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Dzina la Mulungu Lakuti Yehova, Linapezeka M’kachisi wa ku Iguputo

Dzina la Mulungu Lakuti Yehova, Linapezeka M’kachisi wa ku Iguputo

 Dzina la Mulungu Lakuti Yehova, Linapezeka M’kachisi wa ku Iguputo

KODI dzina la Mulungu lotchulidwa m’Baibulo, lakuti Yehova, kapena Yahweh, linayamba kupezeka liti m’mabuku akale? Akatswiri ena amanena mosapeneka kuti: Dzinali linayamba kupezeka kale kwambiri kuyambira m’ma 1300 B.C.E. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani akatswiriwa amanena choncho?

Pofika chaka cha 1370 B.C.E. Aiguputo anali atagonjetsa madera ambiri. Wolamulira wa ku Iguputo wapanthawiyo, dzina lake Farao Amenhotep (Amenophis) III, anamanga kachisi wokongola kwambiri ku Soleb m’dera la Nubia, komwe masiku ano amati ku Sudan. Akatswiri a mbiri ya zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi atafukula kachisiyo, anapeza zilembo zomwe zimasonyeza kuti zikuimira zilembo zinayi za m’Chiheberi za dzina la Mulungu (YHWH) lakuti Yehova. Zilembo zimenezi n’zakale kwambiri kuposa mwala wa Moabu, womwe poyamba ankautenga kuti ndiwo chinthu chakale kwambiri chimene panalembedwa dzina la Mulungu. Zilembo za m’kachisiyu zinalembedwa zaka 500 zilembo zapamwalawo zisanalembedwe. Komano n’chifukwa chiyani dzina la Mulungu wotchulidwa m’Baibulo linalembedwa m’kachisi wa ku Iguputo?

“Dziko la Jahu Lotchedwa Shasu”

Farao Amenhotep III anapereka kachisi amene anamangayo kwa mulungu Amun-Ra. Kachisiyo anali wamtali mamita 120 ndipo anali kumadzulo kwa mtsinje wa Nile. Pansi pa mizati imene ili m’chipinda china chachikulu pali zolembalemba zosonyeza mayina a madera amene Amenhotep ankanena kuti anagonjetsa. Pazolembalembazo panali zithunzi za akapolo ndipo kapolo aliyense ankaimira dera logonjetsedwa. Kapoloyo anali atamangidwa nyakula ndipo anali ndi chishango cholembapo dzina la kwawo kapena mtundu wake. Zithunzizi zinasonyeza kuti madera ambiri amene kunkakhala anthu otchedwa Ashasu, kapena kuti Shosou anagonjetsedwa. Kodi Ashasu anali ndani kwenikweni?

Dzina loti Shasu ndi limene Aiguputo ankagwiritsa ntchito potchula anthu onse a mtundu wotchedwa Bedouin, omwe anali anthu onyozeka okhala m’mayiko akum’mawa kwa dziko la Iguputo. Ashasu ankapezeka kum’mwera kwa Palesitina, kum’mwera kwa Transjordan, ndiponso ku Sinai. Akatswiri ena amanena kuti dziko la Ashasu linali lalikulu  kwambiri moti linkafika kumpoto ku Lebanoni ndi ku Siriya. Pamadera ogonjetsedwa amene analembedwa ku Soleb panalinso dziko limene zilembo zake zimawerengedwa m’njira zosiyanasiyana zotsatirazi: “Yahwe m’dziko la Shosou,” “Dziko la Jahu lotchedwa Shasu,” kapena “Dziko la Shasu-yhw.” Katswiri wina wofufuza zinthu zakale za ku Egypt, dzina lake Jean Leclant, ananena kuti dzina limene linalembedwa pa chishango ku Soleb “ndi loimira zilembo zinayi za mulungu wa m’Baibulo, zomwe ndi YHWH.”

Akatswiri ambiri amaona kuti dzina lakuti Jahu, Yahu, kapena Yahwe likapezeka pa zolembalemba ngati zimenezi, limaimira dzina la malo kapena dera linalake. Katswiri wina, dzina lake Shmuel Ahituv, ananena kuti zilembozi zikuimira “madera onse amene kunkafika fuko la anthu olambira Yāhū, Mulungu wa Aisiraeli.” * Zimene katswiriyu akunena zingakhaledi zoona chifukwa choti pali zinthu zambiri zosonyeza kuti Asemiti ankatchula dera mogwirizana ndi dzina la mulungu wolambiridwa m’deralo. Chitsanzo china ndi dzina loti Assur, chifukwa limagwirizanitsa dziko la Asuri ndi dzina la mulungu wa dzikolo.

Ponenapo za mawu olembedwa m’kachisi ku Nubia, katswiri wina wa maphunziro a Baibulo yemwenso amafufuza zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi, dzina lake Roland de Vaux, anati: “Makolo a Aisiraeli anachita zambiri m’derali moti mwina n’chifukwa chake kale kwambiri, m’zaka za m’ma 1500 B.C., m’derali munayamba kupezeka dzina la malo kapena munthu lofanana kwambiri ndi dzina la Mulungu wa Aisiraeli, mwinanso lofanana ndendende.”

Dzinali Likulemekezedwabe

Sikuti Soleb ndi malo okhawo a ku Nubia amene dzina lakuti Yahwe limapezekako litalembedwa m’zilembo zakale za Aiguputo. Mu akachisi a mulungu wotchedwa Ramses II omwe ali ku Amarah West ndi ku Aksha, ku Nubia komweko, mumapezekanso mndandanda wa mayina womwe umaoneka kuti unalembedwa motengera mndandanda wa ku Soleb uja. Pa mndandanda wa ku Amarah, zilembo zoimira mawu akuti “Yahwe m’dziko la Shosou” zinalembedwa mofanana ndi zilembo za madera ena a Ashosou, omwe akatswiri amaona kuti ndi madera otchedwa Seiri ndi Labani. Baibulo limasonyeza kuti madera amenewa ankapezeka chakum’mwera kwa Palesitina, ku Edomu, ndiponso ku Sinai. (Genesis 36:8; Deuteronomo 1:1) Kawirikawiri m’madera amenewa munkadutsa anthu amene ankadziwa ndiponso kulambira Yehova, Aisiraeli asanapite ku Iguputo komanso pambuyo pake.​—Genesis 36:17, 18; Numeri 13:26.

Mayina a milungu ina yopezeka m’zolembedwa zakale anasiya kugwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano, koma dzina la Mulungu wa m’Baibulo, lakuti Yehova, likugwiritsidwabe ntchito kwambiri ndipo likulemekezedwabe. Mwachitsanzo, m’mayiko oposa 230, a Mboni za Yehova oposa 7 miliyoni amadzipereka kuti athandize anthu kudziwa dzina lakuti Yehova komanso kuti ayandikire Mulungu amene ali mwini dzina lapadera limeneli.​—Salmo 83:18; Yakobe 4:8.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 7 Akatswiri ena amatsutsa zoti zilembo zimenezi zimasonyeza kuti Ashasu “anali anthu otsatira mulungu wotchedwa Yahweh.” Iwo amaona kuti dzina la dziko limeneli silodziwika, motero ngakhale kuti n’lofanana ndi dzina la Mulungu wa Aisiraeli, zimenezi zinangochitika koma palibe mgwirizano uliwonse.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 21]

N’chifukwa chiyani dzina lakuti Yehova, yemwe ndi Mulungu wa m’Baibulo, linalembedwa pa kachisi wa milungu yachikunja ya Aiguputo?

[Mapu patsamba 21]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

EGYPT

Kachisi wa ku Soleb

SUDAN

Mtsinje wa Nile

[Zithunzi patsamba 21]

Mmene Mzati wa Kachisi Unkaonekera

[Chithunzi patsamba 22]

Malo amene panali kachisi wa Amun-Ra, ku Soleb, m’dziko la Sudan

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Ed Scott/​Pixtal/​age fotostock

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Background: Asian and Middle Eastern Division/​The New York Public Library/​Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations