Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Zimene Ena Achita Pofuna Kuthetsa Umphawi

Zimene Ena Achita Pofuna Kuthetsa Umphawi

 Zimene Ena Achita Pofuna Kuthetsa Umphawi

ANTHU olemera akwanitsa kuthetsa umphawi, koma angokwanitsa kuthetsa wawo wokha basi. Njira zonse zimene anthu ayesera pofuna kuthetsa umphawi padziko lonse zalephereka. Zili choncho chifukwa olemera safuna kuti chilichonse chisokoneze chuma chawo komanso zimene amapeza chifukwa cha kulemerako. Solomo, yemwe anali mfumu ya Aisiraeli, analemba kuti: “Ndinaona misozi ya anthu amene akuponderezedwa, koma panalibe wowatonthoza. M’manja mwa oponderezawo munali mphamvu, moti oponderezedwawo analibe wowatonthoza.”​—Mlaliki 4:1.

Ndiyeno kodi anthu olemera ndiponso amene ali ndi udindo angathedi kusintha dzikoli kuti likhale lopanda umphawi? Solomo anauziridwa kulemba kuti: “Zonse ndi zachabechabe ndiponso zili ngati kuthamangitsa mphepo. Chinthu chokhota sichingawongoledwe.” (Mlaliki 1:14, 15) Tiyeni tione zimene ena achita pofuna kuthetsa umphawi, zimene zikusonyeza kuti mawu amene mfumu Solomo ananenawa ndi oona.

Mapulani Othetsera Umphawi Padziko Lonse

M’zaka za m’ma 1800, mayiko ena anayamba kupeza chuma chambiri chifukwa cha ntchito zamalonda ndi zamakampani. Izi zinapangitsa kuti anthu ena a m’mayiko olemera ayambe kufunafuna njira zothetsera umphawi wa anthu osauka. Cholinga chawo chinali choti anthu azigawana chuma cha padzikoli mofanana kuti pasakhale wolemera kwambiri kapena wosauka kwambiri.

Ena ankaona kuti boma la sosholizimu kapena la komyunizimu lingachititse kuti padziko lonse anthu akhale ofanana pa nkhani za chuma. Koma zoti anthu akhale ofanana pa nkhani zachuma sizinasangalatse anthu olemera. Komabe, anthu ambiri anasangalala ndi maganizo akuti: “Munthu aliyense ayenera kugwira mwakhama ntchito zotukula dziko lake, akatero azigwiritsa ntchito zinthu zimene akufuna.” Anthu ambiri ankaganiza kuti ngati anthu onse atamayendera mfundo za sosholizimu ndiye kuti dziko lonse lingakhale lokomera anthu onse. Mayiko angapo olemera kwambiri anayamba kuyendera mfundo za sosholizimu ndipo ankalonjeza nzika zawo kuti boma liziwasamalira “moyo wawo wonse.” Atayamba kuyendera mfundozi mayikowa anayamba kunena kuti zimenezi zathandiza kuti umphawi wadzaoneni uthe m’mayiko awo.

Komabe ulamuliro wa sosholizimu sunakwaniritse  cholinga chake choti padzikoli pasakhale anthu ongofuna kuti zinthu ziziwayendera iwo okha basi. Zimene maboma ankafuna zoti anthu a m’mayiko awo azigwira ntchito n’cholinga choti apindulitse ena m’malo mongodzipindulitsa okha sizinatheke. Ena ankadana ndi zoti azithandiza anthu osauka chifukwa ankaona kuti osaukawo azichita ulesi. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti zimene Baibulo limanena ndi zoona. Limati: “Palibe munthu wolungama padziko lapansi amene amachita zabwino zokhazokha osachimwa. . . . Mulungu woona anapanga anthu owongoka mtima, koma anthuwo asankha njira zina zambirimbiri.”​—Mlaliki 7:20, 29.

Chinthu china chimene anthu ambiri ankaganiza kuti chithandiza kuti zinthu zikhale bwino ndi mapulani amene anthu a ku America anali nawo. (the American Dream) Mapulani amenewa anali oti m’dziko lonselo, aliyense wogwira ntchito mwakhama azilemera. Mayiko ambiri padziko lonse anatengera mfundo zimene zinkaoneka kuti ndi zomwe zachititsa dziko la United States kukhala lolemera. Mfundo zimenezi ndi monga demokalase, ufulu wochita mabizinesi ang’onoang’ono komanso ufulu wochita malonda. Koma sizikanatheka kuti mayiko onse atengere mapulani a boma la America chifukwa si chuma chonse cha mayiko a ku North America chimene anachipeza chifukwa cha mfundo zawo pandale. Zimene zinathandiza kwambiri kuti mayiko a ku North America alemere, ndi zinthu zachilengedwe zimene zili m’mayikowa komanso chifukwa chakuti amatha kuchita malonda ndi mayiko ena mosavuta. Komanso, tiyenera kukumbukira kuti mayiko akamapikisana pa nkhani zachuma, ena zinthu zimawayendera bwino, pomwe mayiko ena amakhalabe osauka. Ndiye kodi mayiko amene zinthu zinkawayendera bwinowo anathandiza mayiko osauka?

Kodi Dongosolo Lotchedwa Marshall Plan Linathandiza Kuthetsa Umphawi?

Nkhondo yachiwiri ya padziko lonse itatha, mayiko a ku Ulaya anali pa umphawi wadzaoneni ndipo anthu ambiri m’mayikowa ankavutika kwambiri ndi njala. Koma dziko la United States linkada nkhawa chifukwa m’mayiko ambiri a ku Ulaya munali ulamuliro wa sosholizimu. Choncho dziko la United States linayamba kupereka ndalama zambiri ku mayiko amene anavomereza kuti aziyendera mfundo za dzikoli ndipo linachita zimenezi kwa zaka zinayi. Ndalamazi zinali zoti mayikowa ayambitsirenso ntchito zamakampani komanso zaulimi. Dongosolo limeneli, lomwe cholinga chake chinali kuthandiza anthu a m’mayiko a ku Ulaya, linkatchedwa Marshall Plan ndipo ankaona kuti lathandiza kwambiri. Mayiko a kumadzulo kwa Ulaya anayamba kuyendera mfundo za dziko la America ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti umphawi uchepeko m’mayikowa. Koma kodi zimenezi ndi zimene zikanathandiza kuti umphawi pa dziko lonse uthe?

Dziko la America litaona kuti njira yothandizira mayiko a ku Ulaya yayenda bwino, linayamba kuthandiza mayiko osauka padziko lonse kuti atukule ntchito zawo la ulimi, zaumoyo, maphunziro komanso zamtengatenga. Koma boma la America limavomereza kuti cholinga chawo pothandiza mayiko osauka chinali chongofuna kuti dziko lawo lilemere. Mayiko enanso anatengera zimenezi ndipo anayamba kuthandiza mayiko osauka n’cholinga chakuti mayiko osaukawo azitsatira mfundo za mayiko olemerawo. Panatha zaka 60 dziko la America likupereka ku mayiko osauka ndalama zambirimbiri kuposa zimene linapereka ku mayiko a ku Ulaya kudzera m’dongosolo lotchedwa Marshall Plan. Komabe zotsatira zake zinali zokhumudwitsa. N’zoona kuti mayiko ena, makamaka a kum’mawa kwa Asia, amene poyamba anali osauka, zinthu zinayamba kuwayendera bwino pa chuma. Koma ngakhale kuti thandizo la dziko la America linachititsa kuti imfa za ana zichepe komanso kuti ana ambiri ayambe kupita kusukulu, mayiko ena anali adakali mu umphawi wadzaoneni.

N’chifukwa Chiyani Thandizo la Mayiko Olemera Silinathetse Umphawi?

Mayiko olemera anazindikira kuti kuthetsa umphawi wa m’mayiko osauka kunali kovuta kwambiri kuposa kuthetsa mavuto a zachuma a m’mayiko olemera omwe chuma chawo chinasokonezeka chifukwa cha nkhondo. Mayiko a ku Ulaya anali kale ndi ntchito zamakampani, zamalonda komanso zamtengatenga. Chomwe ankafunikira ndi kungothandizidwa kuti chuma chawo chiyambenso kuyenda bwino. Koma ngakhale mayiko ena atathandiza mayiko osauka powamangira misewu, masukulu ndiponso zipatala,  anthu a m’mayiko osaukawo amakhalabe pa umphawi wadzaoneni. Zili choncho chifukwa anthu a m’mayiko oterewa amasowa mwayi wochita mabizinesi akuluakulu, alibe njira zochitira malonda ndi mayiko ena komanso m’mayiko awo mulibe zinthu zachilengedwe zambiri.

Kunena zoona n’zovuta kuthetsa umphawi chifukwa pali zinthu zambiri zimene zimayambitsa umphawi. Mwachitsanzo, matenda amayambitsa umphawi ndipo umphawiwo umayambitsanso matenda. Ana amene sadya chakudya chokwanira amakhala ofooka komanso saganiza bwino ndipo ana oterewa akakula, sangadzathe kusamalira bwino ana awo. Komanso, mayiko olemera akamapereka limene amati ndi thandizo lachakudya ku mayiko osauka, alimi akumayiko osaukawo amavutikanso ndi umphawi chifukwa amasowa kogulitsa zokolola zawo. Komanso kupereka ndalama ku mayiko osauka kumayambitsanso mavuto ena chifukwa anthu amakonda kuba zinthu zimene zaperekedwa kwaulere ndipo zimenezi zimayambitsanso katangale. Zimenezi zimachititsa kuti umphawi uzingowonjezerekabe. Choncho tinganene kuti thandizo lochokera kumayiko olemera silinathetse chimene chimayambitsa umphawi.

Kodi Chimayambitsa Umphawi N’chiyani?

Padzikoli pali umphawi wadzaoneni chifukwa mayiko komanso anthu amachita zinthu n’cholinga chongofuna kuti zawo zokha ziyende. Mwachitsanzo, akuluakulu a boma a m’mayiko olemera saganizira kwenikweni zothetsa umphawi padziko lonse chifukwa amatanganidwa kwambiri ndi kuchita zinthu zosangalatsa anthu amene anawasankha. Choncho iwo amaletsa alimi a m’mayiko osauka kuti asamagulitse zokolola zawo m’mayiko olemera poopa kuti alimi a m’mayiko awo angamasowe misika. Komanso akuluakulu a boma m’mayiko olemera amalipirira alimi awo ndalama zambiri pa zipangizo zaulimi. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, alimiwo amagulitsa zokolola zawo motchipa kuposa alimi a m’mayiko osauka ndipo izi zimachititsa kuti alimi a m’mayiko olemerawo asamavutike kupeza misika.

Ndiyetu apa n’zoonekeratu kuti amene akuyambitsa umphawi ndi anthu komanso mayiko chifukwa cha khalidwe lawo longofuna kuti zinthu ziziwayendera bwino iwowo nthawi zonse. Solomo, mmodzi mwa anthu amene analemba Baibulo anafotokoza zimene zikuchitikazi kuti: “Munthu wapweteka munthu mnzake pomulamulira.”​—Mlaliki 8:9.

Ndiyeno kodi umphawi udzathadi? Kodi pali boma limene lingasinthe zinthu padzikoli?

[Bokosi patsamba 6]

Lamulo Lothandiza Kuthetsa Umphawi

Yehova Mulungu anapatsa Aisiraeli malamulo omwe ankathandiza kuti pasakhale anthu osauka kwambiri. Chilamulo chinkanena kuti banja lililonse lizilandira malo ngati cholowa chawo. Banja la Alevi, lomwe linali la ansembe ndi limene silinkalandira malo. Malo amene munthu walandira anali otetezeka chifukwa sankaloledwa kuwagulitsa kuti akhale a munthu amene wagulayo mpaka kalekale. Pakatha zaka 50 munthu aliyense amene anagula malo ankayenera kubweza malowo kwa mwiniwake kapena ku banja la munthuyo. (Levitiko 25:10, 23) Ngati munthu wina anagulitsa malo ake chifukwa cha matenda, ulesi kapena tsoka linalake, malowo ankayenera kubwezedwanso kwa iye chikafika Chaka cha Ufulu ndipo iye sankalipira chilichonse. Izi zinkapangitsa kuti pasapezeke banja lililonse limene linkakhala laumphawi mpaka kalekale.

Chinthu chinanso chabwino m’Chilamulo cha Mulungu chinali chakuti, munthu akavutika kwambiri ankaloledwa kudzigulitsa kuti akhale kapolo. Zikatere, ankalandiliratu ndalama n’kulipirira ngongole zake asanayambe ukapolowo. Ngati walephera kudziwombola mpaka kufika chaka cha 7, mbuye wakeyo ankamumasula n’kumupatsa mbewu komanso ziweto kuti akayambirenso ulimi. Kuwonjezera pamenepo, munthu wosauka akakongola ndalama kwa Mwisiraeli mnzake, Chilamulo chinkanena kuti asamupangitse katapila pa ndalamazo. Panalinso lamulo lakuti munthu akamakolola m’munda mwake, asamakolole m’mbali mwa mundawo n’cholinga chakuti anthu osauka adzakunkhemo. Zimenezi zinkapangitsa kuti pasakhale Mwisiraeli aliyense wopemphapempha.​—Deuteronomo 15:1-14; Levitiko 23:22.

Komabe zikuoneka kuti panali Aisiraeli ena omwe anali osauka. Kodi chinkachititsa zimenezi n’chiyani? N’chifukwa chakuti Aisiraeli ena sankamvera Chilamulo cha Yehova. Zotsatira zake zinali zakuti anthu ena anali ndi malo ambiri ndipo analemera pomwe ena analibe malo ndipo anali osauka. Zimenezi n’zimenenso zimachitika m’mayiko ambiri masiku ano. Choncho, Aisiraeli ena anali amphawi chifukwa chakuti anthu ena ankanyalanyaza Chilamulo cha Mulungu ndipo ankangofuna kuti zawo zokha ziwayendere.​—Mateyu 22:37-40.