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Wosindikiza Mabuku Amene Anathandiza Kufalitsa Baibulo

Wosindikiza Mabuku Amene Anathandiza Kufalitsa Baibulo

 Wosindikiza Mabuku Amene Anathandiza Kufalitsa Baibulo

ZOLEMBA mabuku ndiponso mipukutu pa manja zinayamba kale kwambiri. Koma anthu sanayambe kale kwambiri kusindikiza mabuku pa makina. Ku China ndi kumene anayambirira kusindikiza mabuku mu 868 C.E., ndipo posindikiza mabukuwa anagwiritsa ntchito zodindila zamatabwa. M’chaka cha 1455, munthu wina wa ku Germany, dzina lake Johannes Gutenberg, anapanga makina achitsulo osindikizira mabuku ndipo anasindikiza Baibulo loyamba m’Chilatini pa makina amenewa.

 Komabe, anthu atatsegula makampani osindikiza mabuku, panapita zaka zingapo kuti ayambe kusindikiza mabaibulo komanso mabuku ena ambiri. Makampani ambiri osindikiza mabuku anali mumzinda wa Nuremberg ku Germany. Anton Koberger ankakhala mumzindawu ndipo mwina ndi amene anali woyamba kukhala ndi kampani yaikulu yosindikiza komanso yofalitsa Baibulo ndi mabuku ena padziko lonse.

Anthu onse amene ali ndi Baibulo padziko lonse ayenera kuthokoza anthu akale amene ankasindikiza mabaibulo amenewa, kuphatikizapo Anton Koberger. Tsopano tiyeni tione mwatsatanetsatane zimene Koberger anachita pa ntchito yosindikiza mabuku.

“Anali ndi Chidwi Kwambiri pa Buku Limodzi Lokha, Baibulo”

Koberger anatsegula kampani yoyamba yosindikiza mabuku mumzinda wa Nuremberg mu 1470. Panthawi ina kampaniyi inali ndi makina 24 osindikizira mabuku amene ankagwira ntchito nthawi imodzi. Ndiponso kampaniyi inalemba anthu 100 osindikiza mabuku, ojambula zithunzi, ndiponso antchito ena omwe ankagwira ntchito m’mizinda ya Basel, Strasbourg, Lyon ndi mizinda ina ya ku Ulaya. Koberger anasindikiza mabuku ambiri akale a m’Chilatini komanso mabuku ambiri a sayansi a m’nthawi yake. Komanso iye anasindikiza mitundu ya mabuku ndi mabaibulo yokwana 236. Ena anali amasamba oposa 100 koma buku lililonse ankalipanga pogwiritsa ntchito makina opukusa ndi manja.

Zilembo zodindila zopangidwa bwino zimene Koberger ankagwiritsa ntchito posindikiza mabuku, zinachititsa kuti mabuku ake azioneka okongola komanso osavuta kuwerenga. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri aziwakonda. Munthu wina wolemba mbiri yakale dzina lake Alfred Börckel ananena kuti: “Nthawi zonse Koberger ankakonda kugwiritsa ntchito zilembo zodindila zooneka bwino kwambiri. Iye sankagwiritsa ntchito zodindila zowonongeka.” Komanso, mabuku ndi mabaibulo ambiri amene Koberger anasindikiza anali ndi zithunzi zodindila ndi thabwa.

Munthu wina amene analemba mbiri ya Koberger, dzina lake Oscar Hase, anafotokoza kuti tikafufuza ntchito yonse imene Koberger anachita yosindikiza mabuku, “zikuonekeratu kuti iye anali ndi chidwi kwambiri pa buku limodzi lokha, Baibulo.” Koberger ndi anzake amene ankagwira naye ntchitoyi anayesetsa kuti apeze mipukutu ya Baibulo imene inalembedwa molondola kwambiri. Imeneyi iyenera kuti inali ntchito yovuta kwambiri chifukwa mipukutu yambiri inkasungidwa m’nyumba zina zokhala anthu achipembedzo ndipo iwo ankabwereketsa mipukutiyi kwa nthawi yochepa kuti munthu akopere.

Mabaibulo Achilatini ndi Achijeremani

Koberger anasindikiza mabaibulo achilatini (Biblia Latina) maulendo 15 ndipo oyambirira anatuluka mu 1475. Ena mwa mabaibulo amenewa anali ndi zithunzi monga za chingalawa cha Nowa, Malamulo Khumi ndi kachisi wa Solomo. Mu 1483, Koberger anasindikiza mabaibulo achijeremani (Biblia Germanica) pafupifupi 1,500, chimene chinali chiwerengero chachikulu panthawiyo. Baibulo limeneli linali ndi zithunzi zodindila ndi thabwa zoposa 100. Cholinga cha zithunzi zimenezi chinali kuthandiza owerenga kuti azikhala ndi chidwi chowerenga, kuti amvetse malemba komanso kukumbutsa anthu osadziwa kuwerenga nkhani zotchuka za m’Baibulo. M’mabaibulo enanso, makamaka mabaibulo achijeremani, anayamba kuikamo zithunzi potengera Baibulo limeneli.

Baibulo lachijeremani limene Koberger anasindikiza mu 1483 linatchuka kwambiri koma iye sanadzasindikizenso Baibulo lina m’chinenero chimenechi. Ngakhale kuti akonzi a Baibulo lachijeremanili anayesetsa kusintha mosamala mawu ena kuti afanane ndi mawu a m’Baibulo lachilatini la Vulgate, lovomerezedwa ndi tchalitchi, mawu ambiri a m’Baibulo lachijeremani limeneli anachokera m’Baibulo limene linaletsedwa, la m’zaka za m’ma 1300, lomasuliridwa ndi anthu ena amene anagalukira tchalitchi cha Katolika. * M’chaka chotsatira, Papa Innocent VIII analamula kuti anthu ogalukirawa aphedwe. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo anthu anayamba kudana kwambiri ndi mabaibulo a m’zinenero zawo. Pa March 22, 1485, bishopu wamkulu, dzina lake Berthold, wa mumzinda wa Mainz ku Germany, analemba chikalata choletsa anthu kumasulira mabaibulo m’Chijeremani. M’chaka chotsatira, pa January 4, Berthold analembanso chikalata china chokumbutsa anthu mfundo za m’kalata yoyamba ija. Chifukwa cha mavuto amenewa, Koberger sanayerekezenso dala kusindikiza Baibulo m’Chijeremani.

Komabe, zimene Anton Koberger anachita zinathandiza. Iye ndi amene anali munthu woyamba kugwiritsa ntchito njira yatsopano yosindikizira mabuku imene inathandiza kuti anthu ku Ulaya azipeza mabuku osiyanasiyana mosavutikira. Choncho zimene Koberger anachita zinathandiza kwambiri kuti ngakhale anthu wamba athe kupeza Baibulo.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 11 Onani nkhani yakuti “Awadensi​—Gulu la Mpatuko Lomwe Linalowa Chipulotesitanti,” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya March 15, 2002.

[Zithunzi patsamba 26]

Kuyambira Kumanzere Kupita Kumanja: Chithunzi Chodindila ndi Thabwa cha Danieli Ali M’dzenje la Mikango; Chilembo Chachikulu Chagolide; Zodindila Zathabwa Zooneka Bwino

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

KOBERGER

[Zithunzi patsamba 26]

Baibulo Lachilatini ndi Lachijeremani Osindikizidwa ndi Koberger Okhala ndi Zithunzi Zokongola Komanso Ndemanga ya pa Genesis 1:1

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 26]

All Bible photos: Courtesy American Bible Society Library; Koberger: Mit freundlicher Genehmigung der Linotype GmbH