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Kodi Nyenyezi Zingakuthandizeni pa Moyo Wanu?

Kodi Nyenyezi Zingakuthandizeni pa Moyo Wanu?

 Kodi Nyenyezi Zingakuthandizeni pa Moyo Wanu?

MUKATULUKA panja usiku, n’kuyang’ana kumwamba kopanda mitambo, mumaona nyenyezi zomwe zimaoneka ngati zing’onozing’ono zili mbuu, kumwamba konse. Koma zaka 350 zapitazi m’pamene anthu anayamba kuzindikira kukula kwa nyenyezi komanso kutalikirana kwake ndi dziko lathu lapansili. Ngakhale zili choncho, tikudziwabe zochepa kwambiri zokhudza mphamvu za nyenyezi zomwe zili m’mlengalenga.

Kuyambira kale kwambiri, anthu amachita chidwi ndi mmene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera ponda kuphonya njira zake komanso kusintha kwa malo amene zimapezeka pa nyengo zosiyanasiyana. (Genesis 1:14) Akaona zinthu zachilengedwe zimene zili m’mlengalenga, anthu ambiri amalankhula mawu ogwirizana ndi amene Mfumu Davide ya Isiraeli inalemba zaka pafupifupi 3,000 zapitazo. Mfumuyi inati: “Pakuona ine thambo la kumwamba lanu, ntchito ya zala zanu, mwezi ndi nyenyezi, zimene munazikhazika, munthu ndani kuti mum’kumbukira?”​—Salmo 8:3, 4.

Kaya tikudziwa kapena ayi, zinthu zakuthambo komanso kayendedwe kake zimatithandiza kwambiri pa moyo wathu. Mwachitsanzo, dzuwa, imene ndi nyenyezi yotiwunikira masana, limatithandiza kudziwa nthawi, kutalika kwa tsiku ndiponso chaka. Mwezi umatithandiza kuti tikhale ndi “nyengo” zosiyanasiyana. (Salmo 104:19) Ndipo nyenyezi zimathandiza anthu oyenda panyanja ndiponso akatswiri oyendetsa zombo za m’mlengalenga kudziwa kumene akupita. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, anthu ena amakhulupirira kuti kuwonjezera pa kutidziwitsa nthawi ndi nyengo, komanso kutithandiza kuti tiziyamikira kwambiri Mulungu amene anazilenga, nyenyezi zikhoza kutithandiza kwambiri pa zinthu zinanso. Iwo amakhulupirira kuti nyenyezi zingatithandizenso kudziwa tsogolo lathu ndiponso kutichenjeza za mavuto amene tingakumane nawo. Koma kodi zimenezo ndi zoona?

Kodi Kukhulupirira Nyenyezi Kunayambira Kuti Ndipo Kunayamba Chifukwa Chiyani?

Kukhulupirira nyenyezi n’cholinga chofuna kudziwa zomwe zichitike m’tsogolo kunayambira ku Mesopotamia, mwina cha m’ma 300 B.C.E. Anthu okhulupirira nyenyezi akale ankayang’anitsitsa mosamala kwambiri mmene nyenyezi zilili kumwamba. Anthu anayamba kukhulupirira nyenyezi chifukwa chofuna kudziwa kayendedwe ka nyenyezi, malo amene zili, nthawi yomwe kadamsana angachitike ndiponso pofuna kupanga kalendala. Komabe, sikuti anthu okhulupirira nyenyezi amangofufuza za mmene kayendedwe ka dzuwa ndi mwezi kamakhudzira zinthu padzikoli. Iwo amafufuzanso za malo amene pali dzuwa, mwezi, mapulaneti, nyenyezi ndiponso magulu a nyenyezi. Amachita zimenezi kuti adziwe mmene zinthu zimenezi zimathandizira pa zochitika zikuluzikulu padziko lapansi ndiponso mmene zimathandizira munthu aliyense payekha. Kodi zimathandiza bwanji?

Akatswiri ena amakhulupirira nyenyezi pofuna  kuti adziwe zinthu zam’tsogolo kapena zofunika kuzipewa. Iwo amaona kuti anthu amene angakhulupirire zimenezi zingawathandize m’njira zosiyanasiyana. Enanso amaona kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi kungatithandize kudziwa zam’tsogolo zimene zinalembedweratu pa moyo wathu, kapena kungatithandize kudziwa nthawi yoyenera kuchita zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Iwo amati amadziwa zimenezi akaona mmene nyenyezi zosiyanasiyana zakhalira ndiponso “akawerengetsera” mmene zikuyendera mogwirizana ndi dziko lapansi. Amakhulupirira kuti nyenyezi zimathandiza munthu malinga ndi mmene zinalili panthawi imene anabadwa.

Akatswiri akale kwambiri okhulupirira nyenyezi ankaganiza kuti dziko lapansili lili pakati penipeni pa zinthu zakuthambo ndipo mapulaneti ndi nyenyezi zimayenda mozungulira dziko lapansili. Iwo ankaganizanso kuti chaka chilichonse dzuwa ndi nyenyezi zimadutsa m’njira imodzi. Ndipo njira imeneyo anaigawa m’zigawo 12. Chigawo chilichonse anachipatsa dzina mogwirizana ndi gulu la nyenyezi zimene zili m’chigawocho. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti akatswiri okhulupirira nyenyezi aike zizindikiro 12, chimodzi pa chigawo chilichonse. Akatswiriwo ankakhulupirira kuti m’zigawo zimenezi, zomwe amazitchulanso kuti “nyumba zakumwamba,” chilichonse chinali ndi mulungu wake. Komabe patapita nthawi, asayansi anatulukira kuti dzuwa siliyenda mozungulira dziko lapansi, koma kuti dziko ndi limene limayenda mozungulira dzuwa. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu asiye kuona kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi n’kogwirizana ndi sayansi.

Ngakhale kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi kunayambira ku Mesopotamia, kunafalikira pafupifupi padziko lonse. Ndipo m’madera onse otukuka, anthu anayamba kukhulupirira nyenyezi m’njira zosiyanasiyana. Kungoyambira panthawi imene Aperisi anagonjetsa ufumu wa Babulo, kukhulupirira nyenyezi kunafalikira ku Iguputo, Girisi ndi Indiya. Amishonale achibuda a ku Indiya, anafalitsa zokhulupirira nyenyezi ku Central Asia, China, Tibet, Japan ndiponso kum’mwera chakummawa kwa Asia. Sizikudziwika kuti anthu a mtundu wa Maya anayamba bwanji kukhulupirira nyenyezi, komabe iwo ankakhulupirira kwambiri nyenyezi mofanana ndi mmene anthu a ku Babulo ankachitira. Zikuoneka kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi kwa masiku ano kunayambira ku Iguputo, komwe panthawiyo ankatsatira chikhalidwe cha Agiriki. Masiku ano, anthu ena m’zipembedzo zachiyuda, Chisilamu ndiponso Chikhristu amakhulupiriranso nyenyezi.

Ndiponso asanatengeredwe ku ukapolo m’zaka za m’ma 600 B.C.E., Aisraeli ankakhulupirira nyenyezi ndi zinthu zina zakuthambo. Baibulo limatiuza zimene Mfumu Yosiya, yemwe anali wokhulupirika, anachita pofuna kuthana ndi khalidwe lopereka nsembe ku “dzuwa, ndi mwezi, ndi nthanda, ndi khamu lonse la kuthambo.”​—2 Mafumu 23:5.

 Kodi Ndani Anayambitsa Kukhulupirira Nyenyezi?

Anthu anayamba kukhulupirira nyenyezi chifukwa chosadziwa mmene nyenyezi zilili ndiponso mmene zimagwirira ntchito. Choncho, n’zoonekeratu kuti Mulungu si amene anayambitsa zoti anthu azikhulupirira nyenyezi. Popeza kukhulupirira nyenyezi kunayamba chifukwa choti anthu sankadziwa mmene nyenyezi zilili ndiponso mmene zimagwirira ntchito, kukhulupirira zimenezi sikungathandize anthu kudziwa za m’tsogolo. Kuti timvetse kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi n’kosathandiza, tiyeni tione zitsanzo ziwiri zotsatirazi.

Mu ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara mfumu ya Babulo, ansembe ndiponso okhulupirira nyenyezi analephera kumasulira loto limene mfumuyo inalota. Ndipo Danieli, mneneri wa Mulungu woona, anafotokoza chimene chinachititsa kuti anthuwo alephere kumasulira lotolo. Iye anati: “Chinsinsi inachitira liuma mfumu, angakhale anzeru, openduza, alembi, kapena alauli, sakhoza kuchiululira mfumu; koma kuli Mulungu Kumwamba wakuvumbulutsa zinsinsi; iye ndiye wadziwitsa mfumu Nebukadinezara chimene chidzachitika masiku otsiriza.” (Danieli 2:27, 28) Danieli sanadalire dzuwa, mwezi kapena nyenyezi koma anadalira Yehova Mulungu, yemwe ndi ‘wovumbulutsa zinsinsi.’ Motero, iye anamasulira molondola lotolo kwa mfumu.​—Danieli 2:36-45.

Ngakhale kuti anthu okhulupirira nyenyezi a mtundu wa Maya ankawerengetsera kwambiri mmene zinthu zakuthambo zinalili kuti adziwe zam’tsogolo, iwo analephera kudziwiratu kuti mtundu wawo udzatha m’zaka za m’ma 800 C.E. Kulephera kumeneku kunasonyeza kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi sikungathandize anthu kudziwa zam’tsogolo ngakhale pang’ono. Zimenezi zinasonyeza mooneka bwino kuti cholinga chachikulu chokhulupirira nyenyezi n’kupangitsa anthu kuti asamadalire Mulungu, yemwe amanena molondola zinthu zimene zidzachitike m’tsogolo.

Kudziwa kuti kukhulupirira nyenyezi kunayambika chifukwa chokhulupirira mfundo zabodza, kumatithandiza kudziwa amene anakuyambitsa. Ponena za Mdyerekezi, Yesu anati: “Sanakhazikike m’choonadi, chifukwa mwa iye mulibe choonadi. Pamene akunena bodza, amalankhula za m’mutu mwake, chifukwa iye ndi wabodza komanso tate wake wa bodza.” (Yohane 8:44) Satana amanamizira kuti ndi “mngelo wa kuwala,” ndipo nazonso ziwanda zimanamizira kuti ndi “atumiki a chilungamo.” Koma zoona zake n’zoti Satana ndiponso ziwanda ndi achinyengo, ndipo cholinga chawo n’kukola anthu mumsampha wawo. (2 Akorinto 11:14, 15) Mawu a Mulungu amanena kuti “mphamvu ndi zizindikiro zabodza ndi zodabwitsa” ndi “mphamvu za Satana.”​—2 Atesalonika 2:9.

N’chifukwa Chiyani Muyenera Kupewa Kukhulupirira Nyenyezi?

Kukhulupirira nyenyezi kunayamba chifukwa chokhulupirira mfundo zabodza ndipo Yehova Mulungu, yemwe ndi wachoonadi amaona kuti ndi zonyansa. (Salmo 31:5) Chifukwa cha zimenezi, Baibulo limaletsa anthu kuti asamakhulupirire nyenyezi. Mwachitsanzo, pa Deuteronomo 18:10-12, Mulungu ananena momveka bwino kuti: “Asapezeke mwa inu munthu . . . wosamalira mitambo, . . . kapena wanyanga . . . wopenduza, kapena wofunsira akufa. Popeza aliyense wakuchita izi Yehova anyansidwa naye.”

 Popeza Satana ndi ziwanda zake ndi amene amachititsa kuti anthu azikhulupirira nyenyezi, kuchita nawo zimenezi kungachititse kuti iwo azitilamulira. Mwachitsanzo, munthu akhoza kumalamulidwa ndi anthu ogulitsa mankhwala osokoneza bongo ngati munthuyo amagwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawo. N’chimodzimodzinso ndi Satana, yemwe ndi wonyenga wamkulu. Nayenso amalamulira anthu amene amakhulupirira nyenyezi. Motero, anthu onse amene amakonda Mulungu ndiponso choonadi ayenera kupeweratu kukhulupirira nyenyezi. M’malomwake, ayenera kutsatira malangizo a m’Baibulo akuti: “Danani nacho choipa, nimukonde chokoma.”​—Amosi 5:15.

Anthu amakhulupirira nyenyezi pofuna kudziwa zam’tsogolo. Koma kodi n’zotheka kudziwadi zam’tsogolo? Ngati n’zotheka, n’chiyani chomwe chingatithandize kudziwa zam’tsogolo? Baibulo limatiuza kuti munthu aliyense sangathe kudziwa zomwe zimuchitikire mawa, mwezi wamawa kapena chaka chamawa. (Yakobe 4:14) Ngakhale zili choncho, Baibulo limauza zimene zichitikire anthu onse posachedwapa. Limatiuza kuti Ufumu umene timaupempha m’Pemphero la Ambuye ufika posachedwapa. (Danieli 2:44; Mateyo 6:9, 10) Limatiuzanso kuti mavuto onse a anthu adzatha posachedwapa ndipo sadzakhalaponso. (Yesaya 65:17; Chivumbulutso 21:4) Mulungu sanakonzeretu zimene zidzachitikire munthu aliyense m’tsogolo, koma amatilimbikitsa kuti aliyense aphunzire za Iye ndiponso zinthu zabwino zimene adzawachitire. Tikudziwa bwanji zimenezi? Baibulo limanena momveka bwino kuti cholinga cha Mulungu n’choti “anthu, kaya akhale a mtundu wotani, apulumuke ndi kukhala odziwa choonadi molondola.”​—1 Timoteyo 2:4.

Zinthu zochititsa chidwi zomwe zili kuthambo sizinalengedwe kuti zizititsogolera pa moyo wathu. M’malomwake, zimasonyeza kuti Yehova ndi Mulungu komanso ndi wamphamvu kwambiri. (Aroma 1:20) Zinthu zakuthambo zingatithandize kupewa kukhulupirira zinthu zabodza ndi kudalira Mulungu komanso Mawu ake, Baibulo, kuti atipatse malangizo odalirika komanso otithandiza kuti zinthu zizitiyendera bwino. Ndipo Baibulo limalangiza kuti: “Khulupirira Yehova ndi mtima wako wonse, osachirikizika pa luntha lako; um’lemekeze m’njira zako zonse, ndipo Iye adzawongola mayendedwe ako.”​—Miyambo 3:5, 6.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 19]

Anthu a mtundu wa Maya ankakhulupirira kwambiri nyenyezi

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 20]

Ngakhale kuti anthu okhulupirira nyenyezi a mtundu wa Maya ankawerengetsera kwambiri mmene zinthu zakuthambo zinalili kuti adziwe zam’tsogolo, iwo analephera kudziwiratu kuti mtundu wawo udzatha

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 20]

“Kuli Mulungu Kumwamba wakuvumbulutsa zinsinsi; Iye ndiye wadziwitsa . . . chimene chidzachitika masiku otsiriza”

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

El Caracol Observatory, Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico, 750-900 C.E.

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Pages 18 and 19, left to right: Stars: NASA, ESA, and A. Nota (STScI); Mayan calendar: © Lynx/​Iconotec com/​age fotostock; Mayan astronomer: © Albert J. Copley/​age fotostock; Mayan observatory: El Caracol (The Great Conch) (photo), Mayan/​Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico/​Giraudon/​The Bridgeman Art Library