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Olivétan ‘Mnyamata Wosatchuka Amene Anamasulira’ Baibulo M’Chifulenchi

Olivétan ‘Mnyamata Wosatchuka Amene Anamasulira’ Baibulo M’Chifulenchi

 Olivétan ‘Mnyamata Wosatchuka Amene Anamasulira’ Baibulo M’Chifulenchi

Panali pa September 13, 1540. Apolisi ankachita chipikisheni m’nyumba ya munthu wina dzina lake Collin Pellenc. Atalowa m’kachipinda kena kobisika, anapeza zikalata zokayikitsa komanso buku lina lalikulu kwambiri. Patsamba lachiwiri la bukulo panali mawu akuti: “P. Robert Olivetanus, mnyamata wosatchuka womasulira mabuku.” Buku lalikulu limenelo linali Baibulo la kagulu kachipembedzo kotchedwa Awadensi. Collin Pellenc anamangidwa ndipo anamupeza ndi mlandu wopandukira chipembedzo cha Katolika moti anamuwotcha ali wamoyo.

PA NTHAWI imeneyi tchalitchi cha Katolika cha ku France chinkasakasaka anthu onse otsutsa mfundo za chipembedzochi n’cholinga chothetsa ziphunzitso za anthu amenewa. Tchalitchichi chinkasakasaka anthu amenewa chifukwa chinkaona kuti ziphunzitso zawo ndi zachinyengo. Zimenezi zinkachitikanso m’mayiko ena onse a ku Ulaya. Mmodzi mwa anthu ofuna kusintha zinthuwa anali Guillaume Farel. Iye anabadwira m’chigawo cha Dauphiné, kumwera chakum’mawa kwa France. Munthu ameneyu anali wolimba mtima komanso wolankhula mosanyengerera. Iye ankafunitsitsa kukopa anthu onse olankhula Chifulenchi kuti azitsatira ziphunzitso za Martin Luther, yemwe anali mtsogoleri wa Apulotesitanti, kapena kuti zipembedzo zomwe zinachoka m’tchalitchi cha Katolika. Farel ankadziwa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mabuku n’kumene kungathandize kuti akope anthu ambiri mosavuta. Iye anaona kuti zolinga zakezi zingatheke ngati atalemba mabuku, zikalata ndiponso kumasulira Mabaibulo. Koma kodi ndalama zogwirira ntchito imeneyi akanazitenga kuti? Iye anaona kuti akhoza kupeza ndalama zimenezi kwa Awadensi, gulu lomwe cholinga chawo chinali kuphunzitsa anthu Baibulo.

Msonkhano Womwe Unachitikira ku Chanforan

Mu September 1532, abusa a m’gulu la Awadensi anachita msonkhano m’mudzi wotchedwa Chanforan womwe uli pafupi ndi mzinda wa Turin m’dziko la Italy. Kwa zaka zingapo Awadensi ndiponso anthu otsutsa mfundo za Chikatolika ankakambirana nkhani zosiyanasiyana. Choncho, Awadensi anaitana Farel ndi anthu enanso angapo ku msonkhano umenewu chifukwa Awadensiwo ankafuna kudziwa ngati ziphunzitso za Luther ndi otsatira ake zinkagwirizana ndi ziphunzitso zawo. *

Awadensi anakopeka ndi zimene Farel ananena pamsonkhano wa ku Chanforan. Abusa a m’gulu la Awadensi ataonetsa Farel Mabaibulo awo olembedwa pamanja a m’chilankhulo chawo, iye anawanyengerera kuti amuthandize ndi ndalama pa ntchito imene ankafuna kugwira yosindikiza Baibulo lachifulenchi. Mosiyana ndi Baibulo limene Lefèvre d’Étaples anamasulira mu 1523, lomwe linamasuliridwa kuchokera ku Chilatini, Farel ankafuna kuti Baibulo latsopanolo lidzamasuliridwe kuchokera ku Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki. Koma kodi ndani akanamasulira Baibulo limeneli?

Farel ankadziwa munthu amene angakwanitse kugwira ntchito imeneyi. Dzina lake anali Pierre Robert, koma ankadziwika ndi dzina lakuti Olivétan. * Iye anali mphunzitsi wachinyamata ndipo anabadwira kumpoto kwa France m’dera lotchedwa Picardy. Olivétan, yemwe anali wachibale wa John Calvin, anali mmodzi mwa anthu amene ankatsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika ndipo anali munthu wodalirika kwambiri. Iye anakhalapo  mumzinda wa Strasbourg kwa zaka zingapo akuphunzira mwakhama Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki, zomwe ndi zilankhulo zimene zinagwiritsidwa ntchito polemba Baibulo loyambirira.

Pa nthawiyi, Olivétan anali atathawira ku Switzerland, monga mmene Farel ndi enanso ambiri anachitira. Anzake anamuchonderera kuti avomere kugwira ntchito yomasulira Baibuloyo. Atakana maulendo angapo, Olivétan anavomera “kumasulira Baibulo m’Chifulenchi kuchokera ku Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki.” Nthawi yomweyo, Awadensi anapereka ndalama zambiri zoti zidzathandize pa ntchito yosindikiza Baibuloli.

Khwangwala Ndiponso Mpheta

Kumayambiriro kwa chaka cha 1534, Olivétan anapita kukakhala kwayekha kumapiri a Alps ndipo anayamba ntchito yake. Pa nthawiyi iye anali ndi mabuku ambiri omwe anali ngati aphunzitsi ake. Laibulale yake inali ndi mabuku ambiri othandiza oti katswiri aliyense wamaphunziro wamasiku ano angakonde atakhala nawo. Ena mwa mabuku amene anali nawo palaibulale yake ndi Baibulo lachisiriya, lachigiriki, lachilatini, zolemba za arabi, mabuku agalamala a ku Babeloniya komanso mabuku ena ambiri. Koma chofunika kwambiri pa zonsezo chinali Baibulo la ku Venice lomwe linali litangomasuliridwa kumene kuchokera ku Chiheberi choyambirira.

Pomasulira mbali ya Baibulo imene ambiri amati Chipangano Chatsopano, Olivétan anatsatira Baibulo lachifulenchi lomasuliridwa ndi Lefèvre d’Étaples. Ngakhale zili choncho, nthawi zambiri ankatsatiranso Baibulo lachigiriki lomasuliridwa ndi katswiri wina wa ku Netherlands, dzina lake Erasmus. Olivétan ankaonetsetsa kuti akugwiritsa ntchito mawu osiyana ndi amene Akatolika amakonda kuwagwiritsa ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, iye anasankha kugwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “woyang’anira” osati “bishopu” komanso mawu akuti “mpingo” osati “tchalitchi.”

Pomasulira mbali ya Baibulo ya Malemba Achiheberi, imene ambiri amati Chipangano Chakale, Olivétan anayesetsa kumasulira motsatira Chiheberi liwu ndi liwu. Iye mwanthabwala ananena kuti kumasulira Chiheberi kupita ku Chifulenchi kunali ngati “kuphunzitsa mpheta yomwe imaimba mwanthetemya kuti iziimba ngati khwangwala.”

Pomasulira Malemba Achiheberi amenewa, Olivétan anapeza dzina la Mulungu lolembedwa pogwiritsa ntchito zilembo zinayi m’malo ambirimbiri. Iye ankalimasulira kuti “Wamuyaya,” ndipo mawu amenewa anayamba kupezeka kwambiri m’Mabaibulo achifulenchi achipulotesitanti. Koma m’malo ena ankalimasulira kuti “Yehova,” mwachitsanzo pa Ekisodo 6:3.

Chochititsa chidwi n’chakuti, pa February 12, 1535, patangopita pafupifupi chaka chimodzi, womasulirayo ananena kuti wamaliza kumasulira Baibulo lonse. Komano zikuoneka kuti zimene anachita pakati pa chaka cha 1534 ndi 1535 kunali kungomalizitsa ntchito yovuta imene anali ataigwira kale kwa nthawi yaitali. Zili choncho chifukwa ananena yekha kuti anali ‘atagwira kale ntchito yomasulirayi popanda thandizo lililonse kwa nthawi yaitali.’ Modzichepetsa, womasulirayu anati: “Ndangochita zimene ndikanatha.” Tsopano chimene chinatsala ndi kusindikiza Baibuloli lomwe linamasuliridwa potengera zilankhulo zoyambirira za Baibulo.

Linasindikizidwa Ndi Pirot

Munthu wina amene anathandiza kwambiri kuti Baibuloli lisindikizidwe ndi Pierre de Wingle, amene ankadziwika ndi dzina lakuti Pirot Picard. Ameneyu anali ndi makina osindikizira mabuku ndipo anali mnzake wa Farel. Iye analinso mmodzi mwa anthu ofuna kusintha zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika. Mu chaka cha 1533, iye anachoka ku Lyon n’kusamukira ku Neuchâtel, ku Switzerland, pothawa Akatolika. Atalandira thandizo la ndalama lochokera kwa Awadensi, de Wingle anayamba kusindikiza nkhani zosiyanasiyana zimene ena ankaona kuti ndi nkhani zoukira tchalitchi. Mwachitsanzo, anasindikiza zikalata zoti zikhomedwe m’malo osiyanasiyana. Zikalatazi zinali zotsutsa mwambo wa Misa ndipo zina zinakafika kwa mfumu ya France, Francis Woyamba, yemwe anali Mkatolika.

 Tsopano de Wingle anayamba kusindikiza Baibulo. Iye anali ndi makina awiri osindikizira mabuku. Choncho kuti ntchitoyo iyende mofulumira, iye anagwiritsa ntchito makina onsewo ndipo pa makina alionse pankakhala anthu anayi kapena asanu. Pamapeto pake, mu “chaka cha 1535, pa 4 June,” de Wingle anasainira Baibulo la Olivétan monga munthu amene anasindikiza Baibulolo. M’mawu ake oyamba amene ali m’Baibuloli, Olivétan ananena kuti anagwira ntchitoyi m’malo mwa anthu okonda Mawu a Mulungu “omwe ndi oponderezedwa ndiponso olemedwa” chifukwa cha “miyambo yopanda pake.”

Baibuloli litasindikizidwa, anthu ambiri analikonda. Analilemba m’Chifulenchi chosavuta kumva ndiponso linali losangalatsa poliwerenga. Kuwonjezera apo, tsamba lililonse linkakhala ndi madanga awiri ndipo zilembo zake zinali zowerengeka mosavuta komanso zokongola. Mfundo zothandiza wowerenga zimene analemba m’mphepete mwa mavesi ena zimasonyeza kuti womasulirayo analidi katswiri. Baibulo limeneli lilinso ndi ndemanga, zakumapeto, matchati, ndi ndakatulo. Kumapeto kwa Baibuloli, kuli ndakatulo yachidule yomwe inanena kuti: “Awadensi, omwe amalalikira Uthenga Wabwino, anapereka mphatsoyi kuti athandize anthu onse.”

Linamasuliridwa Mwaluso Koma Sizinayende Bwino

Poyamba anthu ena ankalinyoza Baibulo limene Olivétan anamasulira. Koma masiku ano, aliyense amavomereza kuti Baibuloli linamasuliridwa mwaluso. Komanso, kwa zaka 300, Apulotesitanti ankamasulira Mabaibulo awo motsatira Baibulo la Olivétan.

Komabe, ngakhale kuti Mabaibulo okwana pafupifupi 1,000 anasindikizidwa, anthu ochepa okha ndi amene anagula Mabaibulo amenewa. Zinali choncho chifukwa chakuti panalibe njira yodalirika yotsatsira Baibuloli. Chifukwa chinanso chimene sizinayendere bwino n’chakuti Baibulo limeneli linatuluka pa nthawi imene chilankhulo cha Chifulenchi chinkasintha kwambiri. Kuwonjezera pamenepo, popeza kuti Baibuloli linali lalikulu kwambiri moti linkalemera makilogalamu 5, zinali zovuta kuti anthu okalalikira aziyenda nalo komanso kuti anthu amene ankaliwerenga mobisa azitha kulisunga.

Choncho ngakhale kuti anthu ena monga Collin Pellenc anagula Baibulo lomasuliridwa ndi Olivétan limeneli, monga tatchulira koyambirira kwa nkhani ino, Baibuloli silinayende malonda kwenikweni. Mu 1670, patapita zaka pafupifupi 150, mu sitolo inayake ya mabuku ku Geneva munali mudakali Baibulo limodzi la Olivétan lomwe linali lisanagulidwebe.

“Mpandadzina Wopanda Kwawo”

Atamaliza kugwira ntchito yake, Olivétan anabwereranso ku moyo wake wobisala. Iye anakonza zina ndi zina m’Chipangano Chatsopano m’Baibulo lakeli komanso mbali zina za Chipangano Chakale. Pa nthawi imeneyi ankagwiritsa ntchito mayina ena ongodzipatsa. Pomwe ankachita zimenezi, ankagwiranso ntchito ina imene ankaikondanso kwambiri, yomwe ndi yauphunzitsi. Iye anali waluso pophunzitsa ndipo anakonzanso zina ndi zina m’buku lake lakuti Malangizo kwa Ana (Instruction for Children). Buku limeneli linali lophunzitsa ana khalidwe labwino. Linkaphunzitsanso ana kuwerenga Chifulenchi pogwiritsa ntchito mawu ochokera m’Baibulo. Limodzi mwa mayina opeka amene ankagwiritsa ntchito polemba mabuku amenewa linali lakuti Belisem de Belimakom, kutanthauza “Mpandadzina Wopanda Kwawo.”

Olivétan anamwalira mu 1538 ali ndi zaka za m’ma 30, ndipo n’kutheka kuti anamwalirira ku Roma. Masiku ano, ndi anthu ochepa chabe amene amadziwa bwino zimene mnyamata ameneyu, yemwe anali katswiri wamaphunziro wa ku Picardy, anachita pothandiza kuti anthu akhale ndi Baibulo m’Chifulenchi. Dzina lake silipezeka n’komwe m’madikishonale ambiri. Zinthu zimenezi, zomwe zinamuchitikira Louys Robert, yemwenso ankatchedwa kuti Olivétan, zimagwirizana ndi dzina limene anadzipatsa lakuti, “mnyamata wosatchuka womasulira mabuku.”

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 5 Ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zokhudza mmene gulu la Awadensi linathera chifukwa chosakanikirana ndi magulu opandukira tchalitchi cha Katolika, werengani Nsanja ya Olonda ya March 15, 2002, patsamba 20 mpaka 23.

^ ndime 7 Dzina lake lenileni linali Louys Robert, koma anasintha kuti dzina lake loyamba likhale Pierre. Zikuoneka kuti anamupatsa dzina lakuti Olivétan chifukwa chakuti ankagwiritsa ntchito mafuta ambiri a maolivi munyali zimene ankaunikira usiku pogwira ntchito yake.

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 18]

Archives de la Ville de Neuchâtel, Suisse /​Photo: Stefano Iori

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Left photo: Alain Leprince - La Piscine-musée, Roubaix /​ Courtesy of the former Bouchard Museum, Paris

Center and right: Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, Paris

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 20]

Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, Paris