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Kodi N’zoona Kuti Yesu Anafera Pamtanda?

Kodi N’zoona Kuti Yesu Anafera Pamtanda?

 Kodi N’zoona Kuti Yesu Anafera Pamtanda?

BUKU lina linanena kuti: “Mtanda ndi chizindikiro chodziwika bwino pa Chikhristu.” M’zipembedzo zambiri muli zojambula ndiponso zinthu zina zosonyeza Yesu atakhomeredwa pamtanda. Koma kodi n’chifukwa chiyani mtanda uli wotchuka kwambiri m’Matchalitchi Achikhristu? Kodi n’zoona kuti Yesu anafera pamtanda?

Anthu ambiri anganene kuti nkhani yakuti Yesu anafera pamtanda imapezeka m’Baibulo. Mwachitsanzo, Baibulo la Buku Lopatulika Ndilo Mau a Mulungu limanena kuti pa nthawi imene Yesu ankaphedwa, anthu ena ankamuseka ndiponso kumuuza kuti “tatsika pamtandapo.” (Mateyu 27:40, 42) Mabaibulo enanso amatchula za mtanda. Mwachitsanzo ponena za Simoni wa ku Kurene, Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano Cholembedwa m’Chichewa Chamakono limanena kuti: ‘Asirikali anamulamula kuti asenze mtanda wa Yesu.’ (Maliko 15:21) Pamavesi amenewa mawu akuti “mtanda” anawamasulira kuchokera ku mawu achigiriki akuti staurosʹ. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani mawuwa anawamasulira choncho? Kodi mawu achigiriki amenewa amatanthauza chiyani?

Kodi Unalidi Mtanda?

Malinga ndi zimene katswiri wina wachigiriki, dzina lake W. E. Vine ananena, mawu akuti staurosʹ “kwenikweni amatanthauza mtengo woongoka, umene ankaugwiritsa ntchito kukhomerapo anthu ophwanya malamulo. Nthawi zonse, mawu akuti stauroō, ankatanthauza kukhomera munthu pamtengo woongoka ndipo mtengo umenewo si wofanana ndi mtanda wokhala ndi mitengo iwiri yopingasa, umene matchalitchi amaugwiritsa ntchito masiku ano.”

Dikishonale ina inanena kuti mawu akuti staurosʹ “amatanthauza mtengo woongoka umene angauzike pansi kapena kukhomerapo munthu.” Dikishonaleyi inapitiriza kufotokoza kuti: “Komanso zikuoneka kuti crux (Mawu achilatini amene anatengerako dzina lakuti mtanda) umene Aroma ankagwiritsa ntchito unali mtengo woongoka.” (The Imperial Bible-Dictionary) Ndiyetu n’zosadabwitsa kuti buku lina lachikatolika linanena kuti: “Zoona ndi zakuti mtanda woyambirirawo unkakhala mtengo umodzi basi, wosongoka kunsonga kwake.”​—The Catholic Encyclopedia.

Palinso mawu ena achigiriki akuti xyʹlon, amene olemba Baibulo anagwiritsa ntchito pofotokoza mmene mtengo womwe Yesu anafera unkaonekera. Buku lina limanena kuti xyʹlon, ndi “thabwa.” Bukuli limapitiriza kunena kuti mofanana ndi staurosʹ, mawu akuti xyʹlon ankangotanthauza “mtengo woongoka umene Aroma ankakhomerapo anthu ndipo munthu akamukhomerapo ankati amukhomera pamtanda.”​—A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament.

N’chifukwa chake n’zosadabwitsa kuti pa Machitidwe 5: 30, m’Baibulo la Buku Lopatulika Ndilo Mau a Mulungu pamati: “Mulungu wa makolo athu anaukitsa Yesu, amene munamupha inu, ndi kum’pachika pamtengo [xyʹlon].” Mabaibulo ena ngakhale kuti anamasulira mawu akuti staurosʹ kuti “mtanda,” anamasuliranso mawu akuti xyʹlon kuti “mtengo.” Mwachitsanzo, pa Machitidwe 13:29, ponena za Yesu,  Baibulo la Buku Lopatulika Ndilo Mau a Mulungu limati: “Atatsiriza zonse zolembedwa za iye, anam’tsitsa kumtengo [xyʹlon], namuika m’manda.”

Poganizira tanthauzo lenileni la mawu achigiriki akuti staurosʹ komanso xyʹlon, buku limene talitchula kale lija linanena kuti: “Tanthauzo la mawu awiri onsewa silikugwirizana ndi zimene anthu masiku ano amadziwa pa nkhani ya mtanda, umene timauona kawirikawiri m’zithunzi.” (Critical Lexicon and Concordance) M’mawu ena tingati, chimene olemba Mauthenga Abwino ankatanthauza ponena mawu akuti staurosʹ si chimene anthu masiku ano amachitcha mtanda. N’chifukwa chake amene anamasulira Baibulo la dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika anamasulira mawu opezeka pa Mateyu 27:40-42 kuti “mtengo wozunzikirapo.” Anachitanso chimodzimodzi m’malo ena amene mukupezeka mawu akuti stauros. Mabaibulo enanso amagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “mtengo wopherapo anthu.”​—Complete Jewish Bible.

Kumene Mtanda Unachokera

Monga mmene taonera, Baibulo silinena kuti Yesu anafera pamtanda. Ndiyeno n’chifukwa chiyani Akatolika, Apolotesitanti ndiponso matchalitchi a Orthodox, omwe amati amaphunzitsa Baibulo komanso kutsatira zimene limanena, amakongoletsa matchalitchi awo ndi mtanda ndiponso kuugwiritsa ntchito ngati chizindikiro cha chikhulupiriro chawo? Kodi zinatheka bwanji kuti mtanda ukhale chizindikiro chotchuka chonchi?

Yankho ndi lakuti mtanda umalambiridwa ndi anthu amene amati amatsatira zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa. Komanso umalambiridwa ndi anthu amene satsatira zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa, omwe zipembedzo zawo zinayamba kale kwambiri “Chikhristu” chisanayambe. Mabuku ambiri onena zachipembedzo amavomereza kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mitanda yopangidwa mosiyanasiyana kunayamba kale kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, zilembo ndi zithunzi zakale za ku Iguputo zosonyeza milungu yawo yaimuna ndi yaikazi, kawirikawiri zimakhala ndi mtanda wooneka ngati T wokhala ndi kachinthu kozungulira pamwamba pake. Mtanda umenewu amautchula kuti ansate kapena mtanda wokhala ndi chogwirira ndipo amati umaimira moyo. Patapita nthawi tchalitchi cha Coptic ndi matchalitchi ena anayambanso kugwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mtanda umenewu.

Malinga ndi zimene buku lachikatolika lija linanena “zikuoneka kuti mtanda wakale kwambiri unkatchedwa mtanda wa ‘gamma’ (crux gammata). Akatswiri ambiri ofufuza zinthu zakale za ku Asia komanso ophunzira za zinthu zamakedzana zokwiririka pansi panthaka amautchula ndi dzina la Chisansikiriti kuti swastika.” Ahindu ku India ndi Abuda ku Asia ndi amene ankagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri chizindikiro cha mtanda chimenechi ndipo masiku ano m’madera amenewa anthu amachigwiritsabe ntchito ngati chokongoletsera.

Sizikudziwika kuti ndi liti makamaka pamene mtanda unayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chizindikiro “chachikhristu.” Dikishonale ina ya mawu a m’Baibulo imanena kuti: “Pofika m’chaka cha 250 A.D., matchalitchi anali atasiya kapena atapotoza ziphunzitso zachikhristu.  Pofuna kuti akhale ndi mphamvu zambiri, matchalitchi achikhristu cha mpatuko, anayamba kuloleza anthu olambira milungu ina kulowa Chikhristu. Iwo ankachita zimenezi ngakhale anthuwo atakhala kuti sakukhulupirira ziphunzitso zachikhristu. Anthu amenewa ankaloledwa kugwiritsa ntchito zizindikiro zawo zachikunja” ndipo china mwa zizindikirozo unali mtanda.​—Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words.

Anthu ena olemba mabuku amanena kuti Constantine, yemwe ankalambira mulungu wadzuwa, ananena kuti m’chaka cha 312 C.E ali kunkhondo anaona masomphenya. M’masomphenyawo, iye anaona mtanda uli padzuwa ndipo panali mawu achilatini akuti “gonjetsa pogwiritsa ntchito ichi.” (in hoc vince) Patapita nthawi chizindikiro “chachikhristu” chimenechi anayamba kuchidinda pambendera, zishango ndi pa zida zina zankhondo. (onani chithunzi kumanzere) Anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti Constantine anabatizidwa patsiku limene anamwalira, patatha zaka 25 kuchokera pamene analowa Chikhristu. Anthu ena ankakayikira ngati iye anali ndi zolinga zabwino polowa Chikhristu. Mwachitsanzo buku lina limanena kuti: “Zikuoneka kuti Constantine analibe cholinga chotsatira zimene Yesu wa ku Nazarete ankaphunzitsa. Iye ankangofuna kusintha Chikhristu kuti chikhale chipembedzo chimene anthu a mu ufumu wake angachivomereze, chikatolika [chapadziko lonse].”​—The Non-Christian Cross.

Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo, anthu akhala akugwiritsa ntchito mitanda yosiyanasiyana. Mwachitsanzo dikishonale ina imanena kuti, umene masiku ano umatchedwa mtanda wa St. Anthony “poyamba unkaoneka ngati T ndipo anthu ena amakhulupirira kuti chizindikiro chimenechi anachitenga ku chizindikiro cha mulungu wa ku [Babulo] dzina lake Tammuz, wokhala ndi chilembo cha tau.” Panalinso mtanda wa St. Andrew, womwe unkaoneka ngati chilembo cha X, komanso mtanda wodziwika bwino wokhala ndi mitengo iwiri yopingasa. Mtanda wopangidwa ndi mitengo iwiri yopingasawu umatchedwa mtanda wachilatini ndipo anthu amalakwitsa kwambiri ponena kuti “mtanda umenewu ndi wooneka mofanana ndi umene Ambuye wathu anaferapo.”

Kodi Akhristu a M’nthawi ya Atumwi Ankakhulupirira Chiyani?

Baibulo limasonyeza kuti m’nthawi ya atumwi, anthu ambiri amene anamva zimene Yesu ankaphunzitsa anayamba kukhulupirira ndipo anavomereza kufunika kwa imfa yake monga nsembe yowombola anthu. Baibulo limanena kuti mtumwi Paulo atalalikira kwa Ayuda a ku Korinto, n’kuwasonyeza umboni wakuti Yesu ndi Khristu, “Kirisipo, mtsogoleri wa sunagoge, anakhala wokhulupirira mwa Ambuye, pamodzi ndi onse a m’banja lake. Ndipo Akorinto ambiri amene anamva uthenga wabwino anayamba kukhulupirira ndi kubatizidwa.” (Machitidwe 18:5-8) Paulo sanalangize Akhristu anzakewo kuti ayambe kugwiritsa ntchito zizindikiro zachipembedzo kapena zifaniziro pa kulambira kwawo. Koma anawalangiza kuti ‘athawe kupembedza mafano’ ndi miyambo ina yochokera ku zipembedzo zachikunja.​—1 Akorinto 10:14.

Anthu olemba mbiri yakale komanso ochita kafukufuku apeza kuti palibe umboni wosonyeza kuti Akhristu oyambirira ankagwiritsa ntchito mtanda polambira. N’zochititsa chidwi kuti buku lina linagwira mawu a wolemba mabuku wina amene anakhalako chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1600 B.C.E. Munthuyu anafunsa kuti: “Yesu wodala anali wosalakwa ndipo analeza mtima pa nthawi yonse imene ankapachikidwa komanso sanasamale kuti zochititsa manyazi zimuchitikire. Ndiyeno kodi iye angasangalale kuona otsatira ake akulemekeza chifanizo cha chinthu chimene [ena amakhulupirira kuti] iye anaferapo?” (History of the Cross) Kodi inuyo mungayankhe bwanji funso limeneli?

Mulungu amasangalala ndi anthu amene amamulambira popanda kugwiritsa ntchito chifaniziro kapena chizindikiro chilichonse. Paulo anafunsa kuti: “Pali kumvana kotani pakati pa kachisi wa Mulungu ndi mafano?” (2 Akorinto 6:14-16) Baibulo silinena kuti polambira, Mkhristu azigwiritsa ntchito chizindikiro cha chinthu chimene Yesu anapachikidwapo.​—Yerekezerani ndi Mateyu 15:3; Maliko 7:13.

Ndiyeno kodi tingawazindikire bwanji Akhristu oona? Chikondi ndi chimene chimadziwikitsa amene alidi Akhristu oona, osati mtanda kapena chizindikiro chilichonse. Yesu anauza otsatira ake kuti: “Ndikukupatsani lamulo latsopano, kuti muzikondana. Mmene ine ndakukonderani, inunso muzikondana. Mwakutero, onse adzadziwa kuti ndinu ophunzira anga, ngati mukukondana.”​—Yohane 13:34, 35.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 19]

Chimene olemba Mauthenga Abwino ankatanthauza si chimene anthu masiku ano amachitcha mtanda

[Chithunzi patsamba 18]

Chithunzi cha M’ma 1600 B.C.E. Chosonyeza Munthu Atakhomeredwa pa Staurosʹ, Chochokera M’buku la “De Cruce” Lolembedwa ndi Lipsius

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Chinthunzi cha ku Iguputo Chojambulidwa Pakhoma (cha m’ma 1300 B.C.E.) Chosonyeza Mtanda wa Ansate, Umene Umaimira Moyo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© DeA Picture Library / Art Resource, NY

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Mtanda wa Gamma Womwe uli Pakachisi wa Chihindu wa Laxmi Narayan

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 20]

From the book The Cross in Tradition, History, and Art (1897)