Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Kodi Baibulo Linalembedwa Liti?

Kodi Baibulo Linalembedwa Liti?

 Kodi Baibulo Linalembedwa Liti?

Baibulo ndi buku lapadera kwambiri kuposa mabuku ena onse ndipo anthu oposa 3 biliyoni padziko lonse amaliona kuti ndi buku lopatulika. Buku limeneli lagulitsidwa kwambiri kuposa mabuku ena onse ndipo Mabaibulo okwana 6 biliyoni asindikizidwa (Baibulo lonse kapena mbali zake zina) m’zinenero zoposa 2,400.

NGAKHALE kuti Baibulo lawerengedwa kwambiri kuposa buku lililonse, anthu ali ndi maganizo osiyanasiyana pa nkhani ya nthawi imene linalembedwa, makamaka Malemba Achiheberi amene ena amati Chipangano Chakale. Mwina inuyo munawerengapo m’magazini, m’mabuku kapenanso munaonerapo pa TV akatswiri ena akufotokoza nkhani zokhudza nthawi imene Baibulo linalembedwa. Taonani ena mwa maganizo amene anthu ena ali nawo masiku ano pa nkhani imeneyi.

“Mabuku ambiri a m’Baibulo analembedwa zaka za m’ma 700 B.C.E. mpaka 500 B.C.E., kapena pa nthawi ya mneneri Yesaya kukafika nthawi ya mneneri Yeremiya.”

“Kwa zaka 200 zapitazi akatswiri a Baibulo akhala akuganiza kuti mbali yaikulu ya Malemba Achiheberi inalembedwa ndi kukonzedwanso m’nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Perisiya ndi Girisi (400 B.C.E mpaka 100 B.C.E.).”

“Mabuku onse a m’Malemba Achiheberi analembedwa pa nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Girisi (kuyambira cha m’ma 100 B.C.E. kufika 1 B.C.E.).

Kodi Mkhristu amene amakhulupirira kuti, “Malemba onse anauziridwa ndi Mulungu” ayenera kuziona bwanji mfundo zotsutsana zimenezi? (2 Timoteyo 3:16) Kuti tipeze yankho la funsoli, tiyeni tione mbali zonse za nkhaniyi.

Baibulo Limatiuza Lokha Nthawi Imene Linalembedwa

M’Malemba Achiheberi muli nkhani zambiri zimene zinalembedwa motsatira nthawi yeniyeni imene nkhanizo zinachitika. Nkhani zimenezi zimasonyeza kuti mabuku oyambirira analembedwa ndi Mose ndiponso Yoswa zaka 3,500 zapitazo. * Patapita nthawi, Samueli, Davide, Solomo ndi ena analemba mabuku ena m’zaka za m’ma 1000 B.C.E. Kenako panalembedwa mabuku ofotokoza mbiri yakale, mabuku olembedwa ngati ndakatulo komanso ena onena za ulosi ndipo mabuku amenewa analembedwa kuyambira mu 800 B.C.E. kukafika mu 400 B.C.E.

Mabuku a m’Baibulo amenewa kapena zidutswa zake, kupatulapo buku la Esitere, zili m’gulu la Mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufa. Kafukufuku amene asayansi  ofufuza zinthu zakale anachita, anasonyeza kuti pa mipukutu imeneyi, yakale kwambiri inali ya m’ma 200 B.C.E. mpaka 100 B.C.E.

Zimene Otsutsa Anena

Chifukwa chachikulu chimene chimachititsa anthu ambiri kukayikira ngati Baibulo limanena zoona pa nkhani ya nthawi imene zinthu zolembedwa m’Baibulolo zinachitika, ndi mfundo imene Baibulo limanena yoti linauziridwa ndi Mulungu. Pa nkhani imeneyi, pulofesa wina dzina lake Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., analemba m’buku lake zimene anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti: “Zimene [Baibulo] limanena kuti linauziridwa ndi Mulungu ndiponso zimene limanena zokhudza Mulungu komanso zozizwitsa n’zabodza.” (The Old Testament Document) Akatswiri amene amagwirizana ndi mfundo yakuti Baibulo silinauziridwe ndi Mulungu, amanena kuti Baibulo liyenera kufufuzidwanso kwambiri ngati mmene achitira ndi mabuku ena onse.

Pofuna kufotokoza mmene chipembedzo chasinthira kwa zaka zambiri, anthu kwa nthawi yaitali agwiritsa ntchito mfundo ya Darwin yakuti zinthu zinachita kusintha kuchokera ku zinthu zina. Akuti poyamba anthu ankalambira zinthu zachilengedwe ndipo kenako anayamba kulambira milungu yambiri. Koma patapita nthawi anayamba kulambira mulungu mmodzi. Popeza mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo amafotokoza za kulambira Mulungu mmodzi, anthu amene amatsatira mfundo ya Darwin, amanena kuti mabuku amenewa sanalembedwe nthawi imene Baibulo limanena, koma zaka zambiri pambuyo pake.

Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo anthu akhala akuunikanso Baibulo m’njira zosiyanasiyana. Mwachitsanzo, dikishonale ina ya Chipangano Chatsopano, imene yatulutsidwa posachedwapa, ikunena zinthu zosiyanasiyana zokhudza Baibulo zimene anthu amatsutsa. Zinthu zimenezi ndi monga mawu amene olemba Baibulo anagwiritsa ntchito, kalembedwe ka nkhani kotsatira nthawi imene zinthu zinachitika komanso kugwirizana kwa nkhanizo ndi zikhulupiriro za anthu a pa nthawiyo.

Ngakhale kuti akatswiri azamaphunziro amasiyana maganizo za nthawi yeniyeni imene Baibulo linalembedwa, ambiri amagwirizana ndi zimene Pulofesa R. E. Friedman analemba. Iye analemba kuti: “Anthu akale olemba mabuku ankalemba ndakatulo, nkhani komanso malamulo osiyanasiyana. Ndiyeno olemba ena anangotenga zimene anthu amenewa analembazo n’kuzigwiritsira ntchito polemba Baibulo.”

Buku linanso linafotokoza mfundo ngati zimenezi komanso zina zotsutsa Baibulo. Komabe mwachidule bukuli linanena kuti: “Ngakhale kuti akatswiri ena amagwirizana pa mfundo yoti Baibulo silinena zoona, ndipo aliyense amakhulupirira kwambiri kuti mfundo zake ndiye zolondola, iwo amatsutsananso okhaokha.”​—Faith, Tradition, and History.

Umboni Wosonyeza Kuti Baibulo Ndi Lolondola

Mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo analembedwa pa zinthu zosachedwa kuwonongeka. Choncho zingakhale zosamveka kuganiza kuti mabuku oyambirirawo kapena amene anawakopera pa nthawi ya Mose, Yoswa, Samueli kapena Davide angapezekebe masiku ano. Komabe n’zotheka kufufuza zolemba zakale zomwe zimasonyeza kuti kukhulupirira madeti amene  analembedwa m’Baibulo n’komveka. Ndipotu zimenezi n’zimene akatswiri ena odziwika bwino komanso anthu ofukula zinthu zakale achita. Ndiyeno kodi zolemba zakale zikutiuza chiyani? Taonani zitsanzo izi:

Baibulo limanena kuti Mose ndi Yoswa anakhalako zaka 3,500 zapitazo, koma kodi nthawi imeneyi ku Middle East kunali zinthu zolembedwa? Zinthu zofotokoza mbiri yakale, chipembedzo, malamulo komanso nkhani zinalembedwa ku Mesopotamiya ndi Iguputo wakale. Nanga bwanji za zolembedwa za Mose ndi Aisiraeli ena? Dikishonale ina inanena kuti: “Palibe chifukwa chokayikira kuti zolembedwa zinalipo ku Kanani cha m’ma 1550 mpaka 1200 B.C.E.” (Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch) Dikishonaleyi inatinso: “Malinga ndi mmene zinthu zakale zinkalembedwera, palibe chifukwa chokayikira kuti Mose ndi amene analemba mabuku amene amanenedwa kuti analembedwa ndi iyeyo. Choncho, palibenso chifukwa chokayikira kuti mabuku ena onse analembedwa ndi anthu amene amanenedwa kuti ndi amene analemba mabukuwo.”​—Ekisodo 17:14; 24:4; 34:27, 28; Numeri 33:2; Deuteronomo 31:24.

Kodi anthu amene analemba Baibulo anagwiritsira ntchito zolembedwa zakale polemba Baibulo? Inde, olemba ena anatchula ‘mabuku’ omwe mwina akutanthauza zinthu zokhudza malamulo aboma, mibadwo ya anthu, mbiri ya anthu, komanso mafuko ndi mabanja a anthu.​—Numeri 21:14; Yoswa 10:13; 2 Samueli 1:18; 1 Mafumu 11:41; 2 Mbiri 32:32.

N’chifukwa chiyani akatswiri sanapezepo zolemba za mabuku a m’Baibulo zakale kwambiri kuposa Mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufa? Magazini ina inati: “Ku Palesitina zinthu zomwe anazilemba pa mipukutu yamapepala a gumbwa ndi zikopa, zinawonongeka ndipo zimene zinapulumuka ndi zokhazo zimene zinali m’madera otentha kwambiri monga kumadera ozungulira Nyanja Yakufa. Zolemba zimenezi zinavunda chifukwa zinakwiririka mu dothi lonyowa. Komabe mfundo yoti sizinapezeke, si umboni wakuti zolembazi kunalibe.” (Biblical Archaeology Review) Komabe anapeza zomatira zadongo zomwe zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito pomatira zikalata zakale. Choncho zinthu zimene anazilemba pa mipukutu yamapepala a gumbwa ndi zikopa zinawonongeka ndi moto komanso zinavunda m’dothi lonyowa koma zomatira zadongo zinapezeka. Zomatira zimenezi ndi za m’ma 800 B.C.E. mpaka 400 B.C.E.

Kodi zinatheka bwanji kuti mipukutu ya mabuku a m’Baibulo isungidwe kwa nthawi yaitali? Buku lina linanena kuti: “Nkhani, masalimo, malamulo ndiponso maulosi zimene tili nazo masiku ano monga mbali ya Baibulo, zinakoperedwa kambirimbiri ndipo ntchito yokoperayi inkachitika ngakhale pa nthawi imene Baibulo linali lisanathe kulembedwa. . . . Ndiye ngati zinthu zimenezi zinkakoperedwa pa nthawi imene Baibulo linkalembedwa, ndiye kuti zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo zinali zothandiza pa moyo watsiku ndi tsiku . . . Chifukwa palibe amene akanagwira ntchito yovuta imeneyi ikanakhala kuti ndi yopanda phindu.”​—The Bible as It Was; Deuteronomo 17:18; Miyambo 25:1.

Choncho zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo anakoperedwa mobwerezabwereza kwa zaka pafupifupi 1,500 mpaka kudzafika mu nthawi ya atumwi. Okoperawo ankayesetsa kuti zimene akukoperazo zikhale zolondola. Malinga ndi  buku lina zimenezi, zinkaphatikizapo “kukonza zinthu zina monga malamulo a kalembedwe ndiponso masipelo achikale kuti zigwirizane ndi mmene chilankhulo chinalili pa nthawiyo ndipo zimenezi zinali zofala m’madera onse ozungulira Nyanja ya Mediterranean.” * (On the Reliability of the Old Testament) Zimenezi zikutipangitsa kukayikira ngati zimene ounika Baibulo apeza atafufuza kalembedwe ndi kafotokozedwe ka nkhani za m’Baibulo zilidi zodalirika.

Kodi Baibulo Linalembedwa Liti?

Kodi n’zomveka kunena kuti, kusapezeka kwa mipukutu imene inalembedwa m’nthawi ya Mose, Yoswa, ndi Samueli ndiponso anthu ena, ndi umboni wakuti mabuku a m’Baibulo sanalembedwe kale kwambiri ngati mmene Baibulo limasonyezera? Akatswiri ambiri amavomereza kuti kusapezeka kwa umboni sindiye kuti umboniwo kulibe. Ndipo titati tinene zoona, ndi mabuku akale angati, olembedwa pa zinthu zosachedwa kuwonongeka, amene angakhalepo mpaka pano? Mwachitsanzo, katswiri wina wofufuza zinthu zakale za ku Iguputo dzina lake K. A. Kitchen ananena kuti pafupifupi zolemba zonse za ku Iguputo zimene anazilemba pamapepala opangidwa ndi gumbwa isanafike nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Agiriki ndi Aroma, zinawonongeka moti sizingapezekenso.

Komanso anthu amene amalemekeza Baibulo angadzifunse kuti, ‘Kodi Yesu ankakayikira Malemba Achiheberi?’ Pa nthawi ya Yesu, mfundo yoti Baibulo linalembedwa liti sinali nkhani yoti anthu angamatsutsane. Mofanana ndi Ayuda onse, Yesu ankakhulupirira kuti zimene Malemba amanena zokhudza nthawi imene nkhani za m’Baibulo zinalembedwa, ndi zoona. Ndiyeno kodi Yesu ankakhulupirira zoti mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo analembedwadi ndi anthu amene Baibulo limati ndi amene analemba mabukuwo?

Yesu anatchulapo za zolemba za Mose pomwe ananena za “buku la Mose.” (Maliko 12:26; Yohane 5:46) Anatchulanso nkhani zopezeka m’buku la Genesis (Mateyu 19:4, 5; 24:37-39); Ekisodo (Luka 20:37); Levitiko (Mateyu 8:4); Numeri (Mateyu 12:5); komanso Deuteronomo (Mateyu 18:16). Iye anati: “Zonse zokhudza ine zolembedwa m’chilamulo cha Mose, m’Zolemba za aneneri ndi m’Masalimo ziyenera kukwaniritsidwa.” (Luka 24:44) Ndiye ngati Yesu ankakhulupirira kuti Mose ndi anthu ena ndi amene analemba mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo, n’zosakayikitsa kuti iye ankakhulupiriranso kuti zimene Malemba Achiheberi amanena zokhudza nthawi imene zinthu zinachitika ndi zoona.

Ndiyeno kodi Baibulo linalembedwa liti? Kodi zimene limanena zokhudza nthawi imene nkhani zotchulidwa m’Baibulo zinachitika ndi zoona? Mu nkhani ino, taona zimene akatswiri ambiri amanena potsutsa Baibulo komanso taona zimene Baibulo limanena. Taonanso maumboni ena okhudza mbiri yakale komanso mmene Yesu ankaonera Baibulo. Ndiyeno mogwirizana ndi mfundo zimenezi, kodi yankho lanu pa mafunso amenewa likugwirizana ndi zimene Yesu ananena popemphera kwa Atate wake Yehova Mulungu, pomwe anati: “Mawu anu ndiwo choonadi”?​—Yohane 17:17.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 9 Kuti mudziwe zambiri za nthawi imene nkhani za m’Baibulo zinalembedwa, werengani buku lakuti Insight on the Scriptures, Volume 1, tsamba 447 mpaka 467, lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

^ ndime 23 Werengani nkhani yakuti “Ntchito ya Alembi Akale Yokopera Mawu a Mulungu” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya March 15, 2007, tsamba 18 mpaka 20.

[Tchati/​Zithunzi pamasamba 20-23]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

(Zaka zimene mabuku a m’Baibulo anamalizidwa kulembedwa)

2000 B.C.E.

1800

[Chithunzi]

Alembi a ku Iguputo analemba zolemba zawo isanafike nthawi ya Mose

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© DeA Picture Library/​Art Resource, NY

1600

[Chithunzi]

Mose anamaliza kulemba buku la Genesis mu 1513 B.C.E., ndipo analilemba pa zinthu zosachedwa kuwonongeka

Genesis 1513 B.C.E.

Yoswa

1400

1200

Samueli

1000 B.C.E.

[Chithunzi]

Zomatira zadongo zambirimbiri zidakalipo

Za m’ma 900 B.C.E. mpaka 500 B.C.E.

Yona

800

Yesaya

600

Yeremiya

Danieli

[Chithunzi]

Gumbwa lopinda limene analembapo mabuku a m’Baibulo, kulimanga ndi chingwe n’kulimata ndi zomatira zadongo

Olembedwa kuyambira mu 449 B.C.E.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Brooklyn Museum, Bequest of Theodora Wilbour from the collection of her father, Charles Edwin Wilbour

400

200

[Chithunzi]

Mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufa anaipeza itakulungidwa mu nsalu n’kuiikidwa m’mitsuko ndipo pa mipukutu ya Baibulo yomwe yapezeka, imeneyi ndi mipukutu yakale kwambiri

Yolembedwa cha m’ma 200 mpaka 100 B.C.E.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Shrine of the Book, Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem