakuti  “Chaka Chofunika Kwambiri M’mbiri.”) Choncho pofika kumapeto kwa chaka cha 537 B.C.E., Ayuda anali atabwerera ku Yerusalemu kukayambiranso kulambira koona.​—Ezara 1:1-5; 2:1; 3:1-5.

Choncho, malinga ndi nkhani zimene zili m’Baibulo, zomwe zinalembedwa motsatira nthawi imene zinachitika, zaka 70 zimenezi zinali zaka zenizeni ndipo zinatha mu 537 B.C.E. Ndiyeno tikawerenga zaka 70 kuyambira mu 537 B.C.E. kubwerera m’mbuyo, ndiye kuti zaka 70 zimenezi zinayamba m’chaka cha 607 B.C.E.

Popeza kuti umboni wa m’Baibulo ukusonyeza kuti mzinda wa Yerusalemu unawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E., n’chifukwa chiyani anthu ambiri amanena kuti mzindawu unawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E.? Iwo amanena zimenezi potengera zimene zili m’mbiri yakale yomwe analemba Agiriki ndi Aroma komanso  zolemba za Tolemi. Koma kodi zinthu zimenezi zingakhale zodalirika kuposa Baibulo? Tiyeni tione.

Kodi Mbiri Yakale Imene Agiriki ndi Aroma Analemba Ndi Yolondoladi?

Anthu olemba mbiri yakale amene anakhalapo Yerusalemu atangowonongedwa kumene analemba zinthu zosiyana zokhudza mafumu a ku Babulo. Mafumu amenewa ndi amene analamulira pa nthawi imene anthu olemba mbiri amaitchula kuti “Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo.” * (Onani bokosi lakuti,  “Mafumu Amene Analamulira mu Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo.”) Nthawi imene anthu amenewa analemba kuti ndi imene zinthu zinachitika imasiyana ndi nthawi imene Baibulo limanena pa zinthu zomwezo. Tiyeni tione ngati zimene anthuwa analemba zili zodalirikadi.

Mmodzi mwa olemba mbiri amene anakhalako “Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo” utangotha kumene anali Berossus, yemwe kwawo kunali ku Babulo ndipo anali “wansembe wa Beli.” Buku limene iye analemba (Babyloniaca), lomwe analilemba cha m’ma 281 B.C.E., linasowa koma zidutswa za bukuli zimapezeka m’mabuku a olemba mbiri yakale ena. Berossus ananena kuti polemba buku limeneli, anagwiritsa ntchito “mabuku amene anasungidwa mosamala kwambiri ku Babulo.”1 Koma kodi zolemba zake zinalidi zolondola? Tiyeni tione chitsanzo chimodzi.

Berossus analemba kuti Senakeribu, mfumu ya Asuri, anayamba kulamulira pambuyo pa “ulamuliro wa mchimwene [wake]” ndipo “pambuyo pake panabwera mwana wake [Esarihadoni yemwe analamulira] zaka 8, kenako panabwera Sammuges [Shamash-shuma-ukin] yemwe analamulira zaka 21.” (III, 2.1, 4) Koma zolemba za mbiri yakale zomwe zinalembedwa Berossus asanabadwe, zimanena kuti Senakeribu anayamba kulamulira pambuyo pa Sarigoni Wachiwiri, omwe anali bambo ake, osati pambuyo pa mchimwene wake. Esarihadoni analamulira zaka 12, osati zaka 8 ndipo Shamash-shuma-ukin analamulira zaka 20, osati 21. Katswiri wina wamaphunziro, dzina lake R. J. van der Spek, anavomereza kuti Berossus anagwiritsa ntchito mabuku a ku Babulo. Komabe iye anawonjezera kuti: “Zimenezi sizikutanthauza kuti iye sanawonjezeremo maganizo ake pena ndi pena.”2

Koma kodi akatswiri ena amamuona bwanji Berossus? Munthu wina, dzina lake S. M. Burstein, amene anawerenga mosamala kwambiri mabuku amene Berossus analemba, ananena kuti: “M’mbuyomu, Berossus ankaonedwa ngati katswiri wa mbiri yakale.” Komabe, iye anamaliza n’kunena kuti: “Zimene munthu ameneyu analemba n’zosakwanira kumutchula kuti anali munthu wolemba mbiri yakale. Ngakhale zidutswa zomwe zilipo za buku lake lakuti Babyloniaca zili ndi zinthu zambiri zolakwika. Iye ankalakwitsa ngakhale pofotokoza mfundo zodziwika bwino . . . Munthu wolemba mbiri safunika kulakwitsa zinthu mwanjira imeneyi. Zikuoneka kuti cholinga cha Berossus sichinali kusunga mbiri yakale.”3

Ndiyeno mukaganizira zimenezi, kodi ndi bwino kukhulupirira kuti zinthu zonse zimene Berossus analemba ndi zolondola? Nanga kodi tiyenera kuziona bwanji zimene olemba mbiri ena akale analemba, omwe anatsatira zimene Berossus analemba? Kodi tingati zolemba zawo ndi zodalirika?

Zimene Tolemi Analemba

Chinthu chinanso chimene chimapangitsa anthu ambiri kunena kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 587 B.C.E. ndi mndandanda wa mafumu umene katswiri wina wa zinthu zakuthambo wa m’zaka za  m’ma 100  C.E., dzina lake Kalaudiyo Tolemi, analemba. Mndandanda umenewu umaonedwa kuti ndi wothandiza kwambiri podziwa nthawi imene zinthu zakale kwambiri zinachitika, kuphatikizapo zimene zinachitika pa nthawi ya Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo.

Tolemi analemba mndandanda umenewu patatha zaka pafupifupi 600 Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo utatha. Ndiyeno kodi iye anadziwa bwanji chaka chimene mfumu yoyambirira pamndandanda wakewu inayamba kulamulira? Tolemi anafotokoza kuti pogwiritsa ntchito akadamsana, ‘anatha kuwerengetsera zaka mpaka kufika chaka chimene Nabonassar anayamba kulamulira.’ Nabonassar ndi mfumu yoyamba pamndandanda umene Tolemi analemba.4 N’chifukwa chake Christopher Walker, yemwe amagwira ntchito kunyumba yosungirako zinthu zakale ku Britain, ananena kuti zimene Tolemi analemba zinali “zongopeka pofuna kuthandiza akatswiri a sayansi ya zinthu zakuthambo.” Iye sanalembe zimenezi kuti “zithandize akatswiri a mbiri yakale kudziwa chaka chimene mafumu anayamba kulamulira ndiponso chaka chimene anamwalira.”5

Pulofesa wina amene wakhala akuikira kumbuyo zimene Tolemi analemba, dzina lake Leo Depuydt, anati: “Kuyambira kalekale, buku limene Tolemi analemba lakhala lodalirika pa nkhani ya sayansi ya zinthu zakuthambo, koma zimenezi sizikusonyeza kuti ndi lodalirikanso pa nkhani yokhudza mbiri yakale.” Ponena za mndandanda wa mafumu uja, Pulofesa Depuydt anawonjezera kuti: “Pa nkhani ya mafumu oyambirira [kuphatikizapo mafumu amene analamulira mu Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo], zimene Tolemi analemba ziyenera kuyerekezeredwa ndi zolemba zakale kuti tidziwe nthawi imene mfumu iliyonse inalamulira.”6

Kodi zina mwa “zolemba zakale” zimenezi ndi ziti? Zikuphatikizapo mbiri yakale ya ku Babulo, mndandanda wa mafumu ndiponso mapale amene analembapo nkhani zachuma. Zinthu zimenezi zinalembedwa ndi alembi amene anakhala ndi moyo nthawi ya Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo kapena ufumuwu utangotha kumene.7

Kodi mndandanda umene Tolemi analemba umafanana ndi zolemba zakalezi? Bokosi lakuti  “Kodi Zolemba za Tolemi Zimagwirizana ndi Zimene Zinalembedwa Pamapale Akale?” (lomwe lili pansipa) likuyerekezera mndandanda wa mafumu umene Tolemi analemba ndi zolemba zina zakale. Onani kuti pamndandanda wa Tolemi, pali mafumu anayi okha pakati pa Kandalanu ndi Nabonidus, omwe anali mafumu a ku Babulo. Koma mndandanda wina (Uruk King List), womwe uli m’gulu la zolemba zakalezi, ukusonyeza kuti panali mafumu 7 amene analamulira  pa nthawi imeneyi. Kodi kapena mafumu amenewa analamulira nthawi yaifupi kwambiri moti zinali zotheka kungowanyalanyaza? Ayi, chifukwa malinga ndi zimene zinalembedwa pamapale ena akale amene analembapo nkhani zachuma, mmodzi mwa mafumu amenewa analamulira kwa zaka 7.8

Palinso umboni wina wodalirika wochokera ku zolemba zakale wosonyeza kuti Nabopolassar (mfumu yoyamba mu Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo) asanayambe kulamulira, panali mfumu ina (Ashur-etel-ilani) imene inalamulira Babulo kwa zaka zinayi. Komanso kwa nthawi yoposa chaka chimodzi, m’dzikomo munalibe mfumu.9 Koma zonsezi sizinalembedwe pa mndandanda wa Tolemi uja.

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani Tolemi sanatchule mafumu enawo? Ayenera kuti sankawaona kuti analamuliradi Babulo.10 Mwachitsanzo, iye sanatchule Labashi-Marduk, mfumu imene inalamulira mu Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo. Koma zolemba zakale zimasonyeza kuti mafumu amene Tolemi anawadumphawa analamuliradi Babulo.

Anthu ambiri amaona kuti zimene Tolemi analemba ndi zolondola. Koma, tikaganizira mfundo yoti iye anadumpha zinthu zina, kodi tiyenera kudalira kwambiri zolemba zake tikafuna kudziwa nthawi imene zinthu zakale zinachitika?

Potengera Umboni Umenewu, Kodi Chaka Cholondola Ndi Chiti?

Mwachidule: Baibulo limanena momveka bwino kuti anthu a Mulungu anakhala ku ukapolo zaka 70. Pali umboni wamphamvu wosonyeza kuti Ayuda anabwerera kwawo kuchoka ku ukapolo mu 537 B.C.E. ndipo akatswiri ambiri amaphunziro amavomereza mfundo imeneyi. Ndiye tikawerengera zaka 70 kubwerera m’mbuyo kuchokera m’chaka chimenechi, zikusonyeza kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E. Ndiye popeza kuti zolemba za Tolemi komanso zimene olemba mbiri akale analemba zimatchula deti losiyana ndi limeneli, tiyenera kukayikira ngati zolemba zawozo zilidi zolondola. Kunena zoona, zolemba zimenezi si zokwanira kutsutsa umboni wa m’Baibulo pa nkhaniyi.

Komabe patsala mafunso ena omwe sanayankhidwe. Kodi pali umboni uliwonse wonena za mbiri yakale umene umatsimikizira kuti zimene Baibulo limanena zoti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E. ndi zoona? Kodi zolemba zakale zimene zili ndi madeti zimapereka umboni wotani? Zambiri mwa zolemba zimenezi zinalembedwa ndi anthu amene anaona zinthuzo zikuchitika. Tikambirana mafunso amenewa m’magazini yotsatira.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Mabuku a mbiri yakale amatchula zaka ziwiri zonsezi koma kuti zikhale zophweka, mu nkhanizi tigwiritsa ntchito chaka cha 587 B.C.E. Zilembo zakuti B.C.E. zimatanthauza Zaka Zathu Zino Zisanafike (m’Chingelezi, “Before the Common Era”).

^ ndime 5 A Mboni za Yehova anamasulira Baibulo lodalirika lomwe limatchedwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika. Komabe, ngati siinu wa Mboni za Yehova, mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lililonse limene muli nalo.

^ ndime 23 Ufumu Wachiwiri wa Babulo unayamba ndi ulamuliro wa Nabopolassar, yemwe anali bambo ake a Nebukadinezara ndipo unatha ndi ulamuliro wa Nabonidus. Nthawi imeneyi ndi yofunika kwambiri kwa akatswiri amaphunziro chifukwa mbali yaikulu ya zaka 70 zija inali mkati mwa nthawi imeneyi.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 28]

 CHAKA CHOFUNIKA KWAMBIRI M’MBIRI

Potengera zimene maumboni ali m’munsiwa amanena, anthu anapeza kuti Koresi Wachiwiri anagonjetsa Babulo m’chaka cha 539 B.C.E.

Zolemba zakale komanso mapale amene ali ndi mbiri yakale: Munthu wina wa ku Sicily, dzina lake Diodorus (amene anakhalako cha m’ma 80-20 B.C.E.), analemba kuti Koresi anakhala mfumu ya Perisiya “m’chaka choyamba cha Olympiad ya nambala 55.” (Historical Library, Book IX, 21) Chimenechi chinali chaka cha 560 B.C.E. Munthu wina wa ku Greece wolemba mbiri yakale, dzina lake Herodotus (amene anakhalako cha m’ma 485-425 B.C.E.), analemba kuti Koresi anaphedwa “atalamulira kwa zaka 29.” Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti iye anaphedwa m’chaka cha 30 cha ulamuliro wake, chomwe ndi chaka cha 530 B.C.E. (Histories, Book I, Clio, 214) Mapale omwe analembapo mbiri yakale amasonyeza kuti Koresi analamulira Babulo kwa zaka 9 asanaphedwe. Choncho, kuwerengetsera chobwerera m’mbuyo kuchokera m’chaka cha 530 B.C.E. chimene anafa, zaka 9 zimenezi zikutifikitsa mu chaka cha 539 B.C.E. kusonyeza kuti chaka chimenechi n’chimene Koresi anagonjetsa Babulo.

Umboni umene unapezeka paphale lina: Phale lina la ku Babulo, limene analembapo zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo (BM 33066), limasonyeza kuti Koresi anamwaliradi m’chaka cha 530 B.C.E. Ngakhale kuti phale limeneli lili ndi zolakwika zina zokhudza malo amene zinthu zakuthambo zili, limafotokoza za akadamsana awiri amene anachitika m’chaka cha 7 cha Cambyses II. Iye anali mwana wa Koresi amene analowa ufumu pambuyo pa bambo akewo. Anthu akuganiza kuti akadamsana amenewa ndi amene anaoneka ku Babulo pa July 16, 523 B.C.E., ndi pa January 10, 522 B.C.E. Izi zikusonyeza kuti chaka cha 7 cha ulamuliro wa Cambyses chinayamba kumayambiriro kwa chaka cha 523 B.C.E. Ndiye kuti anayamba kulamulira m’chaka cha 529 B.C.E. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti chaka chomaliza cha ulamuliro wa Koresi chinali cha 530 B.C.E. kutanthauza kuti iye anayamba kulamulira ku Babulo mu 539 B.C.E.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Tablet: © The Trustees of the British Museum

[Bokosi patsamba 31]

CHIDULE CHA NKHANIYI

▪ Nthawi zambiri akatswiri a mbiri yakale amanena kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa m’chaka cha 587 B.C.E.

▪ Nkhani za m’Baibulo, zimene zinalembedwa motsatira nthawi imene zinachitika, zimasonyezeratu kuti Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E.

▪ Akatswiri a mbiri yakale kwenikweni amatsatira zimene Agiriki ndi Aroma analemba komanso zolemba za Tolemi.

▪ Zolemba za Agiriki ndi Aroma zili ndi zolakwika zikuluzikulu ndipo zina sizigwirizana ndi zomwe zinalembedwa pamapale akale.

[Bokosi patsamba 31]

Mfundo Zina

1. Babyloniaca (Chaldaeorum Historiae), Book One, 1.1.

2. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society, tsamba 295.

3. The Babyloniaca of Berossus, tsamba 8.

4. Almagest, III, 7, lomasuliridwa ndi G. J. Toomer, m’buku lakuti Ptolemy’s Almagest, lomwe linatuluka mu 1998, tsamba 166. Tolemi ankadziwa kuti akatswiri a zakuthambo a ku Babulo ankagwiritsa ntchito masamu enaake kuti adziwe nthawi imene akadamsana anaoneka kale komanso imene adzaoneke m’tsogolo, chifukwa iwo anatulukira zoti pakachitika kadamsana wamtundu winawake, amadzachitikanso pakatha zaka 18.​—Almagest, IV, 2.

5. Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period, tsamba 17-18.

6. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 47, 1995, tsamba 106-107.

7. Zolemba za pamapale zinkalembedwa ndi alembi omwe polembapo ankagwiritsa ntchito chinthu chosongoka kudinda zizindikiro zosiyanasiyana padongo lofewa.

8. Sin-sharra-ishkun analamulira kwa zaka 7 ndipo mapale 57 amene panalembedwa nkhani zachuma zimene zinkachitika mu ulamuliro wake, analembedwa m’chaka chimene mfumuyi inayamba kulamulira kudzafika m’chaka cha 7 cha ulamuliro wake. Onani buku lakuti Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 35, 1983, tsamba 54-59.

9. Phale lotchedwa C.B.M. 2152, lomwe panalembedwa nkhani zachuma, linalembedwa m’chaka chachinayi cha ulamuliro wa Ashur-etel-ilani. (Legal and Commercial Transactions Dated in the Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods​—Chiefly From Nippur, lolembedwa ndi A.T. Clay, 1908, tsamba 74.) Komanso buku lakuti Harran Inscriptions of Nabonidus, (H1B), I, mzere nambala 30, limatchula Nabonidus lisanatchule Nabopolassar. (Anatolian Studies, Vol. VIII (1958), tsamba 35 ndi 47.) Ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zokhudza nthawi imene panalibe mafumu, onani Chronicle 2, mzere 14, m’buku lakuti Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, tsamba 87-88.

10. Akatswiri ena amanena kuti Tolemi anachotsa mayina a mafumu ena, mwina pofuna kuti pamndandandawo pakhale mafumu a ku Babulo okha. Iye anachotsa mafumu enawo chifukwa chakuti pa dzina lawo panali mawu akuti “Mfumu ya Asuri.” Komabe, mukaona bokosi limene lili patsamba 30, mupeza kuti pamndandanda wake, Tolemi anaphatikizapo mafumu ena omwe nawonso ankatchedwa kuti “Mfumu ya Asuri.” Mapale akale amene analembapo makalata, nkhani zachuma, ndiponso zinthu zina, amasonyeza kuti Ashur-etel-ilani, Sin-shumu-lishir, ndiponso Sin-sharra-ishkun analamulirapo ku Babeloniya.

[Tchati/​Chithunzi patsamba 29]

 (Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

MAFUMU AMENE ANALAMULIRA MU UFUMU WACHIWIRI WA BABULO

Ngati mbiri imene anthu awa analemba ilidi yolondola, n’chifukwa chiyani imasiyana?

Mafumu

Nabopolassar

BEROSSUS c. 350-270 B.C.E. (21)

POLYHISTOR 105-? B.C.E. (20)

JOSEPHUS 37-?100 C.E. (—)

TOLEMI c. 100-170C.E. (21)

Nebukadi-nezara Wachiwiri

BEROSSUS c. 350-270 B.C.E. (43)

POLYHISTOR 105-? B.C.E. (43)

JOSEPHUS 37-?100 C.E. (43)

TOLEMI c. 100-170 C.E. (43)

Amel-Marduk

BEROSSUS c. 350-270 B.C.E. (2)

 POLYHISTOR 105-? B.C.E. (12)

JOSEPHUS 37-?100 C.E. (18)

TOLEMI c. 100-170 C.E. (2)

Neriglissar

BEROSSUS c. 350-270 B.C.E. (4)

POLYHISTOR 105-? B.C.E. (4)

JOSEPHUS 37-?100 C.E. (40)

TOLEMI c. 100-170 C.E. (4)

Labashi-Marduk

BEROSSUS c. 350-270 B.C.E. (9 miyezi)

POLYHISTOR 105-? B.C.E. (—)

JOSEPHUS 37-?100 C.E. (9 miyezi)

TOLEMI c. 100-170 C.E. (—)

Nabo-nidus

BEROSSUS c. 350-270 B.C.E. (17)

POLYHISTOR 105-? B.C.E. (17)

JOSEPHUS 37-?100 C.E. (17)

TOLEMI c. 100-170 C.E. (17)

(#) = Zaka zimene mafumu analamulira malinga ndi mbiri yakale imene Agiriki ndi Aroma analemba

[Mawu a chithunzi]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Tchati/​Zithunzi patsamba 30]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

KODI ZOLEMBA ZA TOLEMI ZIMAGWIRIZANA NDI ZIMENE ZINALEMBEDWA PAMAPALE AKALE?

N’chifukwa chiyani Tolemi sanatchule mafumu ena pamndandanda wake?

ZOLEMBA ZA TOLEMI

Nabonassar

Nabu-nadin-zeri (Nadinu)

Mukin-zeri ndi Pul

Ululayu (Salimanesere Wachisanu) “Mfumu ya Asuri”

Merodaki-baladani

Sarigoni Wachiwiri “Mfumu ya Asuri”

Nthawi Yoyamba Pomwe Kunalibe Mfumu

Bel-ibni

Ashur-nadin-shumi

Nergal-ushezib

Mushezib-Marduk

Nthawi Yachiwiri Pomwe Kunalibe Mfumu

Esarihadoni “Mfumu ya Asuri

Shamash-shuma-ukin

Kandalanu

Nabopolassar

Nebukadinezara

Amel-Marduk

Neriglissar

Nabonidus

Koresi

Cambyses

MNDANDANDA WOTCHEDWA URUK KING LIST UMENE UNALEMBEDWA PAMAPALE AKALE

Kandalanu

Sin-shumu-lishir

Sin-sharra-ishkun

Nabopolassar

Nebukadinezara

Amel-Marduk

Neriglissar

Labashi-Marduk

Nabonidus

[Chithunzi]

Mapale amene analembapo mbiri ya ku Babulo ali m’gulu la zolemba zakale zimene zimatithandiza kudziwa ngati zimene Tolemi analemba zilidi zolondola

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 31]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum