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Chinthu Chapadera Kwambiri M’mbiri Yathu Yauzimu Kutuluka kwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika M’Chichewa

Chinthu Chapadera Kwambiri M’mbiri Yathu Yauzimu Kutuluka kwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika M’Chichewa

 Chinthu Chapadera Kwambiri M’mbiri Yathu Yauzimu Kutuluka kwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika M’Chichewa

Kutuluka kwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika m’Chichewa

PA July 23, 2010 panachitika chinthu chapadera kwambiri m’mbiri yathu yauzimu. Chinthu chimenecho chinali kutuluka kwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika m’Chichewa.

Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika likhala limodzi mwa mabaibulo osiyanasiyana amene anthu oopa Mulungu olankhula Chichewa azigwiritsa ntchito. Koma n’chifukwa chiyani panafunikira Baibulo linanso lachichewa? Kodi ndani analimasulira? Nanga tingadziwe bwanji kuti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano ndi lodalirika?

N’chifukwa Chiyani Pali Mabaibulo Ambirimbiri Chonchi?

M’zaka zaposachedwapa, mabaibulo ambirimbiri akhala akumasuliridwa. Ena mwa mabaibulo amenewa athandiza kuti anthu amene poyamba analibe Mawu a Mulungu m’chinenero chawo akhale nawo kwa nthawi yoyamba. Komabe, mabaibulo atsopano akutulukabe ngakhale m’zinenero zoti zili kale ndi mabaibulo ena. Chifukwa chiyani? Buku lina limene linalembedwa ndi Sakae Kubo ndi Walter Specht, linati: “Baibulo likamasuliridwa sitinganene kuti lili bwino kwambiri moti silingakonzedwenso. Mabaibulo ayenera kumasuliridwa mogwirizana ndi zinthu zatsopano zimene akatswiri a Baibulo akupeza komanso mogwirizana ndi mmene chilankhulo chikusinthira.”​—So Many Versions?

M’zaka za m’ma 1900, akatswiri a Baibulo anayamba kumvetsa kwambiri zilankhulo za Chiheberi, Chialamu ndi Chigiriki, zomwe ndi zilankhulo zimene analembera Baibulo poyambirira. Komanso akatswiriwa apeza mipukutu yakale kwambiri komanso yolondola kuposa imene omasulira Baibulo a m’mbuyomo akhala akugwiritsira ntchito. Choncho, masiku ano anthu angathe kumasulira Mawu a Mulungu molondola kwambiri kuposa kale.

Magazini ina inanena kuti: “Ntchito yofalitsa mabaibulo yasanduka bizinezi yaikulu kwambiri, kuposa mmene munthu angaganizire.” (The Atlantic Monthly) Nthawi zina pofuna kugulitsa mabaibulo ambiri, anthu amatulutsa mabaibulo ongokoma kuwerenga koma osalondola kwenikweni. Posachedwapa, anthu ena omasulira Baibulo anachotsa m’Baibulo lawo ndime zina zimene amaona kuti “n’zotopetsa” kuwerenga. M’Baibulo lina, omasulira anasintha mawu ena ndi ena poopa kukhumudwitsa owerenga. Mwachitsanzo, pofuna kusangalatsa  anthu omenyera ufulu wa akazi, omasulirawa analemba m’mabaibulo awo kuti Mulungu ndi “Tate-Mayi,” m’malo molemba kuti Mulungu ndi “Atate.”

Kubisa Dzina la Mulungu

Zimene anthu ena achita ndi dzina la Mulungu, lakuti Yehova, (kapena kuti Yahweh, monga mmene akatswiri ena a Baibulo amatchulira) ndi zodetsa nkhawa kwambiri. M’mabaibulo akale kwambiri, dzina la Mulungu linalembedwa ndi zilembo zinayi zachiheberi, zimene masiku ano tingazilembe kuti YHWH kapena JHVH. Dzina limeneli limapezeka pafupifupi maulendo 7,000 m’chigawo cha Baibulo chimene anthu ambiri amati ndi Chipangano Chakale. (Ekisodo 3:15; Salimo 83:18) Choncho, ndi zoonekeratu kuti Mlengi wathu ankafuna kuti atumiki ake adziwe dzina lake komanso kuti aziligwiritsa ntchito.

Komabe zaka zambiri zapitazo, Ayuda anasiya kutchula dzina la Mulungu pokhulupirira kuti akamalitchula akhoza kuona malodza. Kenako chikhulupiriro chimenechi chinalowanso m’zipembedzo zachikhristu. (Yerekezerani ndi Machitidwe 20:29, 30; 1 Timoteyo 4:1.) Omasulira Baibulo ambiri anayamba kuchotsa dzina la Mulungu ndipo m’malo mwake ankangolemba kuti “Ambuye.” Masiku ano, m’mabaibulo ambiri simupezeka n’komwe dzina la Mulungu. Ndipo m’mabaibulo ena achingelezi pa Yohane 17:6, pamene Yesu anati: “Dzina lanu ndalidziwitsa kwa anthu,” anachotsapo ngakhale mawu akuti “dzina.” Mwachitsanzo, Baibulo la Today’s English Version linamasulira lemba limeneli kuti: “Ndakudziwikitsani kwa anthu.”

N’chifukwa chiyani anthu omasulirawa akudana ndi dzina la Mulungu chonchi? Taganizirani mawu omwe analembedwa m’magazini ina yothandiza anthu omasulira Baibulo. Magaziniyi imafalitsidwa ndi bungwe la UBS (United Bible Societies), limene limayang’anira ntchito yomasulira mabaibulo padziko lonse. Nkhani ina m’magaziniyi inati: “Popeza zilembo zakuti YHWH zimaimira dzina lenileni, njira yabwino kwambiri yomasulira dzinali ikanakhala kulemba dzina lomwelo m’chilankhulo chinacho.” Kenako, nkhaniyo inachenjeza kuti: “Koma pali zinthu zina zofunika kusamala nazo.”​—Practical Papers for the Bible Translator, Volume 43, number 4, 1992.

Kodi “zinthu” zimenezo ndi zogwirizana ndi mfundo zoyenera kutsatira pomasulira Baibulo? Malinga ndi zimene magaziniyi inanena, akatswiri ena amanena kuti: “Kutchula dzina lakuti Yahweh [kwa anthu osakhala Akhristu], zingapereke chithunzi cholakwika . . . , ndipo anthu angamaone kuti ‘Yahweh’ ndi Mulungu wachilendo, kapena kuti ndi Mulungu watsopano wosadziwika, wosiyana ndi Mulungu amene amamudziwa.” Komabe, Baibulo limanena mosapita m’mbali kuti Yehova Mulungu ndi wosiyanadi ndi milungu imene anthu amene si Akhristu amalambira.​—Yesaya 43:10-12; 44:8, 9.

Akatswiri ena a Baibulo amanena kuti iwo akamachotsa dzina la Mulungu n’kumaika mawu audindo akuti “AMBUYE,” amakhala akungochita zimene anthu akhala akuchita kwa nthawi yaitali. Koma Yesu ananena mawu osonyeza kuti kutsatira miyambo yosalemekeza Mulungu n’kulakwa. (Mateyo 15:6) Komanso zimene akatswiriwa amachita poika dzina la udindo, m’malo motchula dzina lenileni, sizochokera m’Baibulo. Mwachitsanzo, Yesu Khristu ali ndi mayina ambiri osonyeza udindo wake, monga akuti “Mawu a Mulungu” ndi “Mfumu ya mafumu.” (Chivumbulutso 19:11-16) Kodi mukuganiza kuti zingakhale zoyenera kuchotsa dzina lakuti Yesu pamalo amene dzinali likupezeka, n’kuikapo mayina audindowa?

Nkhani ina m’magazini imene taitchula ija inati: “Nthawi zambiri ndi bwino kupewa kulemba dzina la Mulungu kuti ‘Yehova.’” Chifukwa chiyani? Magaziniyo inati: “Akatswiri ambiri a Baibulo amakhulupirira kuti dzina lakuti ‘Yahweh’ ndi limene limagwirizana kwambiri ndi mmene dzina la Mulungu linkatchulidwira kalelo.” Komabe, mayina ambiri odziwika bwino a m’Baibulo amalembedwa mosiyana kwambiri ndi mmene ankatchulidwira kalelo m’Chiheberi. Mwachitsanzo, Yeremiya ankatchulidwa kuti Yir·meyahʹ, Yesaya ankatchulidwa kuti Yesha·yaʹhu ndipo Yesu ankatchulidwa kuti Yehoh·shuʹa. Popeza dzina lakuti “Yehova” ndi dzina lovomerezeka lomasulira dzina la Mulungu komanso ndi lodziwika bwino kwa anthu ambiri, zimene anthu ena amanena zoti siliyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zosamveka. Zikuoneka kuti anthu amene safuna kugwiritsira ntchito dzina la Mulungu, amachita zimenezi n’cholinga choti zigwirizane ndi zikhulupiriro ndiponso maganizo awo basi, osati chifukwa chotsatira mfundo zenizeni.

Kuchotsa dzina la Mulungu si nkhani ya kalembedwe chabe. Mwachitsanzo, munthu wina wogwira ntchito kunthambi ya bungwe la UBS ku  India, anafotokoza vuto lochotsa dzina la Mulungu m’mabaibulo amene linkapezekamo kale. Iye anati: “Ahindu sachita chidwi ndi mayina a Mulungu a udindo. Iwo amafuna kudziwa dzina lenileni la Mulungu. Amaona kuti akapanda kulidziwa, sangathe kukhala pa ubwenzi uliwonse ndi Mulungu.” Ndipo zimenezi zilinso chimodzimodzi kwa anthu onse amene amafuna kudziwa Mulungu. Kudziwa dzina la Mulungu n’kofunika kwambiri kuti munthu adziwe Mulungu, komanso kuti amvetse kuti Mulungu si mphamvu chabe, koma ndi weniweni ndipo angathe kukhala naye pa ubwenzi. (Ekisodo 34:6, 7) N’chifukwa chake Baibulo limanena kuti: “Aliyense amene adzaitana pa dzina la Yehova adzapulumuka.” (Aroma 10:13) Choncho anthu olambira Mulungu ayenera kugwiritsira ntchito dzina lake.

Baibulo Limene Limalemekeza Mulungu

Choncho chinali chinthu chapadera kwambiri kalelo mu 1950 pamene Baibulo lachingelezi la Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano Lomasulira Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu linatulutsidwa. Pa zaka 10 zotsatira, anatulutsa pang’onopang’ono zigawo zina za Baibulo, zimene anthu ambiri amati ndi Chipangano Chakale, kapena kuti Malemba Achiheberi. M’chaka cha 1961, Baibulo lonse linatulutsidwa m’Chingelezi. Chochititsa chidwi kwambiri ndi Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano n’choti lili ndi dzina la Mulungu lakuti Yehova m’malo onse okwana pafupifupi 7,000 amene limapezeka mu “Chipangano Chakale.” Komanso, Baibuloli linabwezeretsa dzina la Mulungu m’malo 237 amene limapezeka mu “Chipangano Chatsopano” kapena kuti m’Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu.

Kubwezeretsa dzina la Mulungu m’malo ake kumachititsa kuti Mulungu azilemekezedwa komanso kumathandiza owerenga kumvetsetsa mfundo zina zimene sakanatha kuzimvetsa bwino. Mwachitsanzo, pa Mateyu 22:44 mabaibulo ambiri amati: “Ambuye anati kwa Ambuye wanga.” Zimenezi ndi zosokoneza kwambiri chifukwa munthu sangadziwe kuti Ambuye amene analankhulawo ndi ndani, nanga Ambuye anauzidwawo ndi ndani. Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano pavesi limeneli limati: “Yehova wauza Ambuye wanga kuti . . . “ ndipo linagwira molondola mawu a pa Salmo 110:1. Zimenezi zimathandiza owerenga kusiyanitsa bwino Yehova Mulungu ndi Mwana wake.

Kodi Anamasulira Baibulo Limeneli Ndani?

Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano limafalitsidwa ndi bungwe la Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, lomwe ndi bungwe limene gulu la Mboni za Yehova limagwiritsa ntchito. Kwa zaka zoposa 100, Mboni za Yehova zakhala zikusindikiza ndi kufalitsa mabaibulo padziko lonse. Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachingelezi linamasuliridwa ndi gulu la Akhristu amene anali m’komiti yotchedwa Komiti Yomasulira Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano. Anthu a m’komiti imeneyi sankafuna kutchuka mwanjira iliyonse, ndipo anapempha kuti mayina awo asadziwike, ngakhale pambuyo poti amwalira.​—Yerekezani ndi 1 Akorinto 10:31.

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani Baibulo limeneli analipatsa dzina lakuti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano? Anachita zimenezo chifukwa chokhulupirira kuti “dziko latsopano layandikira kwambiri,” monga momwe lemba la 2 Petulo 3:13 limalonjezera. Anthu a m’komitiyi analemba kuti, “pa nthawi inoyo pamene tikuchoka m’dziko lakale n’kukalowa m’dziko latsopano,” m’pofunika kwambiri kuti omasulira Baibulo azionetsetsa kuti “choonadi chenicheni cha Mawu a Mulungu” chikuwala.​—Mawu oyamba a Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachingelezi limene linatulutsidwa mu 1950.

Baibulo Lolondola

Cholinga chawo chachikulu chinali chakuti amasulire Mawu a Mulungu molondola kwambiri. Omasulira Baibulo lachingelezi ankamasulira kuchokera ku mawu a m’zilankhulo zoyambirira zimene analembera Baibulo. Zilankhulo zimenezo ndi Chiheberi, Chialamu ndi Chigiriki. Iwo ankagwiritsira ntchito mabaibulo olondola kwambiri amene analipo pa nthawiyo. * Anayesetsanso kwambiri kumasulira mawu a m’zilankhulo zoyambirirawa motsatira kwambiri liwu ndi liwu, koma pogwiritsa ntchito mawu amene anthu masiku ano sangavutike kumva.

Ndi zosadabwitsa kuti akatswiri ena a Baibulo amayamikira kwambiri Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano  chifukwa chotsatira ndendende zilankhulo zoyambirira, komanso chifukwa cha kulondola kwake. Mwachitsanzo mu 1989, Pulofesa Benjamin Kedar, katswiri wa chilankhulo cha Chiheberi wa ku Israel, anati: “Ndikamachita kafukufuku wokhudzana ndi Baibulo lachiheberi komanso mmene lamasuliridwira m’zilankhulo zina, nthawi zambiri ndimagwiritsira ntchito Baibulo lachingelezi la Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano. Nthawi iliyonse imene ndikugwiritsira ntchito Baibulo limeneli, ndimaona kuti omasulira ake anayesetsa kwambiri kuti athandize wowerenga kumvetsa molondola kwambiri mawu amene anali m’zilankhulo zoyambirira.”

Kufalitsa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano m’Zilankhulo Zina

Poganizira zimenezi, Mboni za Yehova zinakonza zoti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano limasuliridwenso m’zilankhulo zina kuwonjezera pa Chingelezi. Panopa, Baibuloli lamasuliridwa lonse kapena mbali yake chabe m’zilankhulo zoposa 80. Kuti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika limasuliridwe m’zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana, panakhazikitsidwa njira yomasulira Baibulo pogwiritsa ntchito kompyuta. Njira imeneyi imathandiza omasulira kufufuza bwino mawu onse amene amapezeka m’Baibulo ndi kuwamasulira molondola. Ndiponso panakhazikitsidwa Dipatimenti Yothandiza Omasulira, yomwe panopa ili ku Patterson, ku New York. Bungwe Lolamulira limaonetsetsa kuti ntchito yomasulira Baibulo ikuyenda bwino kudzera mu Komiti Yoona za Ntchito Yolemba Mabuku. Koma kodi ntchito imeneyi imachitika bwanji?

Choyamba, Akhristu odzipereka kwa Mulungu amasankhidwa kuti amasulire Baibulo limeneli. Umboni ukusonyeza kuti buku limamasuliridwa bwino ndiponso limakhala lolondola kwambiri omasulirawo akamamasulira ngati gulu m’malo momasulira aliyense payekha. (Yerekezerani ndi Miyambo 11:14.) Kawirikawiri, omasulira amenewa amakhala oti akhala akumasulira mabuku osiyanasiyana a Mboni za Yehova. Ndiyeno gulu la omasulira limeneli limaphunzitsidwa bwino lomwe luso lomasulira Baibulo. Amawaphunzitsanso mmene angagwiritsire ntchito mapulogalamu apakompyuta othandiza kumasulira Baibulo.

Omasulira Baibulo amalangizidwa kuti ayesetse (1) kumasulira molondola (2) kugwiritsa ntchito mawu ofanana pomasulira mawu omweomwewo m’mavesi ena (3) kumasulira motsatira liwu ndi liwu ngati zingatheke m’chilankhulo chawo, koma m’njira yoti (4) munthu aliyense asamavutike kumva. Kodi amachita bwanji zimenezi? Ganizirani Baibulo limene langotuluka kumeneli. Choyamba, anthu amene ankamasulira Baibulo limeneli, anapeza mawu akuluakulu a m’baibulo lachingelezi la Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano n’kuwapezera mawu achichewa ofanana nawo tanthauzo. Ndiyeno pomasulira, pulogalamu yapakompyuta imene ankagwiritsa ntchito inkasonyeza mawu onse a m’Baibulo omwe matanthauzo ake anali ofanana kapena ongofananako pang’ono. Pulogalamuyi inkasonyezanso mawu achigiriki kapena achiheberi omwe kunachokera mawu achingeleziwo. Zimenezi zinawathandiza omasulirawo kuona mmene mawu achigiriki kapena achiheberiwo anamasuliridwira m’Chingelezi m’mavesi ena. Zonsezi zinawathandiza kwambiri kusankha mawu achichewa oyenera kuwagwiritsa ntchito pomasulira mawu achingelezi. Omasulirawo atasankha mawu oyenererawo, anayamba kumasulira Baibulo vesi ndi vesi. Pavesi lililonse limene akumasulira, kompyuta inkaonetsa mawu achichewa omwe anasankha aja.

Komabe, ntchito yomasulira si yongochotsa mawu achingelezi n’kuikapo mawu achichewa. Panali ntchito yaikulu yoonetsetsa kuti mawu achichewa amene akugwiritsidwa ntchito akugwirizana ndi mfundo imene ikunenedwa pavesilo komanso m’nkhani yonseyo. Anafunikanso kusamala kuti atsatire malamulo a kalembedwe komanso kuti alembe ziganizo mogwirizana ndi mmene anthu amalankhulira. Mukawerenga Baibulo limeneli, muona nokha kuti panagwirika ntchito yaikulu. Omasulira Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano lachichewa anayesetsa kumasulira moti Mawu a Mulungu akhale osavuta kuwerenga, omveka bwino komanso olondola.

Tikukulimbikitsani kuti muwerenge mofatsa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika. Mutha kulipeza kwa ofalitsa magazini ino kapena ku mpingo wa Mboni za Yehova wa kwanuko. Khalani ndi chikhulupiriro chonse kuti Baibulo limeneli lamasulira molondola kwambiri Mawu a Mulungu mu Chichewa. Sitikukayikira kuti mukangoliwerenga, muvomereza kuti kutulutsidwa kwa Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika lachichewa, ndi chinthu chapadera kwambiri m’mbiri yathu yauzimu.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 24 Baibulo lachigiriki lotchedwa Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chigiriki Choyambirira [The New Testament in the Original Greek], lomasuliridwa ndi Westcott ndi Hort ndi limene analigwiritsa ntchito pomasulira Malemba Achigiriki. Pomasulira Malemba Achiheberi anagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lachiheberi lomasuliridwa ndi R.  Kittel lotchedwa Baibulo Lachiheberi [Biblia Hebraica].

 [Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 29]

Zina ndi Zina Zimene Zili mu Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano

Zilembo zooneka bwino zosavuta kuwerenga

Mavesi Anawaika Pamodzi Kukhala Ndime: M’malo moika vesi lililonse palokha ngati ndime, mavesi ambiri anawaika pamodzi kukhala ndime. Zimenezi zimathandiza wowerenga kuti atsatire bwino nkhani imene olemba Baibulo anali kufotokoza.

Timitu Tapamwamba Patsamba: Masamba ambiri ali ndi timitu timeneti, ndipo timathandiza wowerenga kupeza mwamsanga pamene pali nkhani imene akufuna.

Mndandanda wa Mavesi Enanso: Tsamba lililonse lili ndi mndandanda wa mavesi enanso ogwirizana ndi nkhani zimene zili patsamba limenelo.

Kalozera: Kumapeto kwa Baibulo limeneli kuli chigawo chimene chili ndi mutu wakuti “Kalozera wa Mawu a m’Baibulo.” Chigawo chimenechi chili ndi mawu ambiri a m’Baibulo pamodzi ndi mavesi pamene mawuwo amapezeka. Kawirikawiri, amasonyezanso chiganizo chachidule pomwe pachokera mawuwo.

Zakumapeto: Zimenezi ndi nkhani zifupizifupi zofotokoza ziphunzitso zikuluzikulu za m’Baibulo komanso nkhani zina.