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Kodi Anali Kuikiradi Chikhristu Kumbuyo Kapena Ankaphunzitsa Nzeru za Anthu?

Kodi Anali Kuikiradi Chikhristu Kumbuyo Kapena Ankaphunzitsa Nzeru za Anthu?

 Kodi Anali Kuikiradi Chikhristu Kumbuyo Kapena Ankaphunzitsa Nzeru za Anthu?

AKHRISTU a m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. anaimbidwa mlandu wakuti ankakwatirana pachibale, ankapha ana ndiponso ankadya anthu. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti ayambe kuzunzidwa. Ena mwa Akhristuwo anayamba kulemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu pofuna kuteteza chikhulupiriro chawo. Iwo anayamba kulemba zinthu zosonyeza kuti chipembedzo chawo chinali chabwinobwino. Cholinga chawo ankafuna kuti akuluakulu a boma la Roma komanso anthu ena aziwakonda. Koma kuchita zimenezi kunali koopsa chifukwa ufumu wa Roma ndiponso nzika zake ankadana ndi aliyense wotsutsana ndi mfundo zawo. Komanso kukanachititsa kuti Akhristu ayambe kuzunzidwa kwambiri kapenanso kuchita zinthu zopeputsa chikhulupiriro chawo chachikhristu kuti zinthu ziwayendere bwino. Kodi anthu amenewa ankateteza bwanji chikhulupiriro chawo? Kodi ankagwiritsa ntchito mfundo zotani? Nanga panali zotsatira zotani pa zimene ankachitazi?

Mmene Zinthu Zinalili Pakati pa Oikira Kumbuyo Chikhristu ndi Ufumu wa Roma

Anthu olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu anali anthu ophunzira a m’zaka za m’ma 100 ndi kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 200. Justin Martyr, Clement wa ku Alexandria, ndi Tertullian ndi amene anali otchuka kwambiri mwa anthu amenewa olemba mabuku. * Mabuku awo kwenikweni analembera anthu amene sanali Akhristu ndi akuluakulu a boma la Roma. Cholinga chawo chinali kufotokoza chikhulupiriro chachikhristu, moti kawirikawiri anali kugwira mawu a m’Baibulo. Iwo anali kutsutsana ndi anthu amene ankawazunza ndiponso ankatsutsa milandu imene ankawaimba. Anthu amenewa ankayesetsa kusonyeza kuti Akhristu ndi anthu abwino.

Cholinga chimodzi chachikulu cha anthu olemba mabukuwa chinali kutsimikizira akuluakulu a boma kuti Akhristu sanali adani a mfumu kapena ufumu wa Roma. Mwachitsanzo ponena za mfumu ya Roma, Tertullian ananena kuti “Mulungu wathu ndi amene anamuika pampando.” Nayenso Athenagoras analemba kuti anthu a banja lachifumu ndi amene ayeneradi kusiyirana ufumu wa Roma. Mwa mawu akewa, Athenagoras analowerera ndale za ufumu wa Roma. Pochita zimenezi iwo ananyalanyaza mawu a Yesu Khristu amene anati: “Ufumu wanga suli mbali ya dziko lino.”​—Yohane 18:36.

Komanso oikira kumbuyo Chikhristuwa ananena kuti  pali kugwirizana pakati pa ufumu wa Roma ndi Chikhristu. Malinga ndi zimene Melito ananena, ufumu wa Roma komanso Chikhristu ndi mbali ziwiri zogwirizana ndipo Chikhristu chimathandiza kuti ufumuwo uziyenda bwino. Munthu wina wosadziwika dzina lake amene analemba kalata ina, ananena kuti Akhristu ndi ofunika kwambiri padzikoli ndipo ‘amachititsa kuti anthu akhale ogwirizana.’ (The Epistle to Diognetus) Nayenso Tertullian analemba kuti Akhristu ankapemphera kuti ufumu wa Roma utukuke komanso dziko lisathe msanga. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu aziona kuti kubwera kwa Ufumu wa Mulungu sikofunikira kwenikweni.​—Mateyo 6:9, 10.

“Akhristu” Ayamba Kuphunzitsa Nzeru za Anthu

Katswiri wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu, dzina lake Celsus,’ ananena monyoza kuti Akhristu ndi “malebala, osoka nsapato, alimi, mbuli zotheratu komanso ozerezeka.” Oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu anaona kuti kunyoza kumeneku kwafika posapiririka. Choncho, pofunitsitsa kusintha maganizo a anthu, iwo anayamba kugwiritsira ntchito njira ina yatsopano. Nzeru za anthu zimene poyamba ankazikana anayamba kuzigwiritsira ntchito pofuna kufotokoza mfundo “zachikhristu.” Mwachitsanzo, Clement wa ku Alexandria ankaona kuti nzeru zapamwamba za anthu ndiwo “maphunziro enieni apamwamba a zaumulungu.” Ngakhale kuti Justin ankanena kuti sagwirizana ndi nzeru zapamwamba za anthu, iye ndi amene anayamba kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo za anthu pofotokoza zikhulupiriro “zachikhristu” chifukwa ankaona kuti nzeru za anthu “n’zabwino komanso zothandiza.”

Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo, oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu anaona kuti asamatsutse nzeru za anthuzo. M’malomwake iwo anaonetsetsa kuti zimene iwo ankaona kuti ndizo nzeru zachikhristu azizifotokoza ngati nzeru zapamwamba za anthu koma zizikhala zapamwamba kwambiri kuposa nzeru za anthu amene sanali Akhristuwo. Justin analemba kuti: “Mfundo zina zimene timaphunzitsa zimafanana ndi za olemba ndakatulo ndi akatswiri a maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu amene mumawalemekeza, koma mfundo zina zimene timaphunzitsa n’zapamwamba kwambiri komanso n’zogwirizana ndi zimene Mulungu amafuna kusiyana ndi zanu.” Kuchita zimenezi kunathandiza kuti mfundo zimene anthu olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu ankazitenga kuti ndi “zachikhristu” anthu ena ayambe kuzikhulupirira komanso kuzilemekeza kwambiri. Olemba mabukuwa ankanena kuti mabuku achikhristu anali akale kwambiri kuposa achigiriki. Iwo ankanenanso kuti aneneri otchulidwa m’Baibulo anakhalapo kale kwambiri kuposa akatswiri achigiriki a maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu. Ena mwa anthu olemba mabukuwa anafika ponena kuti akatswiri a nzeru za anthu anakopera zimene aneneri analemba kale. Ankanenanso kuti Plato anali wophunzira wa Mose.

Asokoneza Mfundo Zachikhristu

Njira yatsopano imene anayamba kugwiritsira ntchito pophunzitsayi inachititsa kuti mfundo zachikhristu  zisakanikirane ndi mfundo za nzeru za anthu. Anafika poyerekezera anthu ena a m’Baibulo ndi milungu imene Agiriki ankailambira. Mwachitsanzo, Yesu ankamuyerekezera ndi Perseus ndipo pakati pamene Mariya anali napo anapayerekezera ndi pakati pa Danaë, yemwe anali mayi ake a Perseus, ndipo ankanena kuti Danaë analinso namwali.

Ziphunzitso zinanso anazisintha kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, m’Baibulo Yesu amatchedwa “Logos” m’Chigiriki, kutanthauza “Mawu” a Mulungu kapena Wolankhula m’malo mwa Mulungu. (Yohane 1:1-3, 14-18; Chivumbulutso 19:11-13) Justin ndi amene anayamba kusokoneza kwambiri chiphunzitso chimenechi ndipo monga katswiri wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu, ankaphunzitsa kuti payenera kuti pali matanthauzo awiri a mawu akuti logos. Iye ankaphunzitsa kuti matanthauzowa ndiwo “mawu” ndi “kuganiza.” Justin ananena kuti Akhristu analandira mawu monga munthu wotchedwa Khristu. Komabe iye ananenanso kuti kuganiza komwe ndi tanthauzo lina la mawu akuti logos, kumapezeka mwa munthu aliyense kuphatikizapo anthu amene si Akhristu. Choncho Justin ankaona kuti aliyense amene amachita zinthu moganiza anali Mkhristu, kuphatikizapo anthu amene ankanena kuti sakhulupirira Mulungu kapena amene ankaganiziridwa kuti sakhulupirira Mulungu, monga Socrates ndi ena.

Komanso olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu kuphatikizapo Tertullian anayesetsa kugwirizanitsa Yesu ndi tanthauzo la akatswiri achigiriki a nzeru za anthu la mawu akuti logos, limenenso ankaligwirizanitsa ndi Mulungu. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti patsogolo pake Akhristu ayambe kukhulupirira kuti pali milungu itatu mwa Mulungu mmodzi. *

Anthu olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu anapotozanso nkhani ya zimene zimachitika munthu akafa. Iwo anagwirizanitsa chiphunzitso chimenechi ndi zimene Plato ankaphunzitsa kuti pali chinthu chinachake chosaoneka chimene chimakhalabe ndi moyo munthu akafa. (Mlaliki 9:5, 10) Minucius Felix anafika ponena motsimikiza kuti chikhulupiriro chakuti anthu akufa adzauka chinayamba panthawi imenenso Pythagoras anayamba kuphunzitsa kuti munthu akafa, mzimu wake umapita kwinakwake. Apa n’zoonekeratu kuti anthuwa anasiya kutsatira zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa chifukwa chotsatira zimene Agiriki ankakhulupirira.

Analakwitsa

Olemba mabuku ena anazindikira mavuto amene angabwere m’Chikhristu chifukwa chokhulupirira nzeru za anthu. Komabe, ngakhale kuti iwo ankadana ndi akatswiri a maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu, ankakondabe kufotokoza chikhulupiriro chachikhristu pogwiritsira ntchito nzeru za anthu. Mwachitsanzo, Tatian anadzudzula akatswiri a maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu chifukwa ankaona kuti palibe chabwino chilichonse chimene ankachita. Ngakhale kuti iye anachita zimenezi, ankanena kuti Chikhristu ndi “nzeru zathu” ndipo anayamba kuphunzitsa zinthu zogwirizana ndi nzeru zapamwamba za anthu. Koma Tertullian ankatsutsa mfundo zogwirizana ndi nzeru za anthu zimene zinayamba kulowa m’Chikhristu. Ngakhale zinali choncho, iye ananena kuti ankafuna kutsatira “Justin yemwe anali katswiri wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu amenenso anafera chikhulupiriro chake.” Ankafunanso kutsatira mfundo za “katswiri wina wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba za anthu dzina lake Miltiades yemwe ankatumikira matchalitchi,” ndipo panali akatswiri enanso amene Tertullian ankafuna kutsatira. Athenagoras ankadzitcha “katswiri wachikhristu wa nzeru zapamwamba za anthu wa ku Athens.” Ndipo ponena za Clement, anthu ena amanena kuti iye ankaona kuti “Mkhristu angathe kugwiritsa ntchito nzeru za anthu kuti akhale ndi nzeru kwambiri ndiponso kuti aziteteza chikhulupiriro chawo.”

Kaya anthu olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristuwa zinthu zinawayendera bwino motani pofuna  kuteteza chikhulupiriro chawo, koma iwo analakwa kwambiri pamene ankayesetsa kukwaniritsa cholinga chawochi. N’chifukwa chiyani tikutero? Mtumwi Paulo anakumbutsa Akhristu kuti pa zida zauzimu zimene iwo anali nazo, palibe chimene chingafanane ndi “mawu a Mulungu” omwe “ndi amoyo ndi amphamvu.” Paulo ananenanso kuti timagwiritsira ntchito mawu amenewa ‘pogubuduza malingaliro komanso chokwezeka chilichonse chotsutsana ndi kudziwa kwathu Mulungu.’​—Aheberi 4:12; 2 Akorinto 10:4, 5; Aefeso 6:17.

Usiku woti aphedwa mawa, Yesu anauza ophunzira ake kuti: “Limbani mtima! Ndaligonjetsa dziko ine.” (Yohane 16:33) Mayesero komanso mavuto amene anakumana nawo ali padziko lapansi sanamuchititse kusiya kukhulupirira Atate wake. Iye anapitirizabe kukhala wokhulupirika kwa iwo. Mofanana ndi zimenezi, mtumwi Yohane yemwe anali womalizira kufa pa atumwi onse, analemba kuti: “Ndi chikhulupiriro chathu, tagonjetsa dziko.” (1 Yohane 5:4) Ngakhale kuti olemba mabukuwa cholinga chawo chinali kuteteza Chikhristu, iwo analakwitsa kwambiri potsatira mfundo zogwirizana ndi nzeru za anthu. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthuwa atengeke ndi mfundo za anthuzo. Zinachititsanso kuti dziko liwagonjetse komanso ligonjetse zikhulupiriro zawo zachikhristu. Choncho m’malo molimbikitsa komanso kuteteza Chikhristu choona, anthu olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu amenewa, mwina mosadziwa, anagwera mu msampha wa Satana yemwe “amadzisandutsa mngelo wa kuwala.”​—2 Akorinto 11:14.

Masiku ano, akuluakulu achipembedzo komanso akatswiri a maphunziro apamwamba a zaumulungu akuchitanso chimodzimodzi. M’malo moteteza Chikhristu choona pogwiritsa ntchito Mawu a Mulungu, kawirikawiri iwo amanyozetsa Baibulo ndipo amaphunzitsa nzeru za anthu n’cholinga choti anthu ndiponso maboma aziwakonda. Komanso m’malo mochenjeza anthu za kuipa kotsatira mfundo zosagwirizana ndi malemba za m’dzikoli, iwo akhala aphunzitsi amene amayesetsa kuphunzitsa anthu awo zimene ‘zingawakomere m’khutu’ n’cholinga choti anthuwo aziwatsatira. (2 Timoteyo 4:3) N’zomvetsa chisoni kuti aphunzitsi amenewa, mofanana ndi anthu akale olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu, anyalanyaza chenjezo la mtumwi Paulo lakuti: “Samalani: mwina wina angakugwireni ngati nyama, mwa nzeru za anthu ndi chinyengo chopanda pake, malinga ndi miyambo ya anthu, malinga ndi mfundo zimene zili maziko a moyo wa m’dzikoli, osati malinga ndi Khristu.” Komabe timauzidwa kuti “mapeto awo adzakhala monga mwa ntchito zawo.”​—Akolose 2:8; 2 Akorinto 11:15.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Panalinso olemba ena monga Quadratus, Aristides, Tatian, Apollinaris, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Melito, Minucius Felix ndi ena amene sanali otchuka. Onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya May 15, 2003, masamba 27-29, ndi March 15, 1996, masamba 28-30.

^ ndime 13 Kuti mudziwe zambiri za zimene Tertullian ankakhulupirira, onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya May 15, 2002, masamba 29-31.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 31]

“Tikugubuduza malingaliro komanso chokwezeka chilichonse chotsutsana ndi kudziwa kwathu Mulungu.”​—2 AKORINTO 10:5

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Justin ankaona kuti kuchita zinthu motengera nzeru za anthu kunali ‘kwabwino komanso kothandiza’

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Clement ankaona kuti nzeru za anthu ndi “maphunziro enieni apamwamba a zaumulungu”

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Chifukwa chophunzitsa nzeru za anthu, Tertullian anathandizira kuti anthu ayambe kukhulupirira kuti pali milungu itatu mwa Mulungu mmodzi

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Tatian ananena kuti Chikhristu ndi “nzeru zathu”

[Chithunzi patsamba 30]

Masiku ano akuluakulu achipembedzo komanso akatswiri a maphunziro a zaumulungu akuchitanso zinthu zofanana ndi zimene olemba mabuku oikira kumbuyo Chikhristu ankachita

[Chithunzi patsamba 31]

Mtumwi Paulo anachenjeza anthu kuti asamatsatire nzeru komanso chinyengo cha anthu

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Clement: Historical Pictures Service; Tertullian: © Bibliothèque nationale de France