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Kodi Ndani Anakhazikitsa Malamulo a Zinthu Zakuthambo?

Kodi Ndani Anakhazikitsa Malamulo a Zinthu Zakuthambo?

 Kodi Ndani Anakhazikitsa Malamulo a Zinthu Zakuthambo?

“KODI malamulo akuthambo ukuwadziwa?” (Yobu 38:33) Mulungu anafunsa Yobu funso limeneli pa nthawi imene anakumana ndi mavuto. Iye anachita zimenezi n’cholinga chakuti mtumiki wakeyu aone kuti anthu amadziwa zinthu zochepa kwambiri poyerekezera ndi zomwe Mlengi amadziwa. Kodi inunso mukuona kuti zimenezi n’zoona?

Anthu aphunzira zambiri zokhudza malamulo amene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera. Komabe asayansi ambiri amavomereza kuti pali zinthu zankhaninkhani zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo zimene sanazidziwebe. Nthawi ndi nthawi asayansi amatulukira zinthu zatsopano zokhudza mmene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera. Zimenezi zimawachititsa kusintha maganizo awo pa zimene ankadziwa poyamba. Kodi mmene asayansi ayamba kuzindikira zinthu zochuluka zakuthambo, zikutanthauza kuti anthu akudziwa bwino malamulo akuthambo moti funso limene Mulungu anafunsa Yobu ndi losafunikanso? Kapena kodi zimenezi zikungosonyeza kuti Yehova ndi amene anakhazikitsa malamulo amene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera?

M’Baibulo muli mawu ochititsa chidwi amene angatithandize kuyankha mafunso amenewa. N’zoona kuti Baibulo si buku lasayansi koma chodabwitsa n’chakuti zimene limanena zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo ndi zolondola kwambiri. Ndipotu panapita zaka zambiri kuti asayansi atulukire zinthu zogwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo linanena kalekale zokhudza sayansi.

Zimene Anthu Ena Akale Ankanena Zokhudza Zinthu Zakuthambo

Kuti tidziwe zimene anthu ena akale ankanena, tiyeni tione zimene zinachitika m’zaka za m’ma 300 B.C.E. Pa nthawiyi, n’kuti patatha zaka 100 kuchokera pamene Malemba Achiheberi * anamalizidwa kulembedwa. Pa nthawi imeneyi katswiri wina wachigiriki wofufuza nzeru za anthu, dzina lake Aristotle, ankaphunzitsa akatswiri otchuka nkhani zokhudza zinthu zakuthambo. Mpaka lero Aristotle amatengedwa kuti ndi mmodzi mwa akatswiri asayansi omwe ziphunzitso zawo zasintha kwambiri maganizo a anthu. (Onani  bokosi patsamba 25.) Buku lina linanena kuti, “Aristotle anali munthu woyamba amene ankadziwadi sayansi. . . . Ndipo akatswiri asayansi onse ayenera kuvomereza kuti munthu ameneyu anachitadi zambiri.”​—Encyclopædia Britannica.

Aristotle anaganiza mozama mmene dziko lapansi ndi zinthu zakuthambo zilili. Iye ankanena kuti pali zimipira zoonekera mkati zoposa 50 ndipo chimpira chilichonse chili mkati mwa chinzake. Ndiyeno Aristotle ankanena kuti dziko lapansi lili pakati penipeni pa zimipira zimenezi. Ankanenanso kuti nyenyezi ndi zogwirana ndi chimpira chimene chili kunja kwa zimipira zonse, koma mapulaneti ndi ogwirana ndi zimipira zomwe ndi zoyandikana ndi dziko. Iye ankakhulupirira kuti zinthu zonse zomwe zili pamwamba pa dziko lapansi sizitha ndiponso sizisintha. Ngakhale kuti masiku ano anthu akudziwa kuti zimenezi sizoona, akatswiri asayansi akhala akuzikhulupirira kwa zaka pafupifupi 2,000.

Koma kodi zimene Aristotle ankaphunzitsazi tikaziyerekezera ndi zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa, ndi ziti zimene anthu apeza kuti ndi zoona? Tiyeni tikambirane mafunso atatu okhudza malamulo amene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera. Mayankho amene tipeze atithandiza kukhulupirira Mlembi wa Baibulo, amenenso anakhazikitsa “malamulo akuthambo.”​—Yobu 38:33.

1. Kodi Dziko Lapansi Komanso Zinthu Zakuthambo Sizisuntha?

Aristotle ankanena kuti zinthu zakuthambo zimangokhala malo amodzi. Iye ankanena kuti mofanana ndi zimipira zina zakuthambo, chimpira chimene chili ndi nyenyezi sichichepa kapena kukula.

 Kodi zimenezi n’zimenenso Baibulo limanena? Ayi. Baibulo silifotokoza nkhaniyi mwatsatanetsatane. Koma Baibulo limanena mawu ena ake amene angatithandize kukhala ndi chithunzi pa nkhaniyi. Limati: “Pali Winawake amene amakhala pamwamba pa dziko lapansi lozungulira, limene okhalamo ake ali ngati ziwala. Iye anayala kumwamba ngati nsalu yopyapyala, ndipo anakutambasula ngati hema wokhalamo.”​—Yesaya 40:22. *

Ndiyeno kodi zoona ndi ziti, zimene Aristotle ananena kapena zimene Baibulo limafotokoza? Kodi akatswiri a masiku ano amati chiyani pa nkhani yokhudza zinthu zakuthambo? M’zaka za m’ma 1900, akatswiri a sayansi ya zakuthambo anadabwa kwambiri atapeza kuti zinthu zakuthambo zimasuntha komanso zimasintha. Anapezanso kuti milalang’amba yomwe poyamba inali yoyandikana, ikutalikirana mofulumira kwambiri. Ndi asayansi ochepa chabe a m’nthawi yakale, ngati alipo n’komwe, amene anaganizapo kuti thambo likufutukuka. Koma masiku ano, asayansi ambiri amakhulupirira kuti poyamba zinthu zakuthambo zinali zoyandikana kwambiri ndipo kenako zinayamba kutalikirana. Pamenepa tingati iwo akutsutsa zimene Aristotle ananena.

Nanga bwanji mawu a Baibulo opezeka pa Yesaya 40:22 aja? Mneneri Yesaya analemba mawu a m’vesi limeneli mwina chifukwa chakuti ankati akaona nyenyezi zambiri usiku, ankaona kuti thambo likufanana ndi chinsalu cha chihema chomwe achitambasula. * Mwina iye anaonanso kuti mlalang’amba wotchedwa Milky Way unkaoneka ngati “nsalu yopyapyala.”

Komanso mawu amene Yesaya ananena akutithandiza kukhala ndi chithunzi cha mmene kumwamba kulili. Kuti timvetse bwino mfundo imeneyi, tiyeni tiyerekeze mmene mahema a m’nthawi ya Baibulo ankaonekera. Tayerekezani kuti mukuona chinsalu chokulungidwa, chimene chikuoneka ngati litaka ndiyeno kenako akuchitambasula n’kuchiyala pamwamba pa  mitengo imene aizika pansi ndipo chikupanga malo oti anthu akhalemo. Kapenanso tingaganizire za munthu wamalonda amene watenga litaka la nsalu yopyapyala n’kuitambasula kuti wogula aione bwinobwino. Mu zitsanzo ziwiri zonsezi, tikuona kuti chinthu chimene poyamba chimaoneka chaching’ono, chikutambasulidwa ndipo chikuyamba kuoneka chachikulu.

Apa sitikunena kuti poyerekeza thambo ndi hema komanso nsalu yopyapyala, Baibulo likufotokoza mmene thambo limafutukukira. Komabe, kodi sizochititsa chidwi kuti zimene Baibulo limafotokoza ponena za zinthu zakuthambo n’zogwirizana ndi zimene asayansi amasiku ano apeza? Yesaya anakhala ndi moyo zaka zoposa 300 Aristotle asanabadwe ndiponso zaka masauzande ambiri asayansi asanatulukire zenizeni pa nkhaniyi. Ngakhale zili choncho, zimene mneneri Yesaya analemba n’zogwirizana kwambiri ndi zimene asayansi akupeza masiku ano, pomwe mfundo za Aristotle, yemwe anali katswiri wasayansi, zapezeka kuti sizolondola.

2. Kodi N’chiyani Chimachititsa Kuti Zinthu Zakuthambo Zizikhala M’malo Mwake Nthawi Zonse?

Aristotle ankakhulupirira kuti zinthu zonse zakuthambo zinadzazana mkati mwa chimpira chinachake. Iye ankati pali zinthu zinayi zimene zimapanga zinthu zonse zapadziko lapansi ndipo zinthu zimenezi ndi nthaka, madzi, mpweya ndiponso moto. Ankakhulupiriranso kuti thambo ndi lopangidwa ndi zinthu zozungulira ngati mpira, zoonekera mkati zimene sizingawonongeke. Iye ankati zimipira zimenezi n’zopangidwa ndi mpweya winawake. Iye ankanenanso kuti zinthu zakuthambo ndi zogwirana ndi zimipira zosaoneka ndi maso zimenezi. Kwa nthawi yaitali, akatswiri asayansi ankagwirizana ndi maganizo amenewa chifukwa cha mfundo yodziwikiratu yakuti: Kuti chinthu chisagwe chiyenera kukhala pa chinachake kapena kumangiriridwa ku chinachake.

Nanga kodi Baibulo limanena chiyani pa nkhani imeneyi? M’Baibulo muli mawu amene munthu wokhulupirika Yobu ananena okhudza Yehova. Iye anati: “Iye . . . anakoloweka dziko lapansi m’malere.” (Yobu 26:7) Aristotle sakanakhulupirira mfundo imeneyi ngakhale pang’ono ndipo akanaona kuti ndi yosamveka.

M’zaka za m’ma 1600 C.E., patatha zaka 3,000 kuchokera nthawi ya Yobu, asayansi ambiri ankakhulupirira kuti thambo ndi lodzaza ndi madzi osati zimipira. Koma chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1600, wasayansi wina dzina lake Sir Isaac Newton anafotokoza maganizo osiyana kwambiri ndi amenewa. Iye anasonyeza kuti thambo silodzaza ndi madzi. Koma ananena kuti kuthambo kulibe chilichonse chimene chimagwira zinthu kuti zikhale m’malo mwake koma mphamvu yokoka ndi imene imachititsa kuti zinthu zimenezo zizikhalabe m’malo mwake nthawi zonse. Zimene Newton anafotokoza zikusonyeza kuti anali atayamba kuzindikira mfundo yakuti dziko lapansili ndiponso zinthu zina zakuthambo zinakolowekedwa “m’malere.”

Mfundo ya Newton yonena za mphamvu yokoka, inatsutsidwa ndi anthu ambiri. Kwa asayansi ambiri, zinali zovuta kuvomereza kuti nyenyezi komanso zinthu zina zakuthambo sizinakhale pa chinthu chilichonse koma zili m’malere. Iwo ankatsutsa mfundo ya Newton imeneyi chifukwa chakuti kuchokera nthawi ya Aristotle, asayansi ambiri ankakhulupirira kuti thambo liyenera kuti ndi lodzaza ndi zinthu zinazake ndipo zinthu zakuthambo sizili m’malere. Ayenera kuti ankadzifunsa kuti, zingatheke bwanji kuti dziko lonseli, mapulaneti ena komanso nyenyezi zingokhala m’malere? Ena ankaona kuti zimenezi ndi zosatheka pokhapokha zitakhala zamatsenga basi.

Ndi zoona kuti Yobu sankadziwa kuti ndi chiyani chimene chimapangitsa kuti dziko lizikhala m’malo mwake nthawi zonse likamazungulira dzuwa. Nanga kodi  n’chiyani chinamuchititsa kunena kuti dzikoli linakolowekedwa “m’malere”?

Komanso, mfundo yoti dzikoli silinakhale pa chinthu chinachake, ikubweretsanso funso lina lakuti: Kodi n’chiyani chomwe chimapangitsa kuti dzikoli ndi zinthu zina zonse zakuthambo zizikhalabe m’malo mwake? Taonani funso lochititsa chidwi ili limene Mulungu anafunsa Yobu: “Kodi ungamange zingwe gulu la nyenyezi la Kima, kapena kodi ungamasule zingwe za gulu la nyenyezi la Kesili?” (Yobu 38:31) Pa nthawi yonse imene Yobu anakhala ndi moyo, nthawi zambiri ankaona magulu a nyenyezi amenewa akutuluka komanso kulowa. * Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani magulu amenewa ankaoneka chimodzimodzi kwa zaka zambirimbiri? N’chiyani chinamanga nyenyezi zimenezi komanso zinthu zina zonse zakuthambo kuti nthawi zonse zizikhala pamalo ake? Kunena zoona, Yobu ankachita chidwi kwambiri akaganizira zimenezi.

Kukanakhala kuti nyenyezi ndi zogwirana ndi chinachake kuthambo, ndiye kuti sipakanafunikira mphamvu inayake yothandiza kuti nyenyezi ngati zimenezi zikhale pamodzi. Patapita zaka masauzande ambiri m’pamene asayansi anazindikira kuti palidi mphamvu inayake imene imapangitsa kuti zinthu zakuthambo ziziyenda m’malo mwake nthawi zonse. Mphamvu imeneyi ndi imene Baibulo limaitcha kuti “zingwe.” Isaac Newton, ndipo kenako Albert Einstein, anatchuka kwambiri chifukwa cha zimene anapeza zokhudza nkhani imeneyi. N’zoona kuti Yobu sankadziwa chimene chimapangitsa kuti zinthu zakuthambo zizikhalabe m’magulu. Koma anthu apeza kuti zimene iye analemba ndiye zoona osati mfundo za Aristotle. Iwo apeza zimenezi patapita zaka zambiri kuchokera pamene mawu ouziridwa opezeka m’buku la Yobu analembedwa. Yehova yekha, yemwe amakhazikitsa malamulo, ndi amene angakhale ndi nzeru zimenezi, osati munthu wina aliyense.

3. Kodi Zinthu Zakuthambo Zidzatha Kapena Zidzakhalapo Kwamuyaya?

Aristotle ankakhulupirira kuti pali kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa zinthu zakuthambo ndi zapadziko lapansili. Iye ankati zinthu zapadzikoli zingathe kusintha, kuwola ndiponso kuwonongeka, pamene mpweya umene umapanga zinthu zakuthambo susintha ngakhale pang’ono ndiponso umakhala kwamuyaya. Iye ankanenanso kuti zimipira zoonekera mkati zija ndiponso zinthu zakuthambo zimene zinagwirana ndi zimipirazo sizingasinthe, kuwonongeka kapena kutha.

Koma kodi zimenezi n’zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa? Lemba la Salimo 102:25-27 limati: “Munaika kalekale maziko a dziko lapansi, ndipo kumwamba ndiko ntchito ya manja anu. Zimenezi zidzatha, koma inu mudzakhalapobe. Ndipo zonsezi zidzatha ngati chovala. Mofanana ndi zovala zimene zatha, mudzapezerapo zina ndipo nazonso zidzatha. Koma inu simudzasintha, ndipo mudzakhalapo kwamuyaya.”

Wamasalimoyu analemba mawuwa zaka 200 Aristotle asanakhalepo. Koma onani kuti iye sakuyerekezera zinthu zakuthambo ndi zinthu zapadziko lapansi ngati kuti zinthu zapadziko lapansi zimawonongeka pomwe zinthu zakuthambo zimakhalapo kwamuyaya. M’malomwake, akuyerekezera Mulungu ndi zinthu zakuthambo komanso zapadziko lapansi. Mulunguyo ndi Mzimu wamphamvu ndipo ndiye analenga zinthu zonsezi. * Salimo limeneli likusonyeza kuti nyenyezi zikhoza kuwonongeka ngati mmene chinthu china chilichonse chapadziko lapansi chingachitire. Ndiyeno kodi asayansi a masiku ano apeza zotani pa nkhaniyi?

Asayansi ofufuza za nthaka amanena mfundo yofanana ndi ya m’Baibulo komanso imene Aristotle ananena yakuti zinthu zapadziko lapansi zimawonongeka. Mwachitsanzo, miyala yapadziko lapansili imawonongeka chifukwa cha kukokoloka kwa nthaka ndipo miyala yatsopano imapangika m’njira zosiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo kuphulika kwa ziphalaphala zochokera pansi pa nthaka.

Nanga bwanji za nyenyezi? Kodi zimene Baibulo limanena kuti nyenyezi zimawonongeka ndi zoona, kapena zidzakhala kwamuyaya monga anafotokozera Aristotle? M’zaka za m’ma 1500 akatswiri a sayansi ya zakuthambo a ku Ulaya anayamba kukayikira maganizo a Aristotle onena kuti nyenyezi zimakhalapo kwamuyaya. Iwo anayamba kukayikira maganizowa ataona kwa nthawi yoyamba nyenyezi ina itaphulika mwamphamvu. Zimenezi zinachititsa asayansi kuzindikira kuti nyenyezi iliyonse ikhoza kutha itaphulika mwamphamvu, kunyeka pang’onopang’ono kapenanso kunyala mpaka kuzimiririka. Komabe, akatswiri asayansi  apezanso kuti kuthambo kuli malo ena okhala ndi utsi wambiri amene nyenyezi zatsopano zimapangikira. Kawirikawiri, nyenyezi zatsopano zimapangika ngati nyenyezi zakale zaphulikira pafupi ndi malowo. Chotero mpake kuti wamasalimo akuyerekezera zimenezi ndi zovala zimene zatha n’kupeza zina. * N’zochititsa chidwi kuti wamasalimo ameneyu analemba zinthu zimenezi kale kwambiri koma zikugwirizana ndi zimene asayansi masiku ano angotulukira kumene.

Komabe mwina mungafunse kuti: ‘Kodi Baibulo limaphunzitsa kuti dziko lapansi lonseli, kapenanso zinthu zonse zakuthambo, tsiku lina zidzatha moti padzafunika zina zoti zilowe m’malo?’ Ayi. Baibulo limaphunzitsa kuti kumwamba ndi dziko lapansi zidzakhalapo kwamuyaya. (Salimo 104:5; 119:90) Chimene chidzachititse kuti zinthu zimenezi zikhaleko kwamuyaya, n’chakuti Mulungu amene analenga zinthu zimenezi walonjeza kuti adzazisamalira mpaka kalekale. (Salimo 148:4-6) Mulungu sananene kuti adzachita bwanji zimenezi. Koma kodi sizomveka kuti Mlengi wachilengedwe chonsechi alinso ndi mphamvu zoti angathe kusamalira zinthu zimenezi? Izi ndi zofanana ndi zimene mmisiri womanga nyumba amachita. Iye amasamalira nyumba imene anamanga kuti iye ndi banja lake azikhalamo.

Kodi Ndani Ayenera Kulandira Ulemerero ndi Ulemu Chifukwa cha Zinthu Zimenezi?

Zimene takambirana zokhudza malamulo ochepa chabe amene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera, zikutithandiza kupeza yankho la funso limeneli. Kodi sitimachita chidwi komanso mantha tikaganizira za amene amachititsa kuti nyenyezi zosawerengeka zidzaze kuthambo, amene amachititsa kuti nyenyezi zimenezi zizikhala m’malo mwake nthawi zonse pogwiritsira ntchito mphamvu yokoka, komanso amene amaonetsetsa kuti nthawi zonse nyenyezi zina zikamatha zatsopano zizipangika?

Mwina zimene zafotokozedwa palemba la Yesaya 40:26, ndi zifukwa zabwino zomwe zingatipangitse kuchita chidwi komanso mantha. Lembali limati: “Kwezani maso anu kumwamba muone. Kodi ndani amene analenga zinthu zimenezo? Ndi amene akutsogolera gulu lonse la nyenyezizo malinga ndi chiwerengero chake, ndipo amaziitana potchula iliyonse dzina lake.” M’pake kuti Baibulo likunena kuti pali gulu la nyenyezi chifukwa zilipo zambiri. Mabaibulo ena palembali amayerekezera nyenyezi ndi gulu lankhondo. Popanda malangizo ochokera kwa mtsogoleri, gulu lotereli lingakhale lopanda dongosolo ndipo pangakhale chipwirikiti. Mofanana ndi zimenezi, popanda malamulo ochokera kwa Yehova zinthu monga mapulaneti, nyenyezi komanso milalang’amba sizingayende mwadongosolo ndipo zimenezi zingayambitse chipwirikiti. Koma taganizirani za gulu lankhondo limene lili ndi asilikali mabiliyoni ndipo lili ndi mtsogoleri amene amaonetsetsa kuti kagulu kalikonse ka asilikali kali pamalo ake, komanso amadziwa dzina la msilikali aliyense, kumene ali ndiponso mmene msilikaliyo alili.

Kodi ndani amene akanatha kukonza malamulo okhudza zinthu zakuthambo, n’kuuzira anthu kuwalemba molondola, zaka masauzande ambiri asayansi asanawatulukire? Palibenso wina amene akanatha kuchita zimenezi koma Yehova yekha. Malamulo amene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera amatisonyeza kuti Mtsogoleri ameneyu ali ndi nzeru zopanda malire. Choncho apa n’zoonekeratu kuti tili ndi zifukwa zonse zoperekera “ulemerero ndi ulemu” kwa Yehova.​—Chivumbulutso 4:11.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 6 Ena amati Chipangano Chakale.

^ ndime 11 N’zochititsa chidwi kuti Baibulo limanena kuti dziko lapansi ndi lozungulira. Aristotle ndiponso anthu ena akale a ku Greece anapezanso kuti dziko lapansi ndi lozungulira. Koma panatenga zaka zambirimbiri kuti asayansi ena aivomereze mfundo imeneyi.

^ ndime 13 Kawirikawiri, Baibulo limayerekeza kumwamba ndi nsalu komanso tenti, kapena kuti chihema.​—Yobu 9:8; Salimo 104:2; Yesaya 42:5; 44:24; 51:13; Zekariya 12:1.

^ ndime 22 N’kutheka kuti “gulu la nyenyezi la Kima” likutanthauza gulu la nyenyezi lotchedwa Nsangwe [m’Chingelezi, Pleiades]. “Gulu la nyenyezi la Kesili” liyenera kuti limaimira gulu la nyenyezi lotchedwa Akamwiniatsatana [m’Chingelezi, Orion]. Pamatenga zaka masauzande ambiri kuti magulu amenewa a nyenyezi asinthe kwambiri.

^ ndime 27 Chifukwa choti Mulungu anagwiritsira ntchito Mwana wake wauzimu wobadwa yekha ngati “mmisiri waluso” kuti alenge zinthu zonse, mawu amene ali palembali angagwirenso ntchito kwa Mwana wakeyu.​—Miyambo 8:30, 31; Akolose 1:15-17; Aheberi 1:10.

^ ndime 29 M’zaka za m’ma 1800, wasayansi wina dzina lake William Thomson, amene amadziwikanso kuti Lord Kelvin, anatulukira lamulo lachiwiri lokhudza mphamvu yopezeka m’zinthu zachilengedwe. Lamuloli limafotokoza zimene zimachititsa kuti pakapita nthawi, zinthu zachilengedwe ziziwonongeka ndiponso kutha. Chimodzi mwa zinthu zimene zinamuthandiza kuti apeze zimenezi, ndi choti anaphunzira mosamala tanthauzo la mawu a pa Salimo 102:25-27.

 [Bokosi/​Chithunzi pamasamba 24, 25]

Zimene Aristotle Analemba Zinakhudza Maganizo a Anthu Ambiri

Buku lina linanena kuti: “Pa akatswiri onse akale ofufuza nzeru za anthu komanso asayansi, Aristotle anali woposa onse.” (The 100​—A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History) N’zosadabwitsa kuti anthu ananena mawu ngati amenewa okhudza munthu wochititsa chidwi kwambiri ameneyu. Aristotle anabadwa m’chaka cha 384 ndipo anamwalira mu 322 B.C.E. Iye anali wophunzira wa Plato, amene anali katswiri wofufuza nzeru za anthu. Patapita nthawi Aristotle anakhala mphunzitsi wa mwana wa mfumu yemwe atakula anadzakhala Alekizanda Wamkulu. Zolemba zakale zimasonyeza kuti Aristotle analemba zinthu zambiri zosiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo mabuku 170, ndipo 47 mwa mabuku amenewa alipobe. Iye analemba nkhani zambiri zokhudza sayansi ya zakuthambo, sayansi ya zinthu zamoyo, sayansi ya kapangidwe ka zinthu, sayansi yokhudza zinyama, sayansi ya nthaka ndi miyala komanso sayansi ya kaganizidwe ka anthu. Iye analemba zinthu zambirimbiri zochititsa chidwi zokhudza zinyama ndipo panatenga zaka zambiri kuti akatswiri ena apeze ndiponso kulemba zinthu zomwe iye anapeza. Buku lija linanenanso kuti: “Anthu ambiri akumayiko a azungu anayamba kutsatira zimene Aristotle anaphunzitsa.” Koma linawonjezeranso kuti: “Aristotle ankakondedwa ndi ambiri moti chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1500 anthu ankamupatsa ulemu kwambiri mpaka anafika pokhala mulungu wawo.”

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Royal Astronomical Society / Photo Researchers, Inc.

From the book A General History for Colleges and High Schools, 1900

[Chithunzi pamasamba 26, 27]

Mphamvu yokoka imachititsa kuti zinthu zakuthambo zizikhala pamalo ake

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/​STScl)

[Chithunzi pamasamba 26, 27]

Gulu la nyenyezi lotchedwa Nsangwe [Pleiades]

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Nyenyezi zina zimaphulika n’kuthera pompo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

ESA/​Hubble

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Nyenyezi zina zatsopano zimapangika kumalo ena akuthambo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

J. Hester and P. Scowen (AZ State Univ.), NASA

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 24]

© Peter Arnold, Inc./​Alamy